• Title/Summary/Keyword: Salivary gland

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Analysis of PD-L1 expression in salivary duct carcinoma with its efficacy as a tumor marker (침샘관암에서 PD-L1의 발현율 분석과 종양 표지자로서의 효용성에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Yong Ju;Koh, Yoon Woo;Yoon, Sun Och;Ryu, Hyang Joo;Kim, Hye Ryun;Shin, Hyang Ae
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2019
  • Background/Objectives: Despite multiple approaches of treatments for salivary duct carcinoma, there has been a need for more successful treatment methods because of its poor prognosis. Treatment options like immunotherapy using new technologies have been attempted. Based on recent study results indicating that targeting programmed death receptors are effective in treating various cancers, this study aimed to identify the frequency of PD-L1 expression and its impact on survival rate in salivary duct carcinoma. Materials & Methods: We studied 33 patients with salivary gland cancer who were available for histologic specimens. We examined the expression of PD-L1 in the tissues and analyzed the association with the survival rate and the association with various clinical parameters. Results: According to this study and review of similar studies, we discovered that the expression of PD-L1 in salivary duct carcinoma was lower than other types of cancers. The impact of PD-L1 on survival rate also showed inconsistency in salivary duct carcinoma. Conclusion: Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade in salivary duct carcinoma needs further evaluation for clinical application.

Myxoma arising from the parotid gland

  • Kim, Seung Min;Kim, Cheol Keun;Kim, Soon Heum;Lee, Myung Chul;Kim, Jee Nam;Choi, Hyun Gon;Shin, Dong Hyeok;Jo, Dong In
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.186-190
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    • 2019
  • Myxomas can be divided into two groups: those derived from the facial skeleton, and those derived from external skeletal soft tissue. Soft tissue myxomas of the head and neck are uncommon, with fewer than 50 cases reported. In any form and location, myxoma of parotid gland is rare. We report a case of myxoma arising from the left superficial lobe of the parotid gland with good long-term follow-up after superficial parotidectomy with tumor excision. A 49-year-old man was referred to our department of plastic and reconstructive surgery with a painless palpable mass that had persisted in the left mandible angle region for 2 years. Excision of the facial mass and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. The biopsy result was myxoma. Long-term follow-up for 22 months showed favorable results without evidence of recurrence but with temporary facial nerve weakness right after the surgery. Myxoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when benign tumor of the parotid gland is being considered.

Modification of Late Radiation Response of Rat Salivary Glands by Pentoxifylline and Diltiazem (쥐의 타액선 방사선조사 후 만성반응에 Pentoxifylline과 Diltiazem이 미치는 영향)

  • Suh, Hyun-Suk;Yang, Kwang-Mo;Kang, Yun-Kyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.230-237
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To elucidate the effects of pentoxifylline and diltiazem on the late response of the salivary glands of the rat after irradiation. Materials and Methods : Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups : (a) irradiation alone (b) irradiation with pentixifylline (PTX) (c) irradiation with diltiazem (DTZ) (d) irradiation with both PTX and DTZ. Irradiation was given in a single fraction of 16 Gy using 4 MV photon energy through an anterior port encompassing the left side of the salivary gland leaving the right side of salivary gland as a control. PTX, 20 mg/kg and/or DTZ, 50 mg/kg were infused intraperitoneally before irradiation, Two rats from each group were sacrificed on the 10th week and the rest was sacrificed on the 16th week after irradiation. Histopathologic examinations were undertaken for each section and the proportion of vacuolated cells out of the total number of cells under light microscopic fields was calculated. The statistical significance in the difference of the proportion of the vacuolated cells among the experimental groups was evaluated by a $x^2$-test. Results : Irradiated salivary glands of the 10th week group revealed markedly increased number of vacuolated cells compared to those of unirradiated control. The proportion of vacuolated cells was significantly reduced in both the PTX group (p value=0.001) and the combined PTX and DTX group compared to those of irradiation alone group. The DTZ alone group did not reveal the significant reduction of vacuolated cells compared to those of irradiation alone group (p value, >0.05). The 16th week groups revealed similar findings to those of the 10th week group, but the degree of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and interstitial fibrosis was increased and the number of acinar cells was reduced compared to those of the 10th week group. Conclusions : PTX significantly reduced the late radiation response of salivary glands, but DTZ did not reduce the same degree as PTX did. Taking the positive results of this study into consideration, it seems reasonable to apply PTX into the clinical trial for the head and neck irradiation to reduce the late radiation sequelae of salivary glands in the near future. At the same time the further experiment to clarify the subcellar mechni는 involved in PTX should be preceded.

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Expression of Clusterin in the Salivary Gland under Restraint Stress (구속 스트레스에 의한 타액선 조직내의 Clusterin 발현)

  • Park, Hee-Kyung;Chun, Yang-Hyun;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Auh, Q-Schick
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2008
  • The belief that stress leads to illness has a long history. A number of the orofacial disease are also closely associated with stress. Despite research in the relationship of stress and the orofacial diseases leading to statistically significant correlations, the pathology remains vague. In the present study, the expression of clusterin, a stress protein responsible for antiapoptosis and cytoprotection, under restraint stress condition was observed in the submandibular gland, one of the major salivary glands. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal group and restraint stress group. The rats of restraint stress group were placed in the stress cages and then sacrificed at day 0, 3 and 5 day of the experiment. After that, the submandibular glands of all the rats were excised immediately. The levels of clusterin proteins and mRNA in the tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analyses, respectively. The results were as follows: 1. In the immunohistochemistry, clusterin protein was detected only immediately after the application of restraint stress. 2. In the restraint stress group, at day 3 and 5, histologically apoptosis was induced with karyorrhectic and pyknotic changes. 3. By the restraint stress, acinic cells were destructed earlier than ductal cells. 4. In the Northern blot, mRNA of clusterin was expressed only immediately after the application of restraint stress. The overall results suggest that as an early response to stress, clusterin is expressed in the glands to protect the glandular cells from the stress. But if stress is so strong and prolonged that it can exceed the stress adaptability of the cells, then the cells may undergo apoptosis instead of producing clusterin. An Epidemiologic Study of Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Korean College Students.

The Effects of Diltiazem and Pentoxifylline on Apoptosis of Irradiated Rat Salivary Gland (흰쥐 침샘의 방사선조사시 Apoptosis에 대한 Diltiazem과 Pentoxifylline의 효과)

  • Yang, Kwang-Mo;Suh, Hyun-Suk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Xerostomia is a complication met by almost all patients who have radiotherapy for cancers of head and neck. Many studies for prevention of xerostomia will be necessary. Radiation-induced acute response of salivary glands has been defined as interphase death or apoptosis. Increased intracellular calcium level have an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. Calcium channel blocker may prevent radiation-induced apoptosis of salivary glands. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of diltiazem known as calcium channel blocker and pentoxifylline with inhibition of inflammatory response on the apoptosis as an acute response of radiation in rat salivary glands. Materials and Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats with about body weight 200-250 g were divided into 5 study groups : control, radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation. The diltiazen and pentoxifylline were injected intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, 30 and 20 mimute before irradiation. respectively. Irradiation was given with a 4 MV linear accelerator. The 1600 cGy of radiation was delivered in a single fraction through a single anterior portal encompassing the entire neck. After 24 h of irradiation, rats were sacrificed and parotid and submandibular glands were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The quantification of apoptosis was performed by microscopic examination of stained tissue sections at a magnification of 200X and the percentage of apoptotic cell was calculated. Results : On parotid glands, the percentage of apoptosis by radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.72$\%$ (8.35/486), 0.64$\%$ (2.9/453), 0.23$\%$ (1.2/516), and 0.28$\%$ (1.1/399), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the groups receiving drugs compared with groups receivinge, radiation alone (p<0.05). In serous cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis of radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.94$\%$ (l1/567), 0.34$\%$ (1.9/554), 0.28$\%$ (1.8/637), and 0.22$\%$ (1.3/601), respectively. In the mucus cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis were 0.92$\%$ (5.1/552), 0.41$\%$ (2.5/612), 0.29$\%$ (1.3/455), and 0.18$\%$ (1.0/562), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the serous glands (p<0.05), but there was no difference in development of apoptosis in each group of mucus gland. Conclusion : These results suggest that radiation-induced apoptosis of serous cells of salivary glands may be decreased by diltiazem and pentoxifylline administration.

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THE STUDY OF EGF EXPRESSION BETWEEN HUMAN PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA AND ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA (다형성 선종과 선양낭성 암종에서 상피성장인자 발현에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Seung-Gu;Han, Se-Jin;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.245-249
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    • 2008
  • Epidermal growth factor is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of 53 amino acids and has a potent mitogenic activity that stimulates proliferation of various normal and neoplastic cells through the interaction with its specific receptor(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary benign tumor and histologically, it contains the epithelial cell, the myo-epithelial cell and mesenchymal ingredient, which is various aspect. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an infiltrative malignant salivary gland tumor with three different histological patterns: cribriform, tubular or solid. The tumor cell structure composed of modified myoepithelial cell, and basaloid cell. In this study, we used an immunohistochemical technique to investigate the expression of EGF in 6 specimens of adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 specimens of pleomorphic adenoma taken from patients treated at Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dankook University. The results were as follows. 1. In pleomorphic adenoma, ductal structure and scattered spindle cells in hyalinized stroma, disclosing myxoid stroma and hyalin, cartilage formation were observed. Immunohistologically, weak EGF expression in ductal structure and negative in stromal area were observed. 2. Cribriform type of adenoid cystic carcinoma showed numerous pseudocyst surrounded by dark small neoplastic cells in the back-ground of fibrous connective tissue and moderate EGF expression of dark cells adjacent to pseudo lumen in cribriform pattern, while weak expression in other most cells. 3. Tubular type of adenoid cystic carcinoma showed numerous ductal pattern surrounded by two layered neoplastic cells in the back-ground of fibrous connective tissue and strong EGF expression in luminal cells of ductal structure, while weak expression in outer cells. From the results obtained, we suggest that EGF is mainly biosynthesized in cells forming duct like structures of tubulo-ductal type or cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma and it may play a role, as a cell mitogen in adenoid cystic carcinoma growth.

Oral cancer incidence based on annual cancer statistics in Korea

  • Sun, Ju-Rim;Kim, Soung-Min;Seo, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Myung-Jin;Lee, Jong-Ho;Myoung, Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: The objective of this research was to determine the incidence of oral cancer in Korea. Materials and Methods: The classifications of oral and maxillofacial cancer (OMFC) that we used are based on possible locations of OMFC: lip, tongue, mouth, salivary glands, tonsil, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, pharynx unspecified, and nose, sinuses. Results: 1) There were 2,848 OMFC cases, accounting for 1.6% of all cancers. The male to female ratio was 2.72:1. 2) The estimated crude rates (CRs) were 5.7 overall, 8.4 for males, and 3.1 for females. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were 4.6 overall, 7.3 for males and 2.3 for females. 3) The incidence of mouth cancer was highest. The mouth and salivary glands were the most frequent sites for cancer among males and females, respectively. 4) Patients who were 40 years or older accounted for 91% of OMFC cases, with the highest proportion of cases in the 60-69 year-old age group for both sexes. 5) Tongue cancer was the most prevalent OMFC overall. Nasopharyngeal cancer was highest among males, and salivary gland cancer was highest among females. 6) From 2004 to 2008, the relative 5-year survival rate of OMFC patients was 57.5%. There was a trend of increasing survival among OMFC patients during the study period. The survival rate for females (69.3%) was much higher than that for males (53.1%). Conclusion: Social and personal efforts should be required to increase the survival rates of OMFC patients and Korean national cancer management policy should establish new measures for economic and social management and support.

A CLINICAL STUDY OF PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA IN SALIVARY GLANDS (타액선 다형성선종 환자의 임상적 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Ryoul;Park, Bong-Wook;Byun, June-Ho;Kim, Yong-Deok;Shin, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Uk-Kyu;Chung, In-Kyo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.170-177
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    • 2005
  • The pleomorphic adenoma is well recognized as the most common salivary neoplasm. We examined 49 patients who had received surgical excision of the pleomorphic adenoma from 1989 to 1998 with over 5 years follow-up period. We retrospectively evaluated the patients' age, sex, chief complaints, surgical methods, and recurrence or complication rates after analysis of one's clinical and surgical records. The results are as follows : 1. There were 15 cases in parotid gland, 23 cases in palate, 8 cases in submandibular gland, and 3 cases in cheek. The ratio of male to female was 1 : 1.13. The mean age was 44. The tumor of submandibular gland occurred in more younger age than that of other salivary gland. 2. In 15 patients of parotid pleomorphic adenoma, there was 1 case(6.7%, 1/15) of recurrence. That was transformed into the malignant pleomorphic adenoma after 4 years of first surgery. We performed superficial parotidectomy of 9 cases(56.2%, 9/16), total parotidectomy of 6 cases(37.5%, 6/16), and radical parotidectomy of 1 case(6.3%, 1/16). 3. We used the rotational Sternocleidomastoid muscular flap to cover the exposed facial nerve in 12 cases(75%) after parotidectomy(7 cases of superficial parotidectomy and 5 cases of total parotidectomy). We could see 3 cases(18.7%) of facial nerve palsy and 1 case(6.3%) of Frey's syndrome after parotidectomy. We examined Frey's syndrome in only 1 case which was not used SCM muscular flap after parotidectomy. 4. In 23 patients of palatal pleomorphic adenoma, there were 2 cases(8.7%) of recurrence. In recurrence cases, We performed re-excision after 4 and 5 years of first surgery, respectively. We preserved partial thin overlying palatal mucosa during tumor excision in 5 cases(20%), which were proved as benign mixed tumor in preoperative biopsy. That mucosa-preserved cases had thick palatal mucosa, did not show mucosa ulceration and revealed well encapsulated lesions in preoperative CT. 5. In palatal tumors, we could see the 13 cases(52%) of bony invasion in preoperative CT views and the 4 cases(16%) of oro-nasal fistula after tumor excision. In two cases of recurrence, one(20%, 1/5) was in palatal mucosa-preserved group and the other(5.5%, 1/18) was in palatal mucosa-excised group. 6. We excised tumors with submandibular glands in the all cases of submandibular pleomorphic adenoma. There was no specific complication or recurrence in these cases. 7. After excision of the cheek pleomorphic adenomas, we could not see any complication or recurrence.

The effect of conservative neck dissection in the patients with oral cancer (구강암 환자에서 보존적 경부청소술의 효과)

  • Kim, Bang-Sin;Hur, Daniel;Kim, Kyung-Rak;Yang, Ji-Woong;Jeoung, Youn-Wook;Kook, Min-Suk;Oh, Hee-Kyun;Ryu, Sun-Youl;Park, Hong-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2010
  • Introduction: This study examined the effect of a conservative neck dissection in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients, who underwent a conservative neck dissection for the treatment of oral cancer from January 2002 to December 2007, were included. All procedures were performed by one oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The mean age was 58.2 years (range, 19 to 79 years). The medical recordings, pathologic findings, and radiographic findings were evaluated. The mean follow up period was 41.1 months (range, 4 to 88 months). Results: 1. Oral cancer was more common in men than women with a 3:1 ratio. 2. Histopathologically, squamous cell carcinoma(83%) was the most prevalent oral cancer in this study. 3. The most common primary site was the tongue(6 cases, 25%) followed by the mouth floor (5 cases, 21%), buccal mucosa (3 cases, 13%), lower lip, mandible, palate (2 cases, respectively) and salivary gland, retromolar area, oropharynx, alveolus (1 case, each). 4. Three out of the 24 (13%) subjects had a recurrence at the primary sites. 5. Two out of 24 (8%) subjects had a distant metastasis. 6. All 24 patients survived and there were eleven patients who passed 5 years postoperatively. Conclusion: A conservative neck dissection is a reliable and effective method for controlling neck node metastases in patients with oral cancer of the N0 or N1 neck node without serious complications.

An Microscopic Study of the Irradiation Effect on the Submandibular Glands of the White Rat (방사선조사가 흰쥐의 악하선에 미치는 영향에 관한 현미경적 연구)

  • Kim, Myeong-Soo;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Kim, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2003
  • This study was undertaken to observe the histopathologic changes in submandibular glands of the white rats when exposed to megavoltage fractionated dose of CLINAC 2100 C-D 6 MV X-RAY irradiation and 42 female white rats, weighing approximately 100gm, were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. At sacrifice, submandibular glands were excised and examined microscopically and electromicroscopically. The results were as follows : 1. The acinar cells of submandibular gland showed damage varied with dose, 12 Gy resulted in very mild injury while 24 Gy caused extensive injury. 2. The acinar cells of sumandibular gland showed similar ultrastructual alterations, appeared as pleomorphic nucleus, decreased numbers and pleomorpgism of secretory granules, distention of rough endoplasmic reticulum, expansion and pallor appearance of mitochondria, and hypertrophy of Golgi complex. 3. A serous cells were the most sensitive components, displaying morphological alterations of radiation damage as early as 3 hours, followed by submandibular seromucinous cells and secretory tubular cells. 4. The mucous cells, as well as the whole ductal lining cells, displayed no significant alterations. 5. No evidence of microvascular injury through whole experimental groups indicated that microvascular impairment dose not contribute to early. salivary gland injury.

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