• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sewage Sludge

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A Fuel Feasibility Study of Sewage Sludge by Melting of Thermoplastic Polyethylene

  • Lee, Byeong-Kyu;Jeong, Wang-Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2010
  • This pilot study evaluated fueling feasibility of sewage sludge, which contains a large amount of water content, by applying melting of thermoplastic polyethylene (PE). This study has identified a simultaneous achievement of drying and heating value improvement of the sewage sludge. The sewage sludge collected from a sewage sludge treatment plant during a winter period had a water content of 83.7 wt%, a combustible volatile content of 12.5 wt%, and an ash content of 3.8 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the dried sewage sludge, before impregnation or coating of PE, was 4,600 kcal/kg. The collected sewage sludge was immersed into the melted PE solution, which had a HHV of 11,070 kcal/kg, and kept immersing with increasing reaction time. As the reaction (immersing or coating or impregnation) time increased, the water content of the sludge decreased. However, the HHV of the sludge increased with increasing the reaction time. The HHVs of the sewage sludge immersed or dipped into the melted PE solution for 15 min ranged from 6,780 to 8,170 kcal/kg with water content less than 7 wt%. This result indicates the melted PE solution can be utilized as an improvement technology for dryness and heating value of the sewage sludge with high water content. The sewage sludge impregnated or coated with melted PE can be utilized as potential fuel or energy resources.

Treatment, Disposal and Beneficial Use Option for Sewage Sludge (하수슬러지 처리기술 동향 및 최적화 처리방안)

  • Choe, Yong-Su
    • 수도
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 1997
  • Sewage sludge produced in Korea was 1,275,800 tons (dewatered sludge cake) per year in 1996, which is 3,495 tons per day, 0.303% of 11,526,100 tons per day of sewage treated in 79 sewage treatment plants. Sludge production has been and will be increasing in accordance with construction of new facilities for sewage treatment. Most of the sludge is currently disposed by landfill and ocean dumping, but it is becoming difficult to find suitable sites for landfill, particularly in big cities such as Seoul. In addition, rapid increase of landfill cost is anticipated in a near future. Current trend for sludge disposal in advanced countries is land application. Over the past 10 to 20 years in the United States, sludge management practices have changed significantly, moving from disposal to beneficial use. They use biosolid for utilization instead of sludge for disposal. Under the Clean Water Act of 1972, amended in 1987 by Congress, the U.S. EPA was required to develop regulations for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. The EPA assessed the potential for pollutants in sewage sludge to affect public health and the environment through a number of different routes of exposure. The Agency also assessed the potential risk to human health through contamination of drinking water sources or surface water when sludge is disposed on land. The Final Rules were signed by the EPA Administrator and were published (Federal Register, 1993). These rules state that sewage sludge shall not be applied to land if the concentration of any pollutant in the sludge exceeds the ceiling concentration. In addition, the cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate nor should the concentration of each pollutant in the sludge exceed the monthly average concentration for the pollutant. The annual pollutant loading rate generally applies to applications of sewage sludge on agricultural lands. The most popular beneficial use of sewage sludge is land application. The sludge has to be stabilized for appling to land. One of the stabilization process for sewage sludge is lime stabilization process. The stabilization process is consisted of the stabilizing process and the drying process. Stabilization reactor can be a drum type reactor in which a crossed mixer is equipped. The additive agents are a very reactive mixture of calcium oxide and others. The stabilized sludge is dried in sun drier or rotary kiln.

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Thermogravimetric study for the co-combustion of coal and dried sewage sludge

  • Park, Jeong Min;Keel, Sangin;Yun, Jinhan;Yun, Ji Hye;Lee, Sang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.2204-2210
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    • 2017
  • The co-combustion of dried sewage sludge with coal is a promising method to dispose of and treat sewage sludge waste. Because sewage sludge has a different elemental composition than coal, the co-combustion of sewage sludge with coal may have different combustion characteristics than the single combustion of coal. In this study, the co-combustion of dried sewage sludge with coal was tested varying heating rates and mixing ratios of the dried sewage sludge. The results were analyzed using thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves and modeled using Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin models. The mixed samples of coal and dried sewage sludge showed similar TG curves to the coal sample. The co-combustion showed activation energies close to that of the single coal combustion. This suggests that the co-combustion of coal and dried sewage sludge has similar combustion behavior to the single combustion of coal for mixing percentages of dried sewage sludge up to 20%.

Solidification of Sewage Sludge by PARAFIX (PARAFIX를 이용한 하수슬러지 고형화 방안)

  • 정하익;조진우;임재상;김상길
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.611-616
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    • 2001
  • Increased quantities of sewage sludge coupled with stringent regulations make it important to develope alternatives for residuals management. The use of PARAFIX as a solidifying agent for sewage sludge was investigated by several tests. Basic physicochemical characteristics, strength, permeability, and leaching characteristics were examined. PARAFIX was found to be very effective in reducing permeability, increasing strength, and immobilizing heavy metals. Based on the tests, it Is ascertained that PARAFIX enhances the solidification of sewage sludge. Also sewage sludge solidified with PARAFIX may be used effectively for construction materials.

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Recycling Energy from Mixture of Sewage Sludge and Petroleum Coke Waste

  • Lee, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Tae-Ho;Kim, Jong-In;Park, Byung-Bin;Choi, Suk-Nam;Han, Ki-Suk
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.10 no.S_2
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 2001
  • The disposal of sewage sludge using landfills and ocean dumping is no longer a viable option due to land scarcity and increasingly stringent environmental control regulations. As such, various efforts have been made to develop new sewage sludge recycling technologies. This work investigates the fundamental physical and chemical characteristics of rural type sewage sludge from Chungnam province in South Korea. The average moisture content, ignition loss, elementary analysis, and average heating value of the sewage sludge samples were examined. The average moisture content of the dewatered sludge was about 80%, while the organic matter was about 50% of the total solid sludge weight. The average heating value of a sewage sludge and petroleum coke waste mixture(1:1 weight ratio) was about 5,000 ㎉/kg, thereby indicating a high potential for energy recycling.

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Effects of Pre-aeration on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

  • Ahn, Young-Mi;Wi, Jun;Park, Jin-Kyu;Higuchi, Sotaro;Lee, Nam-Hoon
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-aeration on sludge solubilization and the behaviors of nitrogen, dissolved sulfide, sulfate, and siloxane. The results of this study showed that soluble chemical oxygen demand in sewage sludge could be increased through pre-aeration. The pre-aeration process resulted in a higher methane yield compared to the anaerobic condition (blank). The pre-aeration of sewage sludge, therefore, was shown to be an effective method for enhancing the digestibility of the sewage sludge. In addition, this result confirms that the pre-aeration of sewage sludge prior to its anaerobic digestion accelerates the growth of methanogenic bacteria. Removal rates for $NH_3$-N and T-N increased simultaneously during pre-aeration, indicating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The siloxane concentration in sewage sludge decreased by 40% after 96 hr of pre-aeration; in contrast, the sulfide concentration in sewage sludge did not change. Therefore, pre-aeration can be employed as an efficient treatment option to achieve higher methane yield and lower siloxane concentration in sewage sludge. In addition, reduction of nitrogen loading by pre-aeration can reduce operating costs to achieve better effluent water quality in wastewater treatment plant and benefit the anaerobic process by minimizing the toxic effect of ammonia.

Refined Fuel Production Using Municipal Sewage Sludge(I) - Preparation of Refined Solid Fuels from Organic Sludge - (하수슬러지의 정제 연료화 기술(1) - 유기성 슬러지의 정제 고체연료 제조 -)

  • Kang, S.K.;Lee, S.J.;Ryu, I.S.;Lee, K.C.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2007
  • Utilization of sewage sludge for industrial fuel should be considered in appropriate calory with low emission of environmental pollutants and the amount of sewage sludge for continuously long-time operation. For the low grade fuel(<4,000kcal/kg), one of proper processes is that coal and oil are added into sewage sludge to remove impurities and increase calory(>7,000kcal/kg) and the amount of fuel having sewage sludge. Recently, 2-step agglomeration has been attempted by secondarily agglomerate sewage sludge onto the primary nuclei formed by agglomeration of coal and oil. Furthermore, sawdust and waste oil can substitute about 1/3 each for coal and mineral oil consumed in this process, which will lead to securing alternative energy resources from environmental pollutants as well as cost reduction.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Dewaterability and Calorific Value of Sewage Sludge by Mixing Waste Wood (폐목재 혼합에 따른 하수슬러지 탈수성 및 발열량 특성 연구)

  • Jin, Yong Gyun;Jo, Eun Ji;Hyun, Wan Su;Han, Hyun Goo;Min, Sun Ung;Yeo, Woon Ho
    • Journal of Urban Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2019
  • The land treatment of sewage sludge is necessary because sewage sludge is increasing year by year. Therefore the research of sewage sludge solidification is underway as one of the land treatment methods. However, the problem with existing sewage sludge solidification is that the moisture content of sewage sludge is high and the dewaterability is low. Because of high drying cost the efficiency of energy production is low and the calorific value is insufficient. So the disposer is supplied with a filtration and caloric aid for improving dewaterability and calorific value. In this study, it is aimed to improve the fuel value of sewage sludge by confirming the feasibility of waste wood as a filtration and caloric aid. The dewaterability was measured by CST-test and the calorific value was measured by bomb calorimeter. As a result the dewaterability and calorific value are improved in all of the samples. The dewaterability was improved as the waste wood was added in the sewage sludge. By adjusting the waste wood adding rate into the sewage sludge the dewaterability and calorific value of sewage sludge will be improved. This study confirmed possibility of the waste wood used as filtration and caloric aid.

Effects of the application of Sewage Sludge on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L.) and Changes in Soil Chemical Properties. (불수 sludge 시용이 배추의 생육과 토양의 화학성 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김수영;조경철;정순주
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sewage sludge application on the growth of chinese cabbage and the changes of chemical properties of soil. The experiment were set up with two different place and cultivated from Feb. 10 to June. 20 of 2000. Treatments are 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20kg/3.3$\m^2$ of sewage sludge applicated into the soil and recorded the growth characteristics. Chemical properties of soil were also analysed before and after treatment. The application of the sewage sludge resulted in increasing the content of EC, cations exchange capacity, available phosphate and organic matter. And increased the growth characteristics in terms of the number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight regardless of crops experiments. Optimum amount of the sewage sludge depended on chemical properties of soil used. This results demonstrated that application of sewage sludge in the soil attribute to have play an important both improving soil chemical properties and promoting the crop growth. As lowering the soil pH(pH 6) heavy metal content increased compared with higher pH(pH 7). Feasibility was recognized in the application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for the growth of chinese cabbage. Detrimental effects such as heavy metal in the soil and crop followed by the application of sewage sludge was not observed.

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The Sludge Collection Scheduling and Vehicle Routing Strategies (하수처리시설의 슬러지 수거 일정계획 수립 및 수거차량 경로결정)

  • Kim Min-Je;No Ui-Su;Heo Eun-Jeong;Choi Gyeong-Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Operations and Management Science Society Conference
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    • pp.1170-1177
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    • 2006
  • We apply VRP(Vehicle Routing Problem) to sludge collection system in this study. Sewage stores of villages are located in each village around a multipurpose dam. Sludge which is produced in sewage store of village is transported from the sewage store of village to the sewage treatment plants by the special purpose vehicle such as the tank lorry. In this paper, we propose sludge collection strategies which allocate each sewage store of village to sewage treatment plants and decide the schedule of sludge collection in order to collect sludge efficiently. The strategies aim to decrease transportation cost with deciding proposed vehicle routing and scheduling the sludge collection. When we decide route of vehicles, we consider the collection time in sewage store of village, distance between sewage store of villages and vehicle information as average velocity of vehicle, operation time of vehicle driver. We also develop the SCMS(Sludge Collection Management System) based on windows system with real data which is used in certain circumstance. And we experiment to figure out vehicle route and transportation cost throughout changing input data.

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