• Title/Summary/Keyword: Silage quality

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Effects of Supplementing Organic Citrus in Making Rice Straw Silage (볏짚사일리지 제조를 위한 유기감귤 첨가효과)

  • Ahn, Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2007
  • The effects of supplementation of organic citrus on the quality of rice straw silage was investigated in this study. The aim of the study was to improve the quality of rice straw silage using agricultural by-products and therefore to secure the good quality forage sources. Firstly, looking at chemical composition of citrus added rice straw silage, crude protein content appeared improved with the addition of citrus to rice straw silage compared to control while NDF and ADF contents decreased. pH of the silages were different between control(4.39) and treatments$(3.47\sim3.53)$. Lactic acid content was higher in citrus added silage(4.87mM) than in control (3.65mM). External quality of the silages was also better in citrus added silage when citrus added at the equal ratio with rice straw(1 : 1). This trend was the same as with pH and lactic acid content. Propionate was significantly higher in citrus addd silage but butyrate was significantly lower. DM and NDF disappearance rates in the rumen were highest when citrus added at the equal ratio with rice straw(1:1). In conclusion, supplementation of citrus to rice straw silage with equal ratio contributed the best to the improvement of the quality of silage and it may have been due mainly to abundant content of non-structural carbohydrate in citrus.

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Improving quality of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) silage with additives

  • Asano, Keigo;Ishikawa, Takahiro;Araie, Ayako;Ishida, Motohiko
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1747-1755
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) could potentially provide an alternative resource for silage; however, its silage quality is poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors in reed that contribute to poor quality and determine how the use of additives at ensiling could improve fermentation quality. Methods: In Experiment 1, we determined the chemical composition and the presence of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in reed. We further examined fermentation quality of reed silage under conditions without additives (NA) and treated glucose (G), lactic acid bacteria (L), and their combination (G+L). In Experiment 2, silage of NA, and with an addition of cellulase and lactic acid bacteria (CL) were prepared from harvested reed. The harvested reeds were fertilized at nitrogen concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and $12g\;N/m^2$ and were harvested thrice within one year. Results: The indigenous LAB and fermentable carbohydrates are at extremely low concentrations in reed. Reed silage, to which we added G+L, provided the highest quality silage among treatments in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, N fertilization had no negative effect on silage quality of reed. The harvest times decreased fermentable carbohydrate content in reed. The CL treatment provided a higher lactic acid content compared to the NA treatment. However, the quality of CL treated silage at the second and third harvests was significantly lower than at the first harvest, due to a reduction in carbohydrates caused by frequent harvesting. Conclusion: The causes of poor quality in reed silage are its lack of indigenous LAB and fermentable carbohydrates and its high moisture content. In addition, reed managed by frequent harvesting reduces carbohydrate content. Although the silage quality could be improved by adding CL, higher-quality silage could be prepared by adding fermentable carbohydrates, such as glucose (rather than adding cellulases).

Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris Extract Usability to Improve Silage Hygienic Quality and Reduce Mycotoxin Concentrations

  • Vaiciuliene, Gintare;Bakutis, Bronius;Jovaisiene, Jurgita;Falkauskas, Rimvydas;Gerulis, Gediminas;Baliukoniene, Violeta
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2020
  • Silage is one of the main feed components of ruminants around the world and can make up about 50-80% of the rations of dairy cows during the winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) aqueous and ethanol extracts to improve the hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples and estimate their effect on mycotoxins concentrations. Under laboratory conditions, 63 silage samples (21 perennial ryegrass, 21 blue alfalfa, 21 red clover) were fermented with inserted aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme and two commercial inoculants with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. After 96 days of fermentation, in silage samples were established fermentation parameters, microbiological status and mycotoxins concentrations. It was determined that the best results for achieving hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass and red clover silage samples was by insertion of aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. In blue alfalfa samples, the best results of silage hygienic indicators were determined by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2 toxin concentrations in perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples were best reduced by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. The present study shows that these extracts can be used to improve silage hygienic quality, reduce mycotoxins concentrations and thus ensure the wellness of cattle.

Study on the Quality of Whoie Crop Silage and Yield by Stage of Maturity of Rye Plant II. Quality of whole crop rye silage by stage of maturity (호맥의 생육시기별 수량과 Whole crop silage의 품질에 관한 연구 II. 호맥의 생육시기별 Silage의 품질)

  • 고영두;곽종형;문영식
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 1987
  • With a purpose of evaluation rye crop as winter green feed, a cultivar was sown in autumn and harvested at booting, heading, milk, dough and yellow-ripe stages, and processed into silage. The quality of the silage was assessed in terms of ammonia-N, recovery rate in dry matter, pH, and the composition of organic acids. The results obtained are: 1. The recovery rate in dry matter from the silage was the highest when harvested at yellow stage (P<0.01). The ratio of ammonia-N to total-N was low when the rye crop was harvested during milk (9.4%) and dough ( 12.7%) stages (P$NH_3-N$. 3. Silage quality based on the composition of organic acids was highly evaluated when the crop was harvested during milk, and dough stages. 4. Considering both the DM yield and quality of the silage, it was found that rye crop should be harvested at dough stage and ensiled.

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NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WILTED NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) ENSILED WITH OR WITHOUT MOLASSES

  • Yokota, H.;Kim, J.H.;Okajima, T.;Ohshima, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the effects of molasses addition at ensiling on nutritional quality of wilted napier grass, chemical quality and nutrient composition of the silages, digestibility and nitrogen retention at feeding trials were analysed using 4 goats in a cross over design. The results are as follows : 1. Molasses addition at ensiling decreased pH value (3.99) and ammonia nitrogen, and increased lactic acid content by 285% compared to non-additive silage (83.5 g/kg dry matter). 2. There were no differences in digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and cellulose between the silage ensiled with molasses (MS silage) and the silage ensiled without molasses (WS silage). Urinary nitrogen excretion, however, significantly (p<0.05) decreased in goats fed the MS silage, and nitrogen retention was positive in goats fed the MS silages, but negative in goats fed the WS silage. 3. Acetic acid concentration in remained fluids in goats fed the MS silage was lower and propionic and butyric acid concentrations were higher than those in goats fed the WS silage. As water soluble carbohydrate content was higher in the MS silage than in the WS silage, a part of added molasses was still remained in the silage at the feeding trials and could be utilized for energy sources by the goats. Nitrogen may be also effectively utilized in goats fed the MS silage, because the silage were inhibited in proteolysis during ensiling.

The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization to the Sward on Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Gatton) Silage Fermentation

  • Namihira, Tomoyuki;Shinzato, Naoya;Akamine, Hikaru;Nakamura, Ichiro;Maekawa, Hideaki;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro;Matsui, Toru
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of tropical grass silage, guinea grass grown with 3 types of nitrogen fertilizers, namely, urea, ammonium sulfate, and compound fertilizer 804, at 2 fertilization levels, 0.5 and 2.5 kg $Na^{-1}$ (0.5 N and 2.5 N, respectively), was subjected to silage fermentation. Silage fertilized with 0.5 N showed butyrate-dominant fermentation, irrespective of the type of fertilizer used. On the other hand, fermentation of silage fertilized with 2.5 N was significantly affected by the type of fertilizer used; fertilization with ammonium sulfate and compound fertilizer 804 resulted in silage that contained a large amount of butyrate and no lactate; this silage was considered to be of a significantly low quality as compared with silage fertilized with 0.5 N. Among silage fertilized with 2.5 N, the desirable butyrate-free fermentation was found only in urea-fertilized silage, which had the best quality. Grass material fertilized with a high level of urea accumulated a relatively high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (0.22% dry matter). Our results presented here suggest that nitrogen fertilizer management could affect the quality of tropical grass silage and that a relatively high concentration of nitrate in silage may promote butyrate-free fermentation even in tropical grass silage.

Effects of Isolated and Commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Silage Quality, Digestibility, Voluntary Intake and Ruminal Fluid Characteristics

  • Ando, Sada;Ishida, M.;Oshio, S.;Tanaka, O.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.386-389
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    • 2006
  • Silage is a major component of cattle rations, so the improvement of silage quality by the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria is of great interest. In this study, commercially distributed Lactobacillus plantram and Lactobacillus rhamnousas NGRI 0110 were used for ensilaging of guinea grass. The four treatments used were a control silage, a silage with cellulase addition, a silage with cellulose+L. plantram addition, and a silage with cellulose + NGRI 0110 addition. Silage quality, voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility, and the characteristics of ruminal fluid of wethers were investigated. Silage to which lactic acid bacteria were added showed low pH and acetic acid concentration and the highest lactic acid content. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were significantly (p<0.05) increased by cellulase addition and significantly (p<0.05) higher values were observed in L. plantram- and NGRI 0110-added silage. Voluntary intake of NGRI 0110-added silage was the highest and that of control silage was the lowest. We concluded that the observed ability of NGRI 0110 to tolerate low pH and to continue lactic acid fermentation in high lactic acid concentration had also occurred in actual ensilaging. The results indicate that the addition of lactic acid bacteria might improve silage quality and increase digestibility and voluntary intake. The potential for improvement by NGRI 0110 was higher than that to be gained by the use of commercially available lactic acid bacteria.

Influence of microbial additive on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of delayed sealing silage of Napier grass

  • Cai, Yimin;Du, Zhumei;Yamasaki, Seishi;Nguluve, Damiao;Tinga, Benedito;Macome, Felicidade;Oya, Tetsuji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1103-1112
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To measure whether a microbial additive could effectively improve the fermentation quality of delayed-sealing (DS) silage, we studied the effects of inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of DS silage of Napier grass in Africa. Methods: Quick-sealing (QS) and DS silages were prepared with and without LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant, cellulase enzymes, and their combination. The QS material was directly chopped and packed into a bunker silo. The DS material was packed into the silo with a delay of 24 h from harvest. Results: In the QS silage, LAB was dominant in the microbial population and produced large amounts of lactic acid. When the silage was treated with LAB and cellulase, the fermentation quality was improved. In the DS silage, aerobic bacteria and yeasts were the dominant microbes and all the silages were of poor quality. The yeast and mold counts in the DS silage were high, and they increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, the DS silages spoiled faster than the QS silages upon aerobic exposure. Conclusion: DS results in poor silage fermentation and aerobic deterioration. The microbial additive improved QS silage fermentation but was not effective for DS silage.

Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

Effects of Management Practices on the Quality of Round Baled Oat Silage (제조 방법이 라운드베일 연맥 사일리지의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Cheung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Kang, W.S.;Ham, J.S.;Lee, S.C.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was canied out to determine the effect of management practices on the quality of round baled oat silage at experimental field of Grassland and Forage Crops division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon from 1997 to 1998. The experiments are consist of randomized block design with 3 replications. The treatments are 3 wilting dates(0, 2 and 4 days), 3 wrap colors(white, black and green and 3 inoculant(untreated, Inoculant A and Inocuant B). The crude protein(CP) content was increased by prolonged wilting periods, but the effect of wrap color and inoculant were not founded. Acid detergent fiber(ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) content of all silages were not founded significant difference, but in vitro dry matter digestibility of oat silage with inoculant was significantly higher compare with control. Wilting treatment increased the mean silage acidity compare with control and inoculant treatment significantly reduced silage acidity. Wrap color did not influence the silage acidity. Wilting or inoculant treatments increased lactic acid content but, decreased the content of acetic and butyric acid. The quality grade of all silage were grade 3, except inoculant treated silage. Wilting or inoculant decreased silage DM loss, but wrap color did not effect on siage DM loss. The result of this study indicate that wilting for 2-4 days and inoculant will improve the silage fermentation and quality of round baled oat silage. (Key words : Oat, Wilting, Inoculant, Wrap color, Round bale silage)

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