• Title/Summary/Keyword: STORM

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RELATIONSHIPS OF THE SOLAR WIND PARAMETERS WITH THE MAGNETIC STORM MAGNITUDE AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK

  • OH SU YEON;YI YU
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2004
  • It is investigated quantitative relations between the magnetic storm magnitude and the solar wind parameters such as the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (hereinafter, IMF) magnitude (B), the southward component of IMF (Bz), and the dynamic pressure during the main phase of the magnetic storm with focus on the role of the interplanetary shock (hereinafter, IPS) in order to build the space weather fore-casting model in the future capable to predict the occurrence of the magnetic storm and its magnitude quantitatively. Total 113 moderate and intense magnetic storms and 189 forward IPSs are selected for four years from 1998 to 2001. The results agree with the general consensus that solar wind parameter, especially, Bz component in the shocked gas region plays the most important role in generating storms (Tsurutani and Gonzales, 1997). However, we found that the correlations between the solar wind parameters and the magnetic storm magnitude are higher in case the storm happens after the IPS passing than in case the storm occurs without any IPS influence. The correlation coefficients of B and $BZ_(min)$ are specially over 0.8 while the magnetic storms are driven by IPSs. Even though recently a Dst prediction model based on the real time solar wind data (Temerin and Li, 2002) is made, our correlation test results would be supplementary in estimating the prediction error of such kind of model and in improving the model by using the different fitting parameters in cases associated with IPS or not associated with IPS rather than single fitting parameter in the current model.

Urban Runoff and Water Quality Models (도시유역에서의 유출 및 수질해석 모형)

  • Lee, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.709-725
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    • 1998
  • The characteristics of storm and water quality are investigated based on the measuring data of the test river, the Hongje. the water quality of the test river is generally good comparing to other urban rivers in Seoul, because of the interception of sewer flow. But this system makes the river dry up for 3-4 months in winter. On the other hand, in rainy period the storm from the combined sewer system causes rapid increasing pollutants loads. In order to simulate the urban storm and water quality of the trest basin, the models such as SWMM, ILLUDAS, STORM, HEC-1 were applied and the results are compared in its applicability and accuracy aspects. All models discussed here have shown good results and it seems that SUMM is the most effective model in simulating both quantity and quality. Also, regression relations between the water quantity and quality were derived and their applicabilities were discussed. This regression model is a simple effective tool for estimating the pollutant loads in the rainy period, but if the amount of discharge is bigger than measuring range of raw data, the accuracy becomes poor. This model could be supplemented by expanding the range of collecting data and introducing the river characteristics. The HEC-1 would be anther effective model to simulate storm runoff of a river basin including urban area.

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Characteristics of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Export from Paddy Fields during Storm and Non-storm Period and Evaluation of Unit Load (강우시와 비강우시 BOD 유출 특성 조사 및 원단위 평가)

  • Choi, Dongho;Cho, Sohyun;Hwang, Taehee;Kim, Youngsuk;Jung, Jaewoon;Choi, Woojung;Park, Hyunkyu;Yoon, Kwangsik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.531-537
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    • 2017
  • The biologic Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a reliable and generally accepted indicator of water pollution by organic pollutants. Accordingly, estimation of BOD export from paddies carries important implications fwith regard to water management in rural areas. In this study, hydrology and BOD concentration were monitored during the period 2008 through 2012, in an effort to understand the characteristics of BOD export from paddy fields. The findings demonstrated that BOD load by rainfall above 50 mm. occupied about 50 % of total load, whereas the load by less than ten mm. rainfall occupied about 29 % of the total load during periods of stormy activity. It therefore seems that it could be possible to reduce the BOD load up to 29 % during storm periods, when drainage control conducted for rainfall less than ten mm.(an amount which is relatively easy to manage). The documented mean loads of storm and non-storm were $17.1kg\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ and $11.2kg\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, respectively. The BOD load during the significant rainfall period was similar to the renewed unit load by NIER (2014). However, there were substantial differences between unit load and actual load when the non-storm load was incorporated into the BOD load estimation from paddy fields. In view of the foregoing, it is felt that, the non-storm load needs to be further considered and managed for the successful implementation of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program.

Assessing Unit Hydrograph Parameters and Peak Runoff Responses from Storm Rainfall Events: A Case Study in Hancheon Basin of Jeju Island

  • Kar, Kanak Kanti;Yang, Sung-Kee;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.437-447
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    • 2015
  • Estimation of runoff peak is needed to assess water availability, in order to support the multifaceted water uses and functions, hence to underscore the modalities for efficient water utilization. The magnitude of storm rainfall acts as a primary input for basin level runoff computation. The rainfall-runoff linkage plays a pivotal role in water resource system management and feasibility level planning for resource distribution. Considering this importance, a case study has been carried out in the Hancheon basin of Jeju Island where distinctive hydrological characteristics are investigated for continuous storm rainfall and high permeable geological features. The study aims to estimate unit hydrograph parameters, peak runoff and peak time of storm rainfalls based on Clark unit hydrograph method. For analyzing observed runoff, five storm rainfall events were selected randomly from recent years' rainfall and HEC-hydrologic modeling system (HMS) model was used for rainfall-runoff data processing. The simulation results showed that the peak runoff varies from 164 to 548 m3/sec and peak time (onset) varies from 8 to 27 hours. A comprehensive relationship between Clark unit hydrograph parameters (time of concentration and storage coefficient) has also been derived in this study. The optimized values of the two parameters were verified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and runoff comparison performance were analyzed by root mean square error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) estimation. After statistical analysis of the Clark parameters significance level was found in 5% and runoff performances were found as 3.97 RMSE and 0.99 NSE, respectively. The calibration and validation results indicated strong coherence of unit hydrograph model responses to the actual situation of historical storm runoff events.

The application of reliability analysis for the design of storm sewer (우수관의 설계를 위한 신뢰성해석기법의 적용)

  • Kwon, Hyuk Jaea;Lee, Kyung Je
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.51 no.10
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    • pp.887-893
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the optimum design technology is suggested by using reliability analysis method. Nowadays, urban flood inundation is easily occurred because of local heavy rain. Traditional deterministic design method for storm sewer may underestimate the size of pipe. Therefore, stochastic method for the storm sewer design is necessary to solve this problem. In the present study, reliability model using FORM (First Order Reliability Method) was developed for the storm sewer. Developed model was applied to the real storm sewers of 5 different areas. Probability of exceeding capacity has been calculated and construction costs according to diameter have been compared. Probability of exceeding capacity of storm sewers of 5 areas have been calculated after estimating the return period of rainfall intensity.

Comparative Analysis of the Storm Sewer Expansion Methodology and Underground Rainwater Storage Tanks for Urban Flood Control (기존 도시의 홍수저감을 위한 우수관거 배수용량 증대 및 지하 빗물저류조 설치효과 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Ho Yeol;Seo, Gyu Tae;Lee, Taek Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.754-761
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    • 2013
  • Urban floods are usually caused by the lack of drainage capacity. Hence, sewer capacity expansion methodology by replacing small pipes with bigger ones is primarily applied as a flood control measure. However, this approach is often unreasonable because of the costs and time involved. Thus, the installation of underground rainwater storage tanks with the two advantages of flood control and water conservation is proposed. This study compared the effectiveness of flood control by both the sewer expansion methodology and rainwater storage tanks using the Storm Water Management Model. Three cases were simulated in this study. The first case analyzed flood reduction by the storm sewer expansion methodology. The simulation results indicate that the overflow volume from manholes was reduced by 49% with this methodology. The second case analyzed flood reduction by installation of rainwater storage tanks. The simulation results indicate that the overflow volume was reduced by 62%. However, these two cases could not prevent urban floods completely. Hence, the third case analyzed the joint application of the storm sewer expansion methodology and rainwater storage tanks. In this simulation, flooding did not occur. Consequently, the results of this study clearly show that underground rainwater storage tanks are more effective for flood control than capacity expansion of storm sewer. Furthermore, the joint application of these two flood control measures is more effective than their separate application.

Potential Impacts of Future Extreme Storm Events on Streamflow and Sediment in Soyang-dam Watershed (기후변화에 따른 미래 극한호우사상이 소양강댐 유역의 유량 및 유사량에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Jeong Ho;Lee, Dong Jun;Kang, Boosik;Chung, Se Woong;Jang, Won Seok;Lim, Kyoung Jae;Kim, Jonggun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.160-169
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study are to analyze changes in future rainfall patterns in the Soyang-dam watershed according to the RCP 4.5 scenario of climate change. Second objective is to project peak flow and hourly sediment simulated for the future extreme rainfall events using the SWAT model. For these, accuracy of SWAT hourly simulation for the large scale watershed was evaluated in advance. The results of model calibration showed that simulated peak flow matched observation well with acceptable average relative error. The results of future rainfall pattern changes analysis indicated that extreme storm events will become more severe and frequent as climate change progresses. Especially, possibility of occurrence of large scale extreme storm events will be greater on the periods of 2030-2040 and 2050-2060. In addition, as shown in the SWAT hourly simulation for the future extreme storm events, more severe flood and turbid water can happen in the future compared with the most devastating storm event which occurred by the typhoon Ewiniar in 2006 year. Thus, countermeasures against future extreme storm event and turbid water are needed to cope with climate change.

Development of Storm Sewer Numerical Model for Simulation of Coastal Urban Inundation due to Storm Surge and Rainfall (폭풍해일과 강우에 의한 해안 도시 범람 수치모의를 위한 우수관망 수치모형의 개발)

  • Yoon, Sung Bum;Lee, Jaehwang;Kim, Gun Hyeong;Song, Ji Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 2014
  • Since most of the researches on the coastal inundation due to typhoons have considered only storm surges, an additional inundation due to rainfall has been neglected. In general, typhoons are natural disasters being accompanied by the rainfall. Thus, it is essential to consider the effect of rainfall in the numerical simulation of coastal inundation due to storm surges. Because the rainwater is discharged to the sea through the storm sewer system, it should be included in the numerical simulation of storm surges to obtain reasonable results. In this study an algorithm that can deal with the effects of rainfall and sewer system is developed and combined with a conventional storm surge numerical model. To test the present numerical model various numerical simulations are conducted using the simplified topography for the cases including the inundation due to rainfall, the drainage of rainwater, the backflow of sea water, and the increase of sea water level due to drainage of rainwater. As a result, it is confirmed that the basic performance of the present model is satisfactory for various flow situations.

Safety Analysis of Storm Sewer Using Probability of Failure and Multiple Failure Mode (파괴확률과 다중파괴유형을 이용한 우수관의 안전성 분석)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Jae;Lee, Cheol-Eung
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.967-976
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    • 2010
  • AFDA (Approximate Full Distribution Approach) model of FORM (First-Order Reliability Model) which can quantitatively calculate the probability that storm sewer reach to performance limit state was developed in this study. It was defined as a failure if amount of inflow exceed the capacity of storm sewer. Manning's equation and rational equation were used to determine the capacity and inflow of reliability function. Furthermore, statistical characteristics and distribution for the random variables were analyzed as a reliability analysis. It was found that the statistical distribution for annual maximum rainfall intensity of 10 cities in Korea is matched well with Gumbel distribution. Reliability model developed in this study was applied to Y shaped storm sewer system to calculate the probability that storm sewer may exceed the performance limit state. Probability of failure according to diameter was calculated using Manning's equation. Especially, probability of failure of storm sewer in Mungyeong and Daejeon was calculated using rainfall intensity of 50-year return period. It was found that probability of failure can be significantly increased if diameter is decreased below the original diameter. Therefore, cleaning the debris in sewer pipes to maintain the original pipe diameter should be one of the best ways to reduce the probability of failure of storm sewer. In sewer system, two sewer pipes can flow into one sewer pipe. For this case, probability of system failure was calculated using multiple failure mode. Reliability model developed in this study can be applied to design, maintenance, management, and control of storm sewer system.

Effects of the rainfall-rewetted paddy on the quality of the milledrice (벼의 재흡습이 도정미의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 정창주;김용운;강화석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.76-86
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    • 1979
  • This study was conducted to find out the effects of rainfall occurring during the paddy sun-during process of traditional paddy harvesting operations on the quality of milld rice. Rice varieties used for the experiment were MINEHIJARI variety a japonica and SUWEON 264 vareity , a sister-line of TONG-IL . Sun-drying days after the paddy cutting, times of storm occurrance during sun-drying period, and storm duration were treated as variables. The results is summarised as follows : 1. Brown rice recovery exposed to rainfall during the sun-druing period were ranged 81.6-82.1% and 79.4-80.2% for MINEHIKARI and SUWEON 264 varieties, respectively. which showed negligible effect by rainfall. 2. Milling recovery of MINEHIKARI variety was not affected by storm duration but by the by the sun-drying days after cutting as the sun-drying days increased to eight and four days when the variety met the rainfall one and two times, respectively. The range of milling recoveries of MINEHIKARI variety were 75.18-74.07% and 75.24-73.46% as the variety met the rainfall one and two times, respectively, and it were estimated that up to 0.9% and 1.5% of milling recovery would be reduced by one and two times of rainfall during sun-drying period. 3. The milling recovery of SUWEON 264 variety was affected only by the increase of drying days after cutting when it met one time of rainfall during the sun-drying period, while it was begun to reduce by the storm duration more than 11hours as the drying paddy met two times of rainfall. The milling reveries of the paddy met one and two times of rainfall were ranged 74.24-73.21% and 74.02-72.36% which were estimated to be reduced up to 0.9 % and 1.8% by the increase of the drying days after cutting and storm duration , respectively. 4. The head rice recovery of MINEHIKARI rice variety showed notable decrease as the drying days after cutting increased, and also it was greatly reduced even by the five hours of storm duration when one time of rainfall occurred but it was not affected by storm duration when the rainfall occurred two times. Head rice recoveries of MINEHIKARI met one and two times of rainfall during the sun-drying period were 65. 15 -40.85% and 61.86 - 30.03 %, which showed terrible reduction as much as up to 25% and 35% compared to that which did not met rainfall during the sun-drying process. 5. Head rice recovery or SUWEON 264 variety was very much reduced as the sum-drying days after cutting increased. Storm duration less than five hours during the sun-drying process did not affect on the decrease of head rice recovery when the variety was exposed to one time of rainfall, while storm duration affected considerably on the reduction of head rice recovery of SUWEON 264 variety exposed to two times of rainfall. The range of head rice recovery, 56.43 - 33.94% and 51.28 - 21.03% , for the paddy exposed to rainfall one and two times were evaluated that up to 24% and 37% of reduction in head rice recovery would be brought about compared to the head rice recovery of the sundriedpaddy that did not met the rainfall.

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