This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between social support, social network and health behaviors as surveyed by cross-sectional study in 744 rural people aged above 30 of a community dwelling sample of one county for 6 days of July in 2000. Objectives of this study was in order to establish an effective health promotion. The sample was accrued by face to face interview of direct visiting from clustered sampling method. Interview was conducted by trained medical students with the questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic data, health behavior, social support and social network based on previous literature. The summarized results were as follows: 1. There were significant difference in the level of social support and social network by general characteristic variables except occupation and residency type(p〈0.05). 2. There were significant difference in knowledge about hypertension, smoking status, status of physical exercise, diet patterns by social support and social network in spite of variation of social support and social network subconcept(p〈0.05). And there were significant difference in alcohol drinking status, body weight control and diet pattern according to level of social network(p〈0.05). But smoking status by social support and network results opposite direction(p〈0.05). 3. There were no regular or consistent result in the relationship between social support, social network and health behavior. 4. Major predictors for health behavior on the multiple logistic regression that included general characteristic, social support and social network were age, instrumental social support and worry about health. Significant variables of multiple logistic regression for health behavior that included social support(instrumental and emotional) and social network were instrumental social support and social network. These results suggest that only a instrumental element and social network may be associated with health behavior. Inconsistent with prior research in these some item, a positive consistent relationship was not found between social support, social network and health behavior. So the study should be replicated to determined the reliability of our findings.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: This study intends to understand the difference of social support levels and the relationship between social support the health status, college adjustment and academic achievement in the college student. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 416 college student. We measured the demographic characteristics, social support (tangible support, appraisal support, belonging support, self-esteem support), health status (36-item short-form health survey(SF-36), center for epidemiologic studies-depression(CES-D), perceived stress scale(PSS)), student adaptation to college questionnaire(SACQ), average grades point. Chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA test, pearson correlation analysis were used for analysis factors relation of the social support of the college students. Results: In considering the degree of social support by the demographic characteristics in the college students, the social support was better for the female college students. In considering the relation between social support and health status, the students who get better social support, were good in health depression and perceived stress status. When they got better social support their college adjustment and academic achievement were good. The result was statistically significant. Conclusions: Social support for students has great influence on health, college adjustment and academic achievement of students. Psychological aspects of students should be included in the strategy of social support for students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate social workers' personal experiences providing social support to multi-cultural family in a multi-cultural family center. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 14 social workers at the multi-cultural family center, and were analyzed using a phenomenological research method. The major findings were as follows : The social workers' personal experiences with and understanding of social support were classified as 4 categories : 'source of emotional support to the multi-cultural family', 'diverse and systematic educational support', 'excessive demands on material support', and 'daily life support and connection with community network'. The social workers recognized emotional and educational support as essential factors in providing social support to multi-cultural family. However, the social workers' perceptions of material support derived from negative personal experiences stemming from excessive demands and misunderstanding for material support. These results showed that social workers at the multi-cultural family center provided multi-cultural families with social support and that they interacted with community support system and multi-cultural families to increase their satisfaction.
The purpose of this study were to develop 「The Inventory of Children's Social Support」 to investigate the sex difference of the perceived social support and social support satisfaction level and to identify the relation between children's social support system and children's social competence. The subjects were 213 5th, 6th children and their 6 teachers of elementary school at Kwang Ju. The data were analyized by frequency percentile factor analysis t-test and canonical correlation analysis, The results were as follows ; 1) The reliability and validity of 「The Inventory of Children's Social Support」was confirmed. 2) Sex difference of perceived social support and social support satisfaction level were partially found 3) There were significant relations between social support system and social competence of children. In conclusion children's social support system can be recognized as significant variable in predicting the social competence of children.
The purpose of the study is to examine the influences of irrational belief and social support on adolescents' social anxiety. Questionnaires regarding irrational belief, social support, and social anxiety were administered to 566 2nd and 3rd grade middle-school students in Gyeonggi Province. Finally 523 questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed through t-test, Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results of the study were as follows: 1) While there were gender differences in social anxiety, irrational belief, and social support sources, no differences in social support types were observed. 2) While social anxiety and irrational belief showed a positive correlation, social anxiety and social support revealed a negative correlation. Additionally, irrational belief and social support showed a negative correlation. 3) Irrational belief(catastrophizing, extreme anxiety and fear, personal perfection, and helplessness), emotional social support, and social support from friends were significant predictors of social anxiety. 4) Irrational belief which predicted each social anxiety subtype was varied.
The purpose of this study was to investigate adolescents' maladjustment in terms of type and source of social support. The main results of this study were as follows; 1. In social support source the mean score of peer support was higher than family support. In social support type the mean score of expressive support was higher than other support type. 2. Social support source was found significantly different according to sex of the children educational level of the father and mother. Malajustment were found significantly different according to sex of the children educational level of the father and mother income and marital satisfaction of the mother. 3. In social support source it was significantly different according to all maladjustment subscale in family support and to over-anxiousness social withdrawal and hyperactivity in peer support. In social support type it was significantly different according to over-anxiousness and social withdrawal in expressive support to socia withdrawal over-anxiousness hyperactivity and delinquency in esteem support and to over-anxiounsness in informational support.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify factors(perceived health and social support) affecting social capital formation of the elderly. Methods: Samples consisted of 184 people aged over 65 years old in one county of Kyungsangbukdo. Data were analyzed with t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis. Results: First, social support(both emotional support and instrumental support) were significantly different by economic status. Secondly, regression analysis showed that perceived health affected a positive influence on social capital in Model1, which analyzed only perceived health. However, Model2, which analyzed perceived health and social support(emotional support, instrumental support) at the same time, showed that only instrumental support affected social capital formation. Conclusions: It was suggested to develop customized health promotion and job creation are required for social capital formation of the elderly.
The main purpose of this study was to identify the effects of group social support and individual social support on the reduction of burden and improvement in family functioning of families with asthmatic children. The design of this study was a randomized pre-posttest quasi-experimental design to compare the two experimental groups. The theoretical framework for this study was derived from the study of burden in family caregivers by Suh and Oh (1993) based on the main effect model of social support theories. The data were collected from February 12, 1998 to May 29, 1998 at the pediatric out patient department of a university hospital located in Suwon city. The sample consisted of 39 family members who were identified as families with asthmatic children, Eighteen subjects were randomly assigned to the group social support group and 21 were assigned to the individual social support group. Group and individual social support members were seen for 60 to 90 minutes, four times over one to three weeks. The instruments used in this study were the Burden Scale developed by Suh & Oh(1993), the Visual Analogue Scale, and the Family Adaptability Cohesion Evaluation Scale(FACES-III) developed by Olson, Portner, and Lavee(1985). The collected data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, x$^2$-test, Wilcoxon sign rank test, t-test, ANOVA (Scheff), Pearson correlation coefficient. multiple regression, and social support process and content analysis. The results are as follow : 1. There was no significant difference before the experimental treatment among the subjects in the group social support group and individual social support group for general characteristics, burden, or family functioning. 2. Hypothesis 1 : “There will be a greater reduction on the burden score of the group social support group compared to the individual social support group” was not statistically significant(U＝174.5, p＝.683). The burden scores showed a significant decrease after participation in social support as compared to before participation for both groups. However there was a tendency for more reduction in the burden scores for the group social support than for individual social support. 3. Hypothesis 2 : “There will be a greater improvement in the family functioning scores for the group social support group compared to the individual social support group” was not statistically significant(U＝153.0. p＝.309). There was a tendency toward improvement in the family functioning scores of the group social support as compared to that of the individual social support. 4. According to the length of the treatment period, families with asthmatic children displayed affirmative responses, and the families set up a self-help group of mothers with asthmatic children in order to share their experiences, to get information and to solve their problems. In conclusion, it was found that group social support was the more effective nursing intervention for reducing burden and for improving family functioning of families with asthmatic children.
Objectives: This study intends to understand the difference within group of social support level and the effect of social support to health behaviors and health status of the elderly by selecting the old of local society as target. Methods: Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaire of 8,688 persons, older than 65 years, living in a community. We measured the sociodemographic characteristics, social support(family support, other support, quality of support), physical health state(subjective health status, number of chronic disease), physical function state(activities of daily living; ADL, instrumental activities of daily living; IADL), cognition state(mini-mental state examination-Korean; MMSE-K) and depression state(short form of geriatric depression scale; SGDS), health behaviors(smoking, drinking, exercise, eating habit). Univariate, multinominal logistic regression and covariance structure analysis were employed to analyze factors affecting on the social support of the elderly. Results: When considering the degree of social support by the sociodemographic characteristics of the older adults, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old is male, young, high education and self-reported living status is good and it has significance statistically. When considering the relation between social support and health status, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's subjective and objective physical health status is good. The family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's subjective health status is better. The other support and quality of support is better when the old's ADL(activities of daily living) and IADL(instrumental activities of daily living) are good. The family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old's cognitive function and depression state is better. When considering the relation between social support and health behaviors, in case of smoking and drinking, the quality of support, family support and other support is better when the old smokes and drinks rather than the old does not. In case of exercise and eating habit, the family support, other support and quality of support is better when the old exercises and eats regularly rather than the old does not. It has significance statistically. From the result of performing covariance structure analysis by structural equation modeling(SEM) with two endogenous variable(health behaviors and health status) and one exogenous variable(social support), factor loading of health status is 0.74 and factor loading of health behaviors is 0.05. The social support explains health status of 55.4% and health behaviors of 2.9%. Conclusions: This study has the meaning that it finds the difference of social support generating from inside of the group for the old residing in city and country and specifies the effect that the difference of social support influences to health status and health behaviors. From now on, in the development of health improvement strategy of the olds, it is necessary to approach from inclusive aspect while considering psychosocial factor such as social support and social economical factor as well as health status.
It has been repeatedly reported that the quality and quantity of relationships with other people moderate responses to stress and influence health and adjustment. This evidence has stimulated research on the characteristics of social support. In this review, the definition of social support for parents will be discussed. This study also will connect the concept of social support with family theories such as the human ecology theory and the developmental contextualism. The findings from previous studies will be summarized to examine the effects of social support on parenting and to understand the social support within a cultural context.
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