• Title, Summary, Keyword: Social characteristics

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The Sociocultural Characteristics of Korean Ethnics in Central Asia (중앙아시아 한인의 사회문화적 특성과 과제)

  • 정성호
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.161-180
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    • 1997
  • There are about 400, 000 Korean ethnics living in Central Asia. Most of Koreans in Central Asia are leading a stable middle class life mostly engaged in farm work. With increase of educational attainment of their children, a number of Koreans are launching into political and academic circles as well as in the cultural world or the press. In recent years, however, the countries in this area(Uzbekistan and Kazakstan) for this study advocate an ethnic united policy to stabilize the politics and society and to carry out efficient transformation from the former socialistic economy to a market oriented economy. In addition, they are trying to recover the culture and the language of each nation which has been forgotten in the assimilation of Russia policy. Koreans have difficulty in adaption to this kind of change. In fact, a number of Koreans lost traditional culture and could not speak their mother language - Korean. Although they more or less maintain national consciousness, they recognize Uzbekistan or Kazakstan as their nation politically. They associated with North Korea unilaterally before the launching of the Perestroika policy. But after the Seoul Olympics held in 1998, there was movement to know and understand South Korea. There has been increased in the investment by Korean companies in Central Asia. Now, what is an alternative idea for Korean community consciousness\ulcorner It can be summarized as follows: 1) The increase of aid to Korean education institute : Considering the last few decades of Russia's strong racial assimilation policy, which leads most Koreans to lost their language and national culture, the priority should go to Koreans education. 2) Local Korean press support : Though Korean newspaper are published and Korean broadcasting is on the air currently in Uzbekistan and Kazakstan, they are suffering from qualified staff and poor financial status. Therefore, positive support should be established for these Korean mass communication media outlets to recover their own function and expand their dissemination powers quickly. 3) Research on the actual condition for Korean Community : It is essential to directly examine the local Korean community's regional distribution, population structure, Korean group's formation and operation, social and cultural understanding, racial consciousness, hope for their mother land and much more. 4) Increase of mother land and education opportunity : To stir up national culture and national consciousness within the Korean community, it is necessary to expand continuous opportunities for mother land visits and education training for local Koreans, especially for second and third generations.

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Analysis of Actual State for Hospice Programs in Korea (호스피스 프로그램 운영 현황 조사)

  • Chang, Hyun-Sook;Park, Sylvia;You, Sun-Ju
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.4-17
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : This study aimed to investigate and to evaluate the present conditions of hospice programs in Korea for supplying data useful in making policy in hospice, which is not institutionalized yet. Method : For this purpose we surveyed 59 hospice programs regarding the general characteristics, manpower, patients, services, financial conditions, and facilities. Thirty-seven hospice programs answered the questionnaires. Result : They were 11 tertiary hospitals, 11 other hospitals, 3 clinics, 12 home care hospice, and 1 freestanding hospice. Only 9 hospice programs have all of the essential professionals: physicians, nurses, social workers, clergies, and volunteers. In some hospice programs, volunteers who had not been trained for hospice provided services to terminal patients. More than half of the hospice said they provided services to the patients who lost their consciousness and were not suitable for hospice care. 16% of the hospice said they did not keep the patients' record. Some hospitals including tertiary hospitals provided such intensive care as radiotherapy, TPN, injections to hospice patients. Many hospice programs other than hospitals didn't charge patients for hospice care. 60% of the hospice said they suffered from financial problems. Most of the hospice wards were not built for hospice use at first. So they did not have such supplementary facilities as dayroom, waiting room, special bathing facilities etc. Conclusion : For improving the quality of terminal patients and promoting the cost effective use of health care resources, it is necessary to consider the institutionalization of hospice. The institutionalization of hospice programs can improve the quality of hospice care and the standardization of the hospice program can hasten its institutionalization.

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Perceived Weight and Health Promoting Behavior - Normal and Overweight Adults - (정상체중과 과다체중 성인의 체중, 건강상태, 건강개념 지각과 건강증진 행위에 관한 연구)

  • Jo Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.133-146
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this study was to clarify whether there are any differences between normal and over-weight adults in their perceived weight, health status, health conception and health promoting behavior. The sample consisted of 238 normal weight and 106 over-weight(11% above on the Body Index Scale) adults, more than 20 years-old, who live in Seoul metropolitan. One participant per household was selected for conveneience. The findings from this study are summarized below. 1) Among 106 overweight adults, 30 were above 20% on the Body Index Scale and 11 were above 30%. Twenty-one(19.8%) of the overweight group and 34(14.4%) of the normal weight group had one disease, and there were 30(28.3%) in the overweight group and 46(19.6%) in the normal weight group where one of the family members had a disease, but these differences were not statistically significant. The average monthly family income for the overweight group was \2,220,000 compared to \2,070,000 for the normal weight group, and this difference was statistically significant. The age range for the whole group was between 20 and 74(mean=35.6 for total, 39.4 for overweight and 34.0 for normal weight group). Again significant difference was found. Occupations were salaryman(57.6%), teacher(7.4%), student(5.4%) and others(27.3%). Fifty-six salaryman(70.0%) from the overweight group and 92(52.0%) from the normal group did not consitute a statistically significant different. For the educational status, 90(87.5%) of the overweight adults and 222(93.7%) of the normal weight group finished high school or more educational courses, and there was significant statistical difference. Ninety-two(86.8%) of the overweights and 156(65.5%) of the normal weight group were married, and again significant statistical difference was found. 2) A test for difference in health characteristics between the two weight groups indicated that two groups did not show statistical differences in their perceived health status, health conception or health promoting behavior. That is, the overweight group also perceive their health status as good as the normal group, and regard 'Health' as a state that enables them to carry out social roles and functions rather than as the traditional concept of health as no disease or no symptoms. Both group showed slightly high level of health promoting behavior. To determine if no statistical difference might be related to the overweight group's failure of perceive themselves as overweight, the perceived and objective overweight status were compared by the Pearson Correlation Analysis, and a strong corelationship was found(r=.76, p=.000). That is, if participants perceived themselves as overweighted, they thought and replied to be got more weight comparing to the other person who are in same age and sex. However, 43(18.1%) of the normal group perceived themselves as being overweight and 28(26.4%) of the overweight group thought they were of normal weight. Even though the overweight group employed in this study perceived themselves as being overweight, they regarded themselves as healthy as those in the normal weight group. It was shown that there was no statistical difference between the two groups in health conception, health status and health promoting behavior. 3) Perceived health conception was shown to be significantly related to health promoting behavior(r=.20, p=.004 for whole group ; r=.27, p=.009 for overweight group ; and r=.21, p=.001 for normal group). It means that in both group the higher perceived health conception level, the more frequent health promoting behavior. And, perceived health status was also shown to be significantly related to health promoting behavior(r=.16, p=.000) as a whole and especially for overweight group(r=.24, p=.018), but no significant relationship for normal group(r=.08, p=.620). 4) By means of multiple regression analysis, health conception, perceived health status, age, sex and marital status provided predicted 15.18% on health promoting behavior.

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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THEIR FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND CHARACTER TRAIT AMONG DELINQUENT ADOLESCENTS IN KOREA (한국비행 청소년의 가정환경 및 개인내적 특성)

  • Kim, Hun-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.57-69
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    • 1997
  • Objective:At the present time in Korea, for a considerable proportion of children and adolescent, delinquent behavior and violence has become as a way of life in their lives and a major social problem issue as well. The contributing factors to this problem were assumed to be the negative interaction between family environment and character of adolescent. The purpose of this study is to search the relationship between these constructs and juvenile delinquency. Method:Data were collected through questionnaire survey over a period of 2 months. Subjects served for this study consisted of 1,863 adolescents including 657 delinquent adolescents and 1,206 student adolescents in Korea, sampled from Korean student population and delinquent adolescent population confined in juvenile corrective institutions, using proportional stratified random sampling method. Their age ranged between 12 and 18 years. Data were analysed by IBM PC using SAS program. Statistical methods employed were Chi-square and principal component analysis. Results:The results of this study were as follows:Inconsistency by parental child rearing patterns tended to affect delinquent behavior among delinquent adolescents. On the other hand, adolescent students were consistently reared by their parent with democratic, flexible, trusting their children and reward-oriented attitudes. In comparison of both parents in the degree of influence on their children, it was revealed that paternal child rearing pattern was more influential on their children’s behaviors than maternal’s. The psychological instability of family, disharmonious parent-child relationships tended to be contributing to delinquent behavior among delinquent adolescents. Especially, It was an interesting finding that student’s mother is the higher employed than delinquent’s mother. However working mother was more prevalent in the student’ adolescents than in student adolescents in previous studies. The delinquent adolescents have more depressive trend, more complaints of psychosomatic symptoms, the higher degree of need frustration, the more maladaptive and antisocial personality pattern than student adolescents. Conclusion:Recently, many studies on association between family factor, character of adolescent and juvenile delinquent behavior have produced relatively consistent results. This study showed that family environment and character trait of adolescent also were linked with delinquent behavior such as smoking, drinking, runaway and physical assaults etc. The results of this survey may provide impetus for future speculation and study of correlation or reciprocal interaction between family factor, character trait of adolescent and delinquent behavior during adolescence and beyond.

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A Proposal on a Management Model Applicable to Visiting Nursing Program for a Low-income Group (저소득층 방문간호 관리를 위한 제안 - 강북구 방문간호 대상자를 중심으로-)

  • Ko Mee-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.118-138
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    • 1996
  • Because of accelerated urbanization public body visiting nursing project that started according as matter of health on urban class in the lower brackets of income was concentrated on Social interests has a unsatisfied points to propel project efficiently from the lack of rating materials. Therefore centering around written contents in documentary literature of citizen health by household in five years from starting year of project to now. visiting frequency by medical manpower was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively in aspect of management hereupon. for the sake of giving a basic materials for public health project of this field. This research presents documentary literature of citizen health which become materials is that as one person's charged region of nurse in duty scale. district is Kang-Buck Gu. the object is resident in the lower brackets of income grounded livelihood protection law and who is admitted by the head of organ~chief of health care). and the number of material centering around the head of a household is 415 copy. The result of research is summarized. as follow. 1. Average visiting frequency examinated by medical manpower show difference according to valuables of supervision characteristics namely average visiting. Frequency of nurse has long term residence in case registration season is early and supervision season is the first year and is high incase a kind of house is unlicdnsed mountain town. Average visiting frequency with doctor is high incase supervision season is the first year and the medical insurance system is admitted by chief of health care. That shows that a man of discomfort behavior left alone are yet many in local society. The meaning of this result shows that the continuity of official relation about class in the lowest brackets of income of long term residence goes well between househole who is a user of visiting nursing service of the object according to midway income under management influences a given duty of nurse s and so causes quantitative decrease. 2. In case behavier and condition of health that nurse diagnoses are bad. as the type matter is a lack of health and the number of patient is large. the average visiting frequency of nurse is high. because average visiting frequency with doctor is high as the condition of health is bad and the number of patient is large. That is similar with that of nurse. CD Average visiting frequency of nurse s seen by matter of disease is very high only in apoplexy by 39.50 and is confined within limits from 7.63 to 11.36 in other disease. But average visiting frequency with doctor is double as many as that of nurse but defined in apoplexy hypertension and articulate. (1) Average visiting frequency of nurse by existence in inoculation of hepatitis is low by 6.73 in unidentified group and very high by 26.89 in group of non-inoculation and the case of the antigenic positive man of B type hepatitis or epileptic who can't be inoculated shows 13.00 and that even family nursing service is needed to them. That result shows that though one person nurse of local charge has a large scale of duty. as visting nursing service is given a class who has a large demand preferentially by respectively accurate nursing diagnosis. the number of diagnosis service is similar with it. 3. During five years. average visiting frequency of nurse is 10.84 and average visiting frequency with doctor is 76.50 seeing from the official scale of nurse. visiting by household is performed two more per year to the average. Seeing this by type of service. average visiting frequency of nurse is higher in indirectly nursing than in directly nursing and that suggests that at the time of visiting household nurse performs education of protection lively save patient but at the time of contrastedly visiting with doctor. directly nursing is more contents of service show no difference by man power and medication dressing by demand is 14.3 and 18.6 the aid of hardship term of doctor and nurse is high by 18.7 and 17.00 in the request of hospitalization when seeing by demands. 4. Action by turns exemplified 1994 is well in sequence of 2/4 turn. 3/4 turn. 1/4 turn. 4/4 turn. When seen by average visiting frequency of nurse but gradually is even. Without difference by turns. average visiting frequency of doctor is much higher in 1/4 turn than other turns. Type of service by turns is all even but directly nursing is inactive in 4/4 and indirectly nursing. Very increases in 4/4 and so. Nurse's quantity of duty is plentiful that shows that by evaluation of last turn and plan of project. Contents of service follows that medication and dressing is the highest by' 5.57 in 1/4turn. goes down gradually by turn. becomes 3.57 in 3/4 turn. and increases again by 4.83 in 4/4 turn. the rest service is higher in 2/4 turn than other turns. 5. Total visiting frequency of nurse is explained to total $37.5\%$ by six valuables of visiting frequency of doctor. nursing demand. demand of diagnosis. condition of behavior. year. Special terms and magnitude of influential power is the same as sequence of enumerated valuables. Namely. the higher the visiting frequency of doctor. the bigger nursing and demand of diagnosis is. the worse the condition of behavior is. the older the object is and the more the household of special terms is. the high total visiting frequency of nurse is.

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Multiplification of the Reality in Contemporary Sculpture (현대조각에 있어서 실재의 다중화)

  • You, Jae-Heung
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.12
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    • pp.65-96
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    • 2007
  • Today, the modern art is extremely diverse. It is denying its own boundary through chaos, extreme, abjection. In fact the diversity of the modern art can be best described as questioning and challenging to the essence of the reality, rather than the artistic pursuit of the beauties. The pursuit of the reality has been a long lasting discourse since the ancient. Through the history, the reality (referent) and representation (image) has been complementing and disposing each other in a relationship of a meaningful construction until the modern times. The limit of modernistic self-reference and the emergence of the figure leads to the emergence of Post-modernism in a trend of experimenting new visual arts. The return to the figure is clearly distinguished from existing representation's system and it brought new meanings to approaches and interpretations of the reality. In the case of Pop arts of 1960's and the following the modern sculptures, which is covered by this thesis, I put an emphasis on the diversification of those via changed strategies on the reality. In a situation where the reality is dictated by signified, the modern arts can no longer stay on a classic concept of representation, rather it pursuits new system and diverse strategies. I provide three types of strategic characters of the reality and the diversification of reality: the transition of the reality. These three types can be used as a frame work, which is supporting new aspects of the modern arts in reflecting on existing system. Therefore, the reason of categorizing is to distinguish modernistic arts and post modernistic arts, and to propose new post-modernistic discourses. Adapting J.F, Lyotard's view, absence is used to trace down the diversification of the reality thorough the sublime on the deconstruction of the mega discourses and the relationship of representation. Based on H. Faster's theory of the appropriation, the appropriation is used to exemplify the strategies of visual arts are in variations and being delayed. Lastly, in the transition, J. Baudrilliard's simulacre is used in terms of the concept of post modernistic representation. Based on the core of his theories, the deconstruction of existing concepts and simulation as the post modernistic representation, and the world of hyperreality based on simulacre are explained. These allows us to deny that representation is the expression of reality through mimesis. My aim is to work on the definition of the arts and representation in the modern era, and go further from there in order to clarify meaning and extension of the modern sculptures. Now two artists are reviewed based on their own art works: George Seagal; Jeff Koons. They are selected among numerous artists from the Post Modern era. Epic contents and emphasis on daily life of Seagal's works show good examples to artists from Pop Arts and following time period and may have served as a start point for Postmodernism. Indeed, he tried to show a newly defined relationship between art works and daily life experience. On the other hand, J.Koons used the strategies of fabrication and appropriation, which shows characteristics of the postmodernism. Through his four individual exhibitions, he shows the diversification of the reality based on art works as fetishistic merchandises, and newly defined concept of Ready-made since M Duchamp. Lastly, the diversification of the reality is analyzed again in context of my art works. I focused on the return to the figure among a variety of trends of late 20 th century modern sculpture. It showed the post modernistic point of view on the reality. Post modernistic diversified strategies are adopted as a method of distinguishing each art works via the diversification of the reality. This is the result of contemporary social and cultural situations.

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The Child Sexual Assaults by Kin -The Experience of YoungNam District Sunflower Center for Prevention of Child Sexual Assaults- (친족에 의한 아동 성폭력 실태 - 영남권역 해바라기 아동센터의 경험 -)

  • Seo, Sun-Ki;Lee, Sang-Han
    • Journal of forensic and investigative science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2007
  • News from the media on sexual assaults to children committed by natural fathers doesn't attract social attention any more. The number of crimes related to Child Sexual Assault(CSA) is increasing every year in spite of the "Special Act on Prevention of Sexual Assault in Korea". The YoungNam District Sunflower Center for prevention of Child Sexual Assaults(SC-CSA) was established in Daegu, June 2005. The YoungNam District SC-CSA provides forensic evaluation of physical evidence, medical and psychological treatment for the victims less than 13 years of sexual assaults simultaneously. This study carried out 36 cases of CSA by kin reported to YoungNam District SC-CSA, among 180 cases in total until December 2006 since its opening. Most of the victims were girls (32 cases). 28 cases (78%) were indecent assaults (78%) and 8 cases (22%) were rapes. The assailants were overwhelmingly males (35 cases). The assailants of 21 cases (58.3%) were identified as the victims' natural fathers. The incident locations were victim's residence (31 cases, 86.1%) and the victims had been sexually assaulted regularly for many years (25 cases, 69.4%). Considering the above research, we can conclude that CSA committed by kin has specific characteristics. CSA is not a one-time incident, but consistently occurring crime. However, in 22 cases (61.1%), the victim's guardian didn't want to report about it or punish the assailants. As the assailants were natural fathers or relatives of the victims, the other family members probably thought it might be shameful to reveal their wrong doings and would lead to defamation of their family's reputation. The SC-CSA provides the counseling and medical treatment to the victims with the consent of the parents. Due to the guardians' misjudgment, the incident is sometimes not reported to the police. By not reporting the incident to the police, the assailant freely commits other crimes, which multiplies victims. The legal Act of supporting the management of the SC-CSA is still not regulated, so the stability of the SC-CSA is not guaranteed, yet. Even though it is obligatory to report incidents to the police, some cases are still not reported. Currently, there are three SC-CSA centers : in Seoul, in Daegu, and in Gwangju. More centers need to be established to diminish CSA cases in Korea.

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A Search of Regional Concept in the Post-Modern Era: In Case of Identity (포스트모던 시대에 적합한 지역 개념의 모색: 동일성(identity) 개념을 중심으로)

  • Leem, Byoung-Jo;Ryu, Je-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.582-600
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    • 2007
  • In a long history of geography, a variety of regional concepts have been suggested to represent the particular situations in each period. Today, post-modem situations, characterized by the development of capitalism and globalization, demand a new variety of regional concepts. The regional characteristics, such as social relations, institutional systems, ideologies and symbolism, are now perceived basically on the level of subjectivity. Currently, it is the most urgent task to integrate many conflicting opinions among a variety of subjects into the one that would seek a voluntary consent from the majority of regional residents. In this paper, it is suggested that the concept of identity is the most efficient in examining and explaining the post-modem trend of a region: variability, subjectivity, mobility, changeability, Finally, it is suggested that a special attention should be paid to the role of institutions, that is institutionalization, in the construction of regional identity, to understand and interpret the cultural-historical aspect of a regional change.

The Influence of Senior Entrepreneurship Competency and Start-up Support Policy on Entrepreneurship Intention: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Mentoring (시니어 창업자 역량과 창업지원정책이 창업의지에 미치는 영향: 멘토링의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Young Tae;Heo, Chul Moo
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-121
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    • 2021
  • With the recent increase in senior retirement, and senior start-ups are becoming more active due to high interest in start-ups. Research on young entrepreneurship, including college students, is being actively conducted, but most of the preceding research on senior entrepreneurship was conducted mainly on personal characteristics and social environment, and there were not many empirical studies on the influencing factors of entrepreneurship support policies. In this study, research and discussion on the entrepreneurial support policy and entrepreneurial competence as the influencing factors of senior entrepreneurship. As the independent variable of this study, the founder's competency was adopted as two factors: technical competence and creative competency, and the entrepreneurial support policy was divided into education support and funding support. Mentoring was set as a controlling variable and entrepreneurial intention was set as a dependent variable. A total of 232 questionnaires collected from seniors in their 40s or older were empirically analyzed. To verify the hypothesis of the study, SPSS 23 was used for exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis, and Process 3.4 was used for moderation effect. As a result of the study, it was found that the factors of technical competence, creative competence, educational support, and funding all have a significant influence on the will of entrepreneurship. It was found that creative competency(𝛽=.318), funding support(𝛽=.188), educational support(𝛽=.152), and technical competence(𝛽=.139), in this order, influenced the entrepreneurial intention. It was verified that the moderating effect of mentoring was significant between technical competence, creative competence, and entrepreneurial intention, but the moderating effect of mentoring between educational support, funding and entrepreneurial intention was not. The implications of this study will contribute to the research of senior start-up support policies, institutional supplementation, and differentiated start-up support programs by studying the factors of senior start-up capabilities and start-up support policies. It is also believed that it will contribute to the search for ways to increase creative capabilities that have a high influence on the willingness to start a business and the expansion of mentoring functions.

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Characteristics and Correlation between Green Management Practices and Speed in Korean Golf Courses (한국의 골프 코스 그린의 관리 및 스피드 특성과 상관에 관한 연구)

  • 이상재;심경구;허근영
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2000
  • This study is carried out to investigate the cahracteristics of green management practices and green speed(i.e., ball-roll distance) on 129 Golf Courses in Korea, and to explain the effects of managemet practices that affect green speed. Data collected from green-keepers were subjected to frequency, correlation analysis, and multi-regression analysis using SPSSWIN(Statistical Package for the Social Science). The results are as follows. 1. In spring mowing height, 3.5-4 mm appeared the highest frequency(44.4%) and 4-4.5mm mowing height appeared the high frequency(41.0%). In summer mowing height, 4.5-5mm appeared the highest frequency(51.3%). In fall mowing height, 4-4.5mm appeared the highest frequency(41.0%). 2. In N-fertilizing amount of February and November, 0(zero) g/$m^2$ appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of June and July 0-2 g/$m^2$ appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of March, May, August, and September 2-4 g/$m^2$ appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of October 2-4 or 6-8 g/$m^2$ appeared the highest frequency. 3. In spring topdressing times, 3-6 times appeared the highest frequency(52.6%). In spring topdressing amount, more than 2mm appeared the highest frequency(35.9%). In summer topdressing tierms, 0-3times appeared the highest frequency(71.8%). In summer topdressing amount, 0.5-1mm appeared the highest frequency(46.2%). In fall topdressing times, 0-3times appeared the highest frequency(47.4%). In fall topdressing amount, more than 2mm appeared the highest frequency(35.9%). 4. In spring irrigation tiems, 3-4times/a week appeared the highest frequency (30.6%). In spring irrigation amount, the irrigation below 5mm/day under appeared the highest frequency(38.7%). In summer irrigation times, 4-7times/ a week appeared the highest frequency(38.9%). In summer irrigation amount, 5-10mm/a day appeared the highest frequency(45.2%). In fall irrigation times, 2-3times/a week appeared the highest frequency(36.1%). In fall irrigation amount, the irrigation below 5mm/a day under appeared the highest frequency(45.2%). 5. In spring aeration times, 2 times appeared the highest frequency(55.2%). In spring aeration depth, 5-10mm appeared the highest frequency(81.6%). In fall aeration times, 1 time appeared the highest frequency(82.5%). In fall aeration depth, 5-10mm appeared the highest frequency(86.8%). 6. In spring green speed, 1.98-2.28 or 2.59-2.89mm appeared the highest frequency(32.7%). In summer green speed, 1.98-2.28mm appeared the highest frequency (46.9%). In fall green speed, 1.98-2.28mm appeared the highest frequency(38.8%). 7. The factors which affect green speed were mowing height, N-fertilizing, season, topdressing, irrigation, and aeration. Vertical mowing did not affect green speed. The order of the relevant important factors was mowing height >: N-fertilizing > season > topdressing > irrigation > aeration. Mowing height and N-fertilizing were the most important factors in green speed. As mowing height decreased, green sped always increased. As total N-fertilizing amount decreased, green speed increased. In summer, green sped decreased remarkably. As topdressing times increased and the topdressing amount decreased, green sped increased. As irrigation times increased and irrigation amount decreased, green speed increased.

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