• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sb deficiency

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Fabrication and Characterization of Cu3SbS4 Solar Cell with Cd-free Buffer

  • Han, Gyuho;Lee, Ji Won;Kim, JunHo
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.73 no.11
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    • pp.1794-1798
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    • 2018
  • We have grown famatinite $Cu_3SbS_4$ films by using sulfurization of Cu/Sb stack film. Sulfurization at $500^{\circ}C$ produced famatinite $Cu_3SbS_4$ phase, while $400^{\circ}C$ and $450^{\circ}C$ sulfurization exhibited unreacted and mixed phases. The fabricated $Cu_3SbS_4$ film showed S-deficiency, and secondary phase of $Cu_{12}Sb_4S_{13}$. The secondary phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and external quantum efficiency measurements. We have also fabricated solar cell in substrate type structure, ITO/ZnO/(Zn,Sn)O/$Cu_3SbS_4$/Mo/glass, where $Cu_3SbS_4$ was used as a absorber layer and (Zn,Sn)O was employed as a Cd-free buffer. Our best cell showed power conversion efficiency of 0.198%. Characterization results of $Cu_3SbS_4$ absorber indicates deep defect (due to S-deficiency) and low shunt resistance (due to $Cu_{12}Sb_4S_{13}$ phase). Thus in order to improve the cell efficiency, it is required to grow high quality $Cu_3SbS_4$ film with no S-deficiency and no secondary phase.

Thermoelectric Properties of Sb Deficiency N-Type Skutterudite Co4Sb12 (Sb가 결핍된 N형 Skutterudite Co4Sb12의 열전 특성)

  • Tak, Jang-Yeul;Van Du, Nguyen;Jeong, Min Seok;Lee, NaYoung;Nam, Woo Hyun;Seo, Won-Seon;Cho, Jung Young
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.496-500
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigate the effect of an Sb-deficiency on the thermoelectric properties of double-filled n-type skutterudite ($In_{0.05}Yb_{0.15}Co_4Sb_{12-x}$). Samples were prepared by encapsulated induction melting, consecutive long-time annealing, and finally spark plasma sintering processes. The Sb-deficient sample contained a $CoSb_2$ secondary phase. Both the double-filled n-type skutterudite pristine and Sb-deficient samples showed metallic behavior in electrical conductivity with increasing temperature. The carrier concentration of the Sb-deficient sample decreased compared with that of the pristine sample. Due to a decrease in carrier concentration, the Sb deficient sample showed decreased electrical conductivity and an increased Seebeck coefficient compared with the conductivity and coefficient of the pristine sample. Furthermore, the Sb deficient sample showed an increase in the power factor (${\sigma}{\cdot}S^2$); the power factor maximum shifted to athe lower temperature side than ones of the pristine sample. As a result, the Sb-deficient sample represents an improved average figure of merit (ZT) and a $ZT_{max}$ temperature lower than that of the pristine sample. Therefore, we propose that Sb-deficient double-filled n-type skutterudite thermoelectric material ($In_{0.05}Yb_{0.15}Co_4Sb_{12-x}$) be used in the 573~673 K temperature range.

Heavy Metal Analysis of Inhabitants from City of the Seoul, Korea (서울지역 거주 성인 모발의 유해 중금속 함량 분석)

  • Im, Eun-Jin;Ha, Byung-Jo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2009
  • Human hair is an excretory system for trace metals and thus metal content in human hair can reflect the body status. The investigation of trace elements in human hair has been correlated with the diagnosis of various diseases as well as the monitoring of deficiency statues in nutrition. Many chronic diseases may be related to mineral status, some may be related to toxic mineral. Hair samples were collected from 120 inhabitants of the city of Seoul, Korea. In this study the concentrations of 10 elements (Hg, Pb, Cd, Al, As, U, Bi, Sb, Ba, Be) in hair were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The conclusions showed that people in Seoul, Korea were affected by some kinds of toxic minerals. The Hg concentrations of male are higher than those of female and reference range. The mean concentration of Sb was higher in the female than male and reference range. In age distribution, the mean concentration of Hg was in 40's are higher than 20's and 30's and reference range. The concentrations of Al were the highest in the 20's. After analyzing, we concluded that a compounded treatment should be conducted, which considers the variety of factors related to detoxification.

EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF A DIRECT VESSEL INJECTION LINE BREAK OF THE APR1400 WITH THE ATLAS

  • Choi, Ki-Yong;Park, Hyun-Sik;Cho, Seok;Kang, Kyoung-Ho;Choi, Nan-Hyun;Kim, Dae-Hun;Park, Choon-Kyung;Kim, Yeon-Sik;Baek, Won-Pil
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.655-676
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    • 2009
  • The first-ever integral effect test for simulating a guillotine break of a DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) line of the APR1400 was carried out with the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) from the same prototypic pressure and temperature conditions as those of the APR1400. The major thermal hydraulic behaviors during a DVI line break accident were identified and investigated experimentally. A method for estimating the break flow based on a balance between the change in RCS inventory and the injection flow is proposed to overcome a direct break low measurement deficiency. A post-test calculation was performed with a best-estimate safety analysis code MARS 3.1 to examine its prediction capability and to identify any code deficiencies for the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accidents. On the whole, the prediction of the MARS code shows a good agreement with the measured data. However, the code predicted a higher core level than did the data just before a loop seal clearing occurs, leading to no increase in the peak cladding temperature. The code also produced a more rapid decrease in the downcomer water level than was predicted by the data. These observable disagreements are thought to be caused by uncertainties in predicting countercurrent flow or condensation phenomena in a downcomer region. The present integral effect test data will be used to support the present conservative safety analysis methodology and to develop a new best-estimate safety analysis methodology for DVI line break accidents of the APR1400.

Mode of Occurrences and Depositional Conditions of Arsenopyrite from the Yeonhwa 1 Mine, Korea (연화 제1광산에서의 유비철석의 산상과 배태 조건)

  • Lee, Young-Up;Chung, Jae-Il
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2003
  • The chemical composition of the arsenopyrite Ib adjoining“triple mutual contact”arsenopyrite + pyrite + hexagonal pyrrhotite may serve as a useful geothermometer in Stage II. In this study it corresponds to temperature T=33$0^{\circ}C$ and f( $S_2$)=10$^{-9.5}$ atm. And the pyrite-hexagonal pyrrhotite buffer curve indicates the probable range of the two variables; T= 315∼345$^{\circ}C$, and f( $S_2$)=10$^{-1}$0.5/∼10$^{-9}$ atm. The present antimony-bearing arsenopyrite (arsenopyrite Ic) is characterized by relatively high content of antimony, ranging from 4.95 to 8.91 percent Sb by weight and excess of iron and deficiency of anions are evident. Such a high antimonian arsenopyrite has never been known within single grain. But being the high content of antimony as in the arsenopyrite Ic, it does not serve as a geothermometer. The results of microprobe analyses for four pairs of asenopyrite and sphalerite in Stage III indicate the temperature range from 310 to 34$0^{\circ}C$, and sulphur fugacity range from 10$^{-10}$ ∼10$^{-9}$ atm. These values seem to correspond with those inferred from the Fe-As-S system.m..