• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil Properties

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Analysis of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yields at the Doam-dam Watershed considering Soil Properties from the Soil Reconditioned Agricultural Fields using SATEEC System (SATEEC 시스템을 이용한 객토 토양의 토성고려에 따른 도암댐 유역의 토양유실 및 유사량 분석)

  • Yoo, Dongsun;Ahn, Jaehun;Yoon, Jongsuk;Heo, Sunggu;Park, Younshik;Kim, Jonggun;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Kim, Ki-sung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.518-526
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    • 2007
  • There have been serious soil erosion and water pollution problems caused by highland agriculture practices at Doam-dam watershed. Especially agricultural activities, chemical and organic fertilizer and pesticide applications, soil reconditioning to maintain soil fertility are known as primary causes of soil erosion and water qaulity degradation in the receiving water bodies. Among these, soil reconditioning can accelerate soil erosion rates. To develop soil erosion prevention practices, it is necessary to estimate the soil erosion from the watershed. Thus, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model has been developed and utilized to assess soil erosion. However, the USLE model cannot be used at watershed scale because it does not consider sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for watershed application. For this reason, the Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SA TEEC) was developed to assess the sediment yield at any point in the watershed. The USLE-based SA TEEC system can estimate the SDR using area-based SDR and slope-based SDR module. In this study, the SATEEC system was used to estimate soil erosion and sediment yield at the Doam-dam watershed using the soil properties from reconditioned agricultural fields. Based on the soil sampling and analysis, the US LE K factor was calculated and used in the SA TEEC system to analyze the possible errors of previous USLE application studies using soil properties from the digital soil map, and compared with that using soil properties obtained in this study. The estimated soil erosion at the Doam-dam watershed without using soil properties obtained in the soil sampling and analysis is 1,791,400 ton/year (123 ton/ha/year), while the soil erosion amount is 2,429,900 ton/year (166.8 ton/ha/year) with the use of soil properties from the soil sampling and analysis. There is 35 % increase in estimated soil erosion and sediment yield with the use of soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields. Since significant amount of soil erosion are known to be occurring from the agricultural fields, the soil erosion and sediment yield from only agricultural fields was assessed. The soil erosion rate is 45.9 ton/ha/year without considering soil properties from soil reconditioned agricultural fields, while 105.3 ton/ha/year after considering soil properties obtained in this study, increased in 129%. This study shows that it is very important to use correct soil properties to assess soil erosion and sediment yield simulation. It is recommended that further studies are needed to develop environment friendly soil reconditioning method should be developed and implemented to decrease the speed of soil erosion rates and water quality degradation.

Changes of Soil Properties with Various Soil Amendments in Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Saline Soil

  • Lee, Sanghun;Kim, Hong-Kyu;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Lee, Kyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2013
  • Due to its high salt content and poor physical properties in reclaimed tidal lands, it is important to ameliorate soil physical properties to improve the efficiency of desalination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of soil properties at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal saline soil with various soil amendments. Field experiment was conducted at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land in Korea and the dominant soil series was Munpo series (coarse loamy, mixed, nonacid, Mesic, Typic, Fluvaquents). Woodchips, crushed-stone, oyster shell, coal bottom ash, and rice hull were added as soil amendments and mixed into surface soil to improve soil physical properties. There was large variability in soil hardness, but oyster shell treatment was significantly lower soil hardness at surface layer. Soil hardness was not significantly different below 15 cm depth. Infiltration rate was also significantly greater at oyster shell treatment. This may be due to the leaching of Ca ions from oyster shell and improved soil properties. However, there was no statistical significant difference of the soil bulk density, moisture content, and porosity. Improved physical properties increased desalinization rate in soil and retarded the resalinization rate when evapotranspiration rate was high. Although soil salinity was significantly decreased with oyster shell amendment, soil pH was increased that should be made up as a soil amendment. Our results indicated that oyster shell application increased infiltration rate and improved soil hardness, and thus oyster shell could be used to improve soil salinity level at Saemangeum reclaimed tidal saline soil.

Prediction of Bulk Type Trailer Capacity in Consideration of Soil Physical Properties of Paddy Field (논 토양의 물리적 특성을 고려한 산물형 트레일러의 적정용량 예측)

  • 박원엽;이규승
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2003
  • A computer simulation was carried out to determinate the optimum capacity of bulk type trailer which is used as a tractor attachment. Soil physical properties. such as soil moisture content. bulk density, soil hardness and soil texture were measured in the 10 major rice production area for computer simulation. Mathematical model which include soil physical properties and vehicle factor was used for computer simulation. Most of the soil texture of the investigated area was silty loam. Soil moisture content ranged between 30 and 40% mostly. Soil bulk density was in the range of 1.500 to 1.700 kg/㎥. Soil hardness ranged between 1 to 18 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$. Soil hardness incorporate the effects of many soil physical properties such as moisture content texture and bulk density, and so the range of soil hardness was greater than any other physical properties. The capacity of bulk type trailer was above 3000 kg$_{f}$ fer the most of the investigated area. and mostly in the range of 4000 to 6000 kg$_{f}$ depending upon the slip. But for the soft soil area such as Andong and Namyang. tractor itself had mobility problem and showed minus trailer capacity for some places. For this area. the capacity of bulk type trailer ranged between 1000 and 2000 kg$_{f}$ mostly so bulk type trailer should be designed as a small capacity compared to the other area.ared to the other area. area.

Calculating Soil Quality Index for Biomass Production Based on Soil Chemical Properties

  • Kim, Sung-Chul;Hong, Young Kyu;Lee, Sang Phil;Oh, Seung Min;Lim, Kyung Jae;Yang, Jae E.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2017
  • Soil quality has been regarded as an important factor for maintaining sustainability of ecosystem. Main purpose of this research was i) to select minimum factor for predicting biomass, and ii) to calculate soil quality index for biomass according to soil chemical properties. Result showed that soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and available phosphorus are minimum data set for calculating biomass production in soil. Selected representative soil chemical properties were evaluated for soil quality index and rated from 1 to 5 (1 is the best for biomass production). Percentage of each grade in terms of biomass production in national wide was 14.52, 35.23, 33.03, 6.47, 10.75% respectively. Although, only soil chemical properties were evaluated for calculating optimum soil quality, result of this research can be useful to understand basic protocol of soil quality assessment in national wide.

Impacts of Soil Microbial Populations on Soil Chemical and Biological Properties under Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest, Coromandel Coast, India

  • Sudhakaran, M.;Ramamoorthy, D.;Swamynathan, B.;Ramya, J.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.370-377
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    • 2014
  • There are very few studies about soil chemical and biological properties under tropical dry evergreen forest Coromandel Coast, India. The present study was conducted in six tropical dry evergreen forests sites such as Oorani, Puthupet, Vadaagram, Kotthatai, Sendrakillai and Palvathunnan. We measured the quantity of soil chemical, biological properties and selected soil microorganisms for investigating the impacts of soil microbial populations on soil chemical and biological properties. The result showed that total N, P, Ca, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, exchangeable K, Olson P, extractable Ca and phosphobacterial population were higher in the soil from Kothattai forest site. Organic carbon, total Mg, extractable Na, soil respiration, ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity, bacterial population, fungi population and actinomycetes population were higher in the soil from Palvathunn forest site. Total K, $NH_4{^+}$-N, $NO_3{^-}$-N, exchangeable K, extractable Ca, extractable Na, azotobacter population, bacillus population and rhizobacteria population were higher in the soil from Sendrakillai. Beijerinckia population, rhizobacteria and soluble sodium were higher in Puthupet forest soil. Total Si, total Na and exchangeable K were higher in soil from Oorani forest site. Total Mo and exchangeable K were higher in the soil from Vadaagaram forest site. The results showed that organic carbon, total N, $NH_4{^+}$-N, $NO_3{^-}$-N, extractable P, extractable Ca, soil respiration and ${\beta}$-glucosidase were significantly correlated with soil microbial populations. Therefore soil microorganisms are important factor for maintaining soil quality in tropical dry evergreen forest.

Effect of Soil Properties and Soil Bacterial Community on Early Growth Characteristics of Wild-simulated Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) in Coniferous and Mixed Forest (침엽수림과 혼효림에서 토양특성과 토양세균 군집이 산양삼 초기 생육특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ki Yoon;Kim, Hyun Jun;Um, Yurry;Jeon, Kwon Seok
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.183-194
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    • 2020
  • Background: This study investigated the effect of soil properties and soil bacterial community on early growth characteristics of wild-simulated ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) in coniferous and mixed forest experimental fields. Methods and Results: The soil bacterial community was analyzed using a high throughput sequencing technique (Illumina MiSeq sequencing). The relationship between the soil bacterial community, soil properties, and growth characteristics of wild-simulated ginseng were analyzed using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and the Pearson's correlation analysis. Soil properties and soil bacterial community showed significant difference with forest physiognomy. Results of Pearson's correlation analysis and PCoA showed that the soil properties (soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, and cation exchange capacity) and soil bacterial community had significant correlation with tree species ratio and early growth characteristics of wild-simulated ginseng. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrated the effect of soil properties and soil bacterial community on early growth characteristics of wild-simulated ginseng in coniferous and mixed forest. Moreover, these results will help in the selection of suitable cultivation sites for wild-simulated ginseng.

Soil Properties Under Different Vegetation Types in Chittagong University Campus, Bangladesh

  • Akhtaruzzaman, Md.;Roy, Sajal;Mahmud, Muhammad Sher;Shormin, T.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2020
  • Soil physical and chemical properties at three layers such as top (0-10 cm), middle (10-20 cm) and bottom (20-30 cm) layers under three different vegetation types were studied. Soil samples were collected from Acacia forest, vegetable and fallow lands of Chittagong university campus, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Results showed that sand was the dominant soil particle followed by clay and silt fractions in all soil depths under different vegetation types. Soils of fallow land showed the highest values of bulk density while forest soils had the lowest values at three depths. Acacia forest soil having lowest values of dispersion ratio (DR) is less vulnerable while fallow soil with highest DR values is more vulnerable to soil erosion. The lower pH value at all soil layers in three ecosystems represented that soils under study are acidic in nature. Contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were observed higher in Acacia forest soils compared to vegetable and fallow soils. Only soils of vegetable land had higher level of available phosphorus in three layers than that of other two land covers. The study also revealed that different soil properties were observed in three different vegetation types might be due to variation in vegetation and agronomic practices.

Experimental study on the Strength and Permeable Properties Soil-Concrete (고화재를 사용한 Soil-Concrete의 강도 및 투수특성(구조 및 재료 \circled2))

  • 서대석;김영익;정현정;남기성;이전성;성찬용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.278-283
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    • 2000
  • This study is performed to evaluate the strength and permeable properties of soil-concrete. The results show that the highest compressive strength and bending strength of soil-concrete is achieved by 20% gravel, 20% excellent soil compound and 0.1% polypropylene fiber filled soil concrete. The coefficient of permeability is decreased with increase of the content of gravel and excellent soil compound, and increased with increase of the content of polypropylene fiber. Accordingly, soil concrete with polypropylene fiber will be improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete.

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Nutrient Balances and Soil Properties Affected by Application of Soybean and Barley Residues

  • Oh, Taek-Keun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Lee, Dong Sung;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Yun, Hong Bae;Lee, Deog-Bae;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 2014
  • An accurate analysis of nutrient balance in different cropping systems is necessary for improving soil fertilities, causing higher crop yields and quality. This study was carried out to investigate the nutrient balance, changes in soil properties, and their effects on crop yield in long-term field cultivation under mono- and rotation-cropping systems (MCS and RCS, respectively). The analytical results of the soil properties showed that the application of mineral fertilizers alone in the MCS leads the reduction of soil CEC, exchangeable Ca, and microbial biomass C and N. Compared with the MCS of soybean, the RCS of soybean and barley significantly improved the soil properties, which increased crop yield. It might be due to the barley residue added to the RCS soil. Mean nutrient balances for 4 years were -55.9 kg N, +34.7 kg $P_2O_5$, and -0.3 kg $K_2O$ $ha^{-1}$ for the MCS and +19.7 kg N, +107.4 kg $P_2O_5$, and -48.6 kg $K_2O$ $ha^{-1}$ for the RCS, respectively. These nutrient imbalances mean that conventional fertilizer recommendations were inadequate for maintaining soil nutrient balance. From these results, we can conclude that the crop rotation may change comprehensive physical, chemical, and biological soil properties. These changes could affect the nutrient balance and then the crop yield.

Relationship between Soil Management Methods and Soil Chemical Properties in Protected Cultivation

  • Kang, Yun-Im;Lee, In-Bog;Par), Jin-Myeon;Kang, Yong-Gu;Kim, Seung-Heui;Ko, Hyeon-Seok;Kwon, Joon-Kook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2009
  • Various cultural practices have been promoted as management options for enhancing soil quality and health. The use of soil management methods can cause changes in fertility by affecting soil chemical properties. This study aimed to evaluate interactions between soil chemical properties and soil management methods in protected cultivation, and to classify soil management methods that similarly affect soil chemical properties. Water-logging and irrigation reduced soil pH and available $P_2O_5$ content. Application of animal manures has a positive effect on levels of organic matter, Av.$P_2O_5$, K, Zn, and Cu. The electrical conductivites tened to be low in the application of organic amendments, including rice and wood residues. Deeper plowing caused a reduction in Ca content. Practicing soil nutrient-considering fertilization and fertigation did not exert an influence on nutrient element contents. In a cluster analysis of the soil management methods according to major nutrients, low similarities were found with deeper plowing and crop rotation with rice in comparison with other practices. In a cluster analysis by minor nutrient characteristics, crop rotation and application of animal manures and rice residues were linked at a high Ward's distance, while other practices were found to be relatively low distinct. Each soil management method has a similar or different effect on soil chemical properties. These results suggest the necessity of establishing limits and standards according to the effects of soil management methods on soil chemical properties for economic soil practices.