• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sensory-stimuli cues

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Comparison of Motor Skill Acquisition according to Types of Sensory-Stimuli Cue in Serial Reaction Time Task

  • Kwon, Yong Hyun;Lee, Myoung Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether types of sensory-stimuli cues in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory cues can be affected to motor sequential learning in healthy adults, using serial reaction time task. Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects participated in this study, who were randomly allocated into three groups, in terms of visual-stimuli (VS) group, auditory-stimuli (AS) group, and visuoauditory-stimuli (VAS) group. In SRT task, eight Arabic numbers were adopted as presentational stimulus, which were composed of three different types of presentational modules, in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory stimuli. On an experiment, all subjects performed total 3 sessions relevant to each stimulus module with a pause of 10 minutes for training and pre-/post-tests. At the pre- and post-tests, reaction time and accuracy were calculated. Results: In reaction time, significant differences were founded in terms of between-subjects, within-subjects, and interaction effect for group ${\times}$ repeated factor. In accuracy, no significant differences were observed in between-group and interaction effect for groups ${\times}$ repeated factor. However, a significant main effect of within-subjects was observed. In addition, a significant difference was showed in comparison of differences of changes between the pre- and post-test only in the reaction time among three groups. Conclusion: This study suggest that short-term sequential motor training on one day induced behavioral modification, such as speed and accuracy of motor response. In addition, we found that motor training using visual-stimuli cue showed better effect of motor skill acquisition, compared to auditory and visuoauditory-stimuli cues.

Implementation of the Perception Process in Human‐Vehicle Interactive Models(HVIMs) Considering the Effects of Auditory Peripheral Cues (청각 주변 자극의 효과를 고려한 효율적 차량-운전자 상호 연동 모델 구현 방법론)

  • Rah, Chong-Kwan;Park, Min-Yong
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2006
  • HVIMs consists of simulated driver models implemented with series of mathematical functions and computerized vehicle dynamic models. To effectively model the perception process, as a part of driver models, psychophysical nonlinearity should be considered not only for the single-modal stimulus but for the stimulus of multiple modalities and interactions among them. A series of human factors experiments were conducted using the primary sensory of visual and auditory modalities to find out the effects of auditory cues in visual velocity estimation tasks. The variations of auditory cues were found to enhance/reduce the perceived intensity of velocity as the level changed. These results indicate that the conventional psychophysical power functions could not applied for the perception process of the HVIMs with multi-modal stimuli. 'Ruled surfaces' in a 3-D coordinate system(with the intensities of both kinds of stimuli and the ratio of enhancement, respectively for each coordinate) were suggested to model the realistic perception process of multi-modal HVIMs.

Literature Review Nursing Intervention for Developmental Support on Preterm Infants (미숙아의 발달지지를 위한 간호중재에 관한 문헌연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Im;Sim, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.35-55
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    • 2001
  • Recently attention has been focused on the effects of early intervention, or its lack, on both normal and preterm infants. Particularly numerous studies suggest that premature infants are not necessarily understimulated but instead are subjected to inappropriate stimulation. Developmental support and sensory stimulation have become clinical opportunities in which nursing practice can impact on the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants. Developmental care has been widely accepted and implemented in neonatal intensive care units across the country. Increasingly, attention and concern in caring for low-birth-weight infants and premature infants has led clinicians in the field to explore the effects of a complex of interventions designed to create and maintain a developmentally supportive environment; to provide age-appropriate sensory input; and to protect the infant from inappropriate, excessive and stressful stimulation. The components of developmental care include modifications of the macro-environment to reduce NICU light and sound levels, care clustering, nonnutritive sucking, and containment strategies, such as flexed positioning or swaddling. Sensory stimulation of the premature infants is presented to standardize the modification of a developmental intervention based on physiologic and behavioral cues. The most appropriate type of stimuli are those that are sensitive to infant cues. Evaluation of infant physiological and behavioral responds to specific intervention stimuli may help to identify more appropriate interventions based on infants' cues. A critical question confronting the clinician is that of determining when the evidence supporting a change in practice is sufficient to justify making that change. There are acknowledged limitations in the current studies. Many of the studies examined had small sample sizes; used nonprobability sampling; and used a phase lag design, which introduces the possibility of threats to internal validity and limits the generalizability of the results. Although many issues regarding the effects of developmental interventions remain unresolved, the available research base documents significant benefits of developmental care for LBW infants in consistent outcomes, without significant adverse effects. Particularly, although the individual studies vary somewhat in the definition of specific outcomes measured, instrumentation used, time and method of data collection, and preparaion of the care providers, in all studies, infants receiving the full protocol of individualized developmentally supportive care had improvements in some aspect of four areas of infant functioning: level of respiratory or oxygen support, the establishment of oral feeding; length of hospital stay, and infant behavioral regulation. In summary, based on the available literature, individualized developmental intervention should be incorporated into standard practice in neonatal intensive care. And this implementation needs to be coupled with ongoing research to evaluate the impact of an individualized developmental care programs on the short- and long-tenn health outcomes of LBW infants.

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