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Local Environments of Li in the Interlayer of Clay Minerals at Room and High Temperatures (상온 및 고온에서 점토광물 층간의 Li 환경)

  • Kim, Yeong-Kyoo;Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2007
  • We used $^6Li$ and $^7Li$ MAS NMR to investigate the fate and local environments of Li in the interlayer of clay minerals such as hectorite, Woming-montmorillonite, beidellite, and lepidollite at room and high ($250^{\circ}C$) temperature. Although $^6Li$ NMR spectra show narrower peaks than those of $^7Li$ NMR, S/N ratio is low and there are no obvious differences in chemical shifts suggesting that it is difficult to apply $^6Li$ NMR to have information on the local environments of Li in the clay interlayers. $^7Li$ NMR spectra, however, show changes in the peak width and quadrupole patterns providing information on the local environments of Li in the interlayer even though changes in the chemical shift are not observed. In montmorillonite, two different local environments of Li are observed; one has a narrow peak with typical quadrupole patterns whereas another has a broad peak without those of the patterns. Changes in the peak width is also observed from broad to narrow in the $^7Li$ NMR spectra for beidellite but not for hectorite at high temperature. Our results suggest that the peak width change in the broad peak is attributed to the coordination changes in the water molecules around Li which is tightly bonded on the basal oxygen of Si tetrahedra as inner-sphere complexes. The narrow peak in montmorillnoite can be assigned to the Li bended as outer-sphere complexes.

Estimation of the Moisture Maximizing Rate based on the Moisture Inflow Direction : A Case Study of Typhoon Rusa in Gangneung Region (수분유입방향을 고려한 강릉지역 태풍 루사의 수분최대화비 산정)

  • Kim, Moon-Hyun;Jung, Il-Won;Im, Eun-Soon;Kwon, Won-Tae
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.697-707
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we estimated the PMP(Probable Maximum Precipitation) and its transition in case of the typhoon Rusa which happened the biggest damage of all typhoons in the Korea. Specially, we analysed the moisture maximizing rate under the consideration of meteorological condition based on the orographic property when it hits in Gangneung region. The PMP is calculated by the rate of the maximum persisting 12 hours 1000 hPa dew points and representative persisting 12 hours 1000 hPa dew point. The former is influenced by the moisture inflow regions. These regions are determined by the surface wind direction, 850 hPa moisture flux and streamline, which are the critically different aspects compared to that of previous study. The latter is calculated using statistics program (FARD2002) provided by NIDP(National Institute for Disaster Prevention). In this program, the dew point is calculated by reappearance period 50-year frequency analysis from 5% of the level of significant when probability distribution type is applied extreme type I (Gumbel distribution) and parameter estimation method is used the Moment method. So this study indicated for small basin$(3.76km^2)$ the difference the PMP through new method and through existing result of established storm transposition and DAD(Depth-Area-Duration). Consequently, the moisture maximizing rate is calculated in the moisture inflow regions determined by meteorological fields is higher $0.20{\sim}0.40$ range than that of previous study. And the precipitation is increased $16{\sim}31%$ when this rate is applied for calculation.

Morphologic Response of Gravel Beach to Typhoon Invasion - A Case Study of Gamji Beach Taejongdae in Busan (태풍 내습 시 자갈 해빈의 지형반응 - 부산 태종대 감지 해빈의 사례)

  • Lee, Young Yun;Chang, Tae Soo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2020
  • To understand the impact of typhoons on Gamji gravel beach Taejongdae in Busan, we carried out beach profiling using a VRS-GPS system and a Drone photogrammetry for the typhoons 'Kong-rey' invaded in October 2018 and 'Danas' in July 2019. In addition, grain sizes are analyzed to investigate the overall distribution pattern of gravels on the beach, and the beach topography is surveyed periodically to confirm the recovery rate of the beach. Grain-size analysis reveals that mean gravel sizes, in general, become finer from -6.2Φ to -5.4Φ towards the east in the seashore line direction. Variation in mean sizes is obviously observed in the cross-shore direction. Gravels in the swash zone are relatively fine about -4.5Φ in size and equant in shape, whereas the coarse and oblate gravels ranged from -5Φ to -6Φ are found in the berm. Gamji gravel beach particularly has two lines of berms: a lower berm situated facing beach and an upper berm about 10 m landward. After the typhoon Kong-rey passed by, about 1.4 m of severe erosion in upper berm occurred, and the berm eventually disappeared. On the backshore of the upper berm about 50 cm of erosion took place so that the elevation became lower. However, tangible erosion was not observed in the lower berm. When typhoon Danas hit, rated as mild storm, both upper and lower berm were eroded out. However, about 50 cm of deposition occurred only in the backshore. Only three days later, the new lower berm was formed, meaning that sedimentation rate must be high. This result indicates that Gamji gravel beach is recovered very fast from erosion caused by the typhoons when it is under the fair-weather condition even though beach morphology changes dramatically in a short period of time. Gravel beach is estimated to be or evaluated very resilient to typhoon erosion.

Comparative Sedimentology for the Lacustrine Deposits of the Upper Gyeongsang Supergroup in the Southeastern Gyeongsang Basin, Korea (경상분지 동남부의 상부 경상누층군에 발달한 호성퇴적층에 대한 비교퇴적학적 연구)

  • Paik, In-Sung;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Joon-Dong;Kim, In-Soo;Kim, Jin-Seop;Moon, Byoung-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.423-436
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    • 2000
  • The lithofacies, biofacies, and paleosol development of the Jindong Formation, the Geoncheonri Formation, and the lacustrine deposits of Mt. Hwangryeong at Pusan, which occur in the southeastern part of the Gyeongsang Basin, were analyzed in comparative sedimentology and in stratigraphy. The common features of these lacustrine deposits are: 1) clastic deposits are prevailing, 2) deltaic deposits are not associated, 3) mudflat deposits are common, and 4) stromatolites are absent. The distinct differences among these deposits are: 1) in the Jindong Formation, the mudflat deposits are predominant, pedogenic calcretes are commonly present, and dinosaur tracks frequently occur, compared with other two lacustrine deposits, and 2) in the Geoncheonri Formation, invertebrate fossils are relatively common and storm deposits are not recognized, compared with other deposits, and 3) evaporite mineral casts and tuffaceous turbidite deposits are common in the Mt. Hwangryeong lacustrine deposits. In stratigraphy, the Geoncheonri Formation is correlated with the lower part of the Jindong Formation, and the Mt. Hwangryeong lacutsrine deposits are deemed to overlie the Jindong Formation. On the basis of comparative sedimentology and stratigraphic relationship among these lacustrine deposits, general paleoenvironements of the southeastern part of the Gyeongsang Basin from the late Hayang time to the early Yucheon time are interpreted as follows. During the late Hayang time, tectonic and volcanic activities were generally inacitive in the Gyeongsang Basin, and lacustrine environments expanded since the paleoclimatic condition became less arid compared with the middle Hayang time. In general, however, paleoclimate during the late Hayang time was still arid, and wetting and drying periods were alternated. The occasional occurrences of severe droughts were also characteristic of the late Hayang time. Mudflats existed in wide area in the southeastern part of the Gyeongsang Basin during the late Hayang time, and sedimentation rate was accordingly low. The sedimentation rate became relatively high during the latest Hayang time and the early Yucheon time since tectonic and volcanic activities had been active. Generally arid climate continued for the early Yucheon time, enough for evaporite minerals to precipate occasionally.

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A Study on a Quantitative Method in Estimating Forest Effects for Streamflow Regulation (II) - Mainly Dealing with Application of Coefficient for Slope Roughness - (삼림이수기능(森林理水機能)의 정량적(定量的) 평가방법(平價方法)에 관한 연구(硏究)(II) - 조도계수(粗度係數)의 응용(應用)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Lee, Heon Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.81 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 1992
  • In this research, a kinematic wave model was applied for the runoff analysis, Regulation of streamflow was estimated by the calibration of roughness coefficient as a parameter. The data analyzed were obtained from Ananomiya and Shirasaka experimental basins at Tokyo University Forest in Aichi. Estimation methods and characteristics of roughness coefficient as a evaluation method of hydrological function of forest are summarized as follows ; 1. Roughness coefficient($N_s$) indicates the resistance of hillslope to the flowing water of surface runoff. There exists an hypothesis that resistance of hillslope to flowing water increase with the growth forest and development of the $A_o$ layer. 2. Roughness coefficient($N_s$) was estimated by the parameter when the stream direct runoff was calculated by using the kinematic wave. 3. Secular change of '$N_s$' in ananomiya has a curve which has an upper limit and increases exponentially near the limit. The curve quickly increased from 1935 to 1945 when results of afforestation for erosion control were thought to be effective. On the other hand, slight increase of '$N_s$' in Shirasaka indicates that there was not such a big change in the surface of soil layer. 4. The increase of '$N_s$' was related with decrease of direct runoff and increase of base flow. It was recognized that the rate of direct runoff decreased with the improvement of forest physiognomy and the rate of base flow was increased. But absolute value of water runoff per one storm decreased in chronological order.

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A New High Qualilty Rice Variety with Lodging Resistance and Multiple Resistance to Diseases, "Donghaejinmi" (중만생 고품질 내도복 복합내병성 벼 신품종 "동해진미(東海珍味)")

  • Yeo, Un-Sang;Kim, Jeong-Il;Lee, Jeom-Sig;Park, No-Bong;Chang, Jae-Ki;Oh, Byeong-Geun;Kang, Jung-Hun;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Cho, Jun-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Hee;Kwon, Oh-Deog;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Nam, Min-Hee;Kim, Sang-Yeol;Ku, Yeon-Chung;Kim, Jae-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.288-291
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    • 2009
  • A new commercial rice variety "Donghaejinmi" is a japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) with lodging resistance and high grain quality. It has been developed by the rice breeding team of Yeongdeog Substation, National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA. This variety was derived from a cross between "Milyang 64" as a resistance source of brown planthopper (Bph) and "Milyang 165" as grain quality source. The donor parent, "Milyang64" has been backcrossed three times with recurrent parent, "Milyang165" and selected by the pedigree breeding method. The pedigree of "Donghaejinmi", designated as "Yeongdeog 41" in 2003, was YR21259-B-B-68-1. It has a short culm length with 69 cm and medium-late growth time. This variety is resistant to stripe virus and moderately resistant to leaf blast disease with durable resistance. It also has tolerance to unfavorable environment such as cold, dried wind and storm. Milled rice kernel of "Donghaejinmi" is translucent, clear in chalkness and good at eating quality in panel test. The merit of this variety is high head rice ratio, which is essential element to produce an article of superior quality rice brand. The yield potential of "Donhaejinmi" in milled rice is about 6.05 MT/ha at ordinary fertilizer level of local adaptability test. This cultivar would be adaptable to Yeongnam inland plains and eastern costal area of Yeongnam province.

Influences of Environmental Factors on Soil Erosion of the Logging Road in Timber Harvested Area (성숙임목벌채지(成熟林木伐採地)에서 운재로(運材路)의 침식(浸蝕)에 미치는 환경요인(環境要因)의 영향(影響))

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon;Woo, Bo-Myeong;Jeong, Do-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.2
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 1995
  • This research aimed at the contribution to obtaining the scientifical data which were required for planning she environmentally sound and sustainable management, particularly in the field of the logging road construction. Main natural environmental variables including natural vegetation, rainfall, soil runoff were measured in the logging road on-sites and analysed. This project was carried out at the (mt.)Paekunsan Research sorest of Seoul National University, located in Gwangyang, Chollanam-do in southern part of Korea, from 1993 to 1994. 1. The explanatory variables for erosion and sedimentation on logging road surface were accumulated rainfall, erosion distance, cross-sectional gradient, and soil hardness. The erosion and sedimentation on logging road was increasing positively in proportion to the accumulated rainfall, soil distance from starting point of the logging road, and cross-sectional gradient. 2. On cut-slope of logging road, cut-slope shape, part of the slope, plant coverage, soil hardness, sand content, accumulated rainfall, clay content, and silt content were effective factors. Cut-slope erosion and sedimentation on logging roam increased as with the lower plant coverage, the lower accumulated rainfall, the high sand content in the soil. 3. On fill-slope of logging road, there were three significant variables such as total rainfall and number of rainfall-storm. Fill-slope erosion and sedimentation had a positive correlation with the amount of rainfall, the number of rainfall, the soil hardness. 4. The total erosion and sedimentation on logging road were $5.04{\times}10^{-2}m^2/m^2$ in logging road construction year, $7.37{\times}10^{-2}m^2/m^2$ in next year. The erosion and sedimentation on logging road surface were 32.7% of total erosion and sedimentation on Logging road in construction year, and 57.1% in next year, respectively. The erosion and sedimentation on cut-slopes were 30.4% on logging road in construction year, fill-slopes of total erosion and sedimentation and 21.0% in next year, respectively. The erosion and sedimentation on fill-slopes were 36.9% on logging road in construction year, 21.9 in next year. To decrease the erosion and sedimentation at the logging road from the beginning stage of construction, the effective revegetation works should be implemented on the cut-slope and fill slopes, and erosion control measures such as optima. road design must be constructed on read surface.

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Sedimentary Characteristics and Evolution History of Chenier, Gomso-Bay tidal Flat, Western Coast of Korea (황해 곰소만 조간대에 발달한 Chenier의 퇴적학적 특성과 진화)

  • 장진호;전승수
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.212-228
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    • 1993
  • A chenier, about 860 m long, 30 to 60 m wide and 0.6∼1.6 m high, occurs on the upper muddy tidal flat in the Gomso bay, western coast of Korea, It consists of medium to fine sands and shells with small amounts of subangular gravels. Vertical sections across the chenier show gently landward dipping stratifications which include small-scale cross-bedded sets. the most probable source of the chenier is considered to be the intertidal sandy sediments. Vibracores taken along a line transversing the tidal flat reveal that the intertidal sand deposits are more than 5 m thick near the low-water line and become thinner toward the chenier. The most sand deposits are undertrain by tidal muds which occur behind the chenier as salt marsh deposits. C-14 age dating suggests that the sand deposits and the chenier are younger than about 1,800 years B.P. The chenier has originated from the intertidal sand shoals at the lower to mid sand flat, and has continuously moved landward. A series of aerial photographs (1967∼1989) reveal that intertidal sand shoals (predecessor of the western part of chenier) on the mid flat have continuously moved landward during the past two decades and ultimately attached to the eastern part of the chenier already anchored at the present position in the late 1960s. Repeated measurements (four times between 1991 and 1992) of morphological changes of the chenier indicate that the eastern two thirds of the chenier, mostly above the mean high water, has rarely moved whereas the western remainder below the mean high water, has moved continuously at a rate of 0.5 m/mo during the last two years (1991∼1992). This displacement rate has been considerably accelerated up to 1.0 m/mo in winter, and during a few days of typhoon in the summer of 1992 the displacement amounted to about 8∼11 m/mo for the entire chenier. these facts suggest that macro-tidal currents, coupled with winter-storm waves and infrequent strong typhoons, should play a major role for the formation and migration of chenier after 1,800 B.P., when the sea level already rose to the present position and thereafter remained constant.

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Effects of Environmental Factors on the Bacterial Community in Eutrophic Masan Reservoir (이화학적 수질인자가 부영양화된 마산저수지의 세균분포에 미치는 영향)

  • 남귀숙;손형식;차미선;조순자;이광식;이상준
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2003
  • The total bacterial numbers, Eubacterial community structures and environmental factors which affect bacterial community were estimated monthly using DAPI and fluorescent in situ hybridization monthly, from June to November 2000 to evaluate the correlation between the bacterial community and environmental factors in eutrophic agricultural Masan reservoir in Asan. Average water temperatures varied from 12.3 to $27.5^{\circ}C$, pH 7.5 to 9.0, DO 7. I~12.8 mg/L, COD 6.4~13.0 mg/L, chlorophyll a 30.5~99.0 mg/㎥, SS 7.S~25.7 mg/L, TN 1.748~3.543 mg/L., and TP 0.104~0.581 mg/L, respectively. Total bacterial numbers showed high ranges from 0.4 to 9.6$\times$ $10^{6}$ cells/ml, and these indicated the mesotrophic or eutrophic state. The ratio of Eubacteria to total bacteria was 67.6-88.0%, which was higher than that in other reservoir. The relationships of total bacteria and Eubacteria community were more significant with organic nitrogen (Org-N), and organic phosphorus (Org-P) than with water temperature. Proteobacteria groups showed strongly significant relationships with Org-P and Org-N and significant relationships with water temperature, conductivity, COD, and inorganic nitrogen. C-F group was the most significant with Org-N, and HGC group with water temperature. However, relationships of Chl-a, pH, DO and SS showed no significance with any bacterial community. These results were different from other studies, because of the specific characteristics of Masan reservoir such as old, shallow and eutrophic states. The seasonal variation of bacterial community in Masan reservoir does not seem to depend on phytoplankton dynamics but on storm event and organic materials from watershed and the sediment of reservoir.

Origin of limestone conglomerates in the Choson Supergroup(Cambro-Ordovician), mid-east Korea

  • Kwon Y.K.;Chough S.K.;Choi D.K.;Lee D.J.
    • 한국석유지질학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.63-65
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    • 2001
  • The Chosen Supergroup (Cambro-Ordovician), mid-east Korea consists mainly of shallow marine carbonates and contains a variety of limestone conglomerates. These conglomerates largely comprise oligomictic, rounded lime-mudstone clasts of various size and shape (equant, oval, discoidal, tabular, and irregular) and dolomitic shale matrices. Most clasts are characterized by jigsaw-fit (mosaic), disorganized, or edgewise fabric and autoclastic lithology. Each conglomerate layer is commonly interbedded with limestone-dolomitic shale couplets and occasionally underlain by fractured limestone layer, capped by calcareous shale. According to composition, characteristic sedimentary structures, and fabric, limestone conglomerates in the Hwajol, Tumugol, Makkol, and Mungok formations of Chosen Supergroup can be classified into 4 types: (1) disorganized polymictic conglomerate (Cd), (2) horizontally stratified polymictic conglomerate (Cs), (3) mosaic conglomerate (Cm), and (4) disorganized/edgewise oligomictic conglomerate (Cd/e). These conglomerates are either depositional (Cd and Cs) or diagenetic (Cm and Cd/e) in origin. Depositional conglomerates are interpreted as storm deposits, tidal channel fills, or transgressive lag deposits. On the other hand, diagenetic conglomerates are not deposited by normal sedimentary processes, but formed by post-depositional diagenetic processes. Diagenetic conglomerates in the Chosen Supergroup are characterized by autoclastic and oligomictic lithology of lime-mudstone clasts, jigsaw-fit (mosaic) fabric, edgewise fabric, and a gradual transition from the underlying bed (Table 1). Autoclastic and oligomictic lithologies may be indicative of subsurface brecciation (fragmentation). Consolidation of lime-mudstone clasts pre-requisite for brecciation may result from dissolution and reprecipitation of CaCO3 by degradation of organic matter during burial. Jigsaw-fit fabric has been considered as evidence for in situ fragmentation. The edgewise fabric is most likely formed by expulsion of pore fluid during compaction. The lower boundary of intraformational conglomerates of depositional origin is commonly sharp and erosional. In contrast, diagenetic conglomerate layers mostly show a gradual transition from the underlying unit, which is indicative of progressive fragmentation upward (Fig. 1). The underlying fractured limestone layer also shows evidence for in situ fragmentation such as jigsaw-fit fabric and the same lithology as the overlying conglomerate layer (Fig, 1). Evidence from the conglomerate beds in the Chosen Supergroup suggests that diagenetic conglomerates are formed by in situ subsurface fragmentation of limestone layers and rounding of the fragments. In situ subsurface fragmentation may be primarily due to compaction, dewatering (upward-moving pore fluids), and dissolution, accompanying volume reduction. This process commonly occurs under the conditions of (1) alternating layers of carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor sediments and (B) early differential cementation of carbonate-rich layers. Differential cementation commonly takes place between alternating beds of carbonate-rich and clay-rich layers, because high carbonate content promotes cementation, whereas clay inhibits cementation. After deposition of alternating beds and differential cementation, with progressive burial, upward-moving pore fluid may raise pore-pressure in the upper part of limestone layers, due to commonly overlying impermeable shale layers (or beds). The high pore-pressure may reinforce propagation of fragmentation and cause upward-expulsion of pore fluid which probably produces edgewise fabric of tabular clasts. The fluidized flow then extends laterally, causing reorientation and further rounding of clasts. This process is analogous to that of autobrecciation, which can be analogously termed autoconglomeration. This is a fragmentation and rounding process whereby earlier semiconsolidated portions of limestone are incorporated into still fluid portions. The rounding may be due mainly to immiscibility and surface tension of lime-mud. The progressive rounding of the fragmented clasts probably results from grain attrition by fluidized flow. A synthetic study of limestone conglomerate beds in the Chosen Supergroup suggests that very small percent of the conglomerate layers are of depositional origin, whereas the rest, more than $80\%$, are of diagenetic origin. The common occurrence of diagenetic conglomerates warrants further study on limestone conglomerates elsewhere in the world.

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