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A Study on the Water Exchange Plan with Disaster Prevention Facilities in Masan Bay (마산만 재해방지시설을 이용한 해수교환 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Gweon-Su;Ryu, Ha-Sang;Kim, Kang-Min
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.637-645
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    • 2013
  • Masan bay with a semi-enclosed waters has serious water quality problems due to the low flow and river pollution load from land, and shows the vulnerable locational characteristics to storm surge. We are seeking the way of both operating disaster prevention facilities and water quality improvement measures in the bay. That is, the water was exchanged using the head difference occurred by operating disaster prevention facilities. The location of disaster prevention facilities was assumed to be in the inlet of the bay, in the vicinity of Machang bridge, and in the vicinity of Dot island and the operation time was assumed to be early morning hours(01~05) considering the number of shipping passage and annual tide, and spring tide of the largest head difference. In addition, the experiment case of water exchange including the in-outflow feeder pipe was tested. According to the simulation results, water exchange rate in all experiments has shown a steady increase. Water exchange rate of the whole of Masan bay in the case of present is 38.62%. The water exchange rate of the inside of Masan bay compared with the inlet of bay, appeared to be very low. Thus, we judged that the characteristics of semi-enclosed waters were well reproduced. On the results of the experiment of disaster prevention facilities and in-outflow feeder pipe, the case of the operation of disaster prevention facilities, water exchage rate is high compared with the case of present. And, the higer the operating frequency, the more water exchange is appeared. The cases of water exchange prevention facilities through the in-outflow feeder pipe caused by the head difference, also showed the higest improvement of the water quality. Compared with the south of Machang bridge, the effect of water exchange was better in the inlet of Masan bay and Dot island. On the other hand, the inlet of Masan bay is higer than Dot island as for water exchange of the whole of Masan bay, but opposite, water change rate including Masan inside was higher in the case of Dot island.

A Study on the Calculation of Nonpoint Source EMCs using SWMM in Transportation Area (강우유출모형을 활용한 교통지역 비점오염원 EMCs 산정 연구)

  • Kwon, Heongak;Im, Toehyo;Lee, Jaewoon;Jeong, Hyungi;Lee, Chunsik;Cheon, Seuk
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2015
  • In this study, a long term monitering of nonpoint source pollution runoff is conducted at the area of transportation related and EMCs(Event Mean Concentrations) in terms of water quality items, such as BOD, $COD_{Mn}$, SS, T-N and T-P are determined for each not only runoff event and but also observation site. On the other hands, SWMM(Storm Water Management Model) model is constructed using the data collected in the transportation areas selected. Model calibration and verification of SWMM is carried out based on the data collected. And simulated EMCs was compared with observed EMCs by monitoring and prior studies. SWMM applicability estimation was Using the compared result. The results of simulation showed that BOD 5.787 ~ 14.475 mg/L, $COD_{Mn}$ 12.946 ~ 59.611 mg/L, SS 13.742 ~ 46.208 mg/L, T-N 2.037 ~ 5.213 mg/L, T-P 0.117 ~ 0.415 mg/L. And a differential between simulated EMCs and observed EMCs is too low so comparing result show high fit(BOD 4.27 %, $COD_{Mn}$ 4.87%, SS 2.31%, T-N 5.78%, T-P 14.45%). A results of compared with the prior studies, BOD and T-P are included range of prior studies, $COD_{Mn}$ and SS are lower than range of prior studies, T-N is higher than range of prior studies. Differential between simulated EMCs and prior studies EMCs was showing for survey seasonal and changing land-use, so from now on, EMCs of using the internal representatives value will be calculated by more monitoring toward various precipitation events.

Depositional Characteristics and Seasonal Change of Surface Sediment and Sedimentary Strucutre on the Doowoovi Tidal Flat, Southwestern Coast of Korea (한국 서남해안 두우리 조간대에서 표층 퇴적물 및 퇴적구조의 특성과 계절변화)

  • Baek Young Suk;Chun Seungsoo
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.10 no.1_2
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2004
  • The Doowoo-ri tidal flat in the southwestern Korean coast is a typical open-coast tidal flat which has no barriers in the offshore such as barrier island and sand bars. The difference of induced wave energy with seasons is affected directly on the distribution of surface sediment and the formation of sedimentary structures because the sedimentation by wind wave is relatively much important element in this open-coast tidal flat. This open-coast tidal flat can be classified into tidal beach, intertidal flat and lower mudflat according to the pattern of geomorphology and sediment type. The intertidal flat can be again divided into 3 types: sand flat, mixed flat and mud flat based on the primary sedimentary structure and sand/mud ratio. Doowoori tidal flat shows a seasonal change in the surface sedimentary facies based on sediment composition and primary sedimentary structure. The change is closely related to the direction and magnitude of monsoon wind and also to storm frequency. In winter and spring, when northwesterly wind is most dominant and strong and also storms are common, sand-flat facies is largely distributed on the intertidal flat, whereas mud-flat facies is most dominant during summer when weak southeasterly wind is common. In the fall season, mixed-flat facies is dominant on the flat. The Doowoori intertidal flat is covered by mud sediment which is ca. 20 cm in thickness in summer season. In winter season, surface sediment is changed from mud to sand because the summer mud is mostly eroded by strong wave action. Can-core peels in the intertidal flat show that parallel laminated mud or sand/mud and climbing ripple cross-laminated sandy silt are dominant on the upper intertidal flat $(0-1.3 {\cal}km)$ during summer season. On the other hand, on lower intertidal flat $(1.7-2.3 {\cal}km)$, dominant sedimentary facies is homogeneous mud. In winter, it is changed into parallel laminated and ripple cross-laminated sand facies.

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Numerical Simulation on Seabed-Structure Dynamic Responses due to the Interaction between Waves, Seabed and Coastal Structure (파랑-지반-해안구조물의 상호작용에 기인하는 해저지반과 구조물의 동적응답에 관한 수치시뮬레이션)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Baek, Dong-Jin;Kim, Do-Sam;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Bae, Ki-Seong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 2014
  • Seabed beneath and near the coastal structures may undergo large excess pore water pressure composed of oscillatory and residual components in the case of long durations of high wave loading. This excess pore water pressure may reduce effective stress and, consequently, the seabed may liquefy. If the liquefaction occurs in the seabed, the structure may sink, overturn, and eventually fail. Especially, the seabed liquefaction behavior beneath a gravity-based structure under wave loading should be evaluated and considered for design purpose. In this study, to evaluate the liquefaction potential on the seabed, numerical analysis was conducted using 2-dimensional numerical wave tank. The 2-dimensional numerical wave tank was expanded to account for irregular wave fields, and to calculate the dynamic wave pressure and water particle velocity acting on the seabed and the surface boundary of the structure. The simulation results of the wave pressure and the shear stress induced by water particle velocity were used as inputs to a FLIP(Finite element analysis LIquefaction Program). Then, the FLIP evaluated the time and spatial variations in excess pore water pressure, effective stress and liquefaction potential in the seabed. Additionally, the deformation of the seabed and the displacement of the structure as a function of time were quantitatively evaluated. From the analysis, when the shear stress was considered, the liquefaction at the seabed in front of the structure was identified. Since the liquefied seabed particles have no resistance force, scour can possibly occur on the seabed. Therefore, the strength decrease of the seabed at the front of the structure due to high wave loading for the longer period of time such as a storm can increase the structural motion and consequently influence the stability of the structure.

Analysing the effect of impervious cover management techniques on the reduction of runoff and pollutant loads (불투수면 저감기법의 유출량 및 오염부하량 저감 효과 분석)

  • Park, Hyung Seok;Choi, Hwan Gyu;Chung, Se Woong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.16-34
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    • 2015
  • Impervious covers(IC) are artificial structures, such as driveways, sidewalks, building's roofs, and parking lots, through which water cannot infiltrate into the soil. IC is an environmental concern because the pavement materials seal the soil surface, decreasing rainwater infiltration and natural groundwater recharge, and consequently disturb the hydrological cycle in a watershed. Increase of IC in a watershed can cause more frequent flooding, higher flood peaks, groundwater drawdown, dry river, and decline of water quality and ecosystem health. There has been an increased public interest in the institutional adoption of LID(Low Impact Development) and GI(Green Infrastructure) techniques to address the adverse impact of IC. The objectives of this study were to construct the modeling site for a samll urban watershed with the Storm Water Management Model(SWMM), and to evaluate the effect of various LID techniques on the control of rainfall runoff processes and non-point pollutant load. The model was calibrated and validated using the field data collected during two flood events on July 17 and August 11, 2009, respectively, and applied to a complex area, where is consist of apartments, school, roads, park, etc. The LID techniques applied to the impervious area were decentralized rainwater management measures such as pervious cover and green roof. The results showed that the increase of perviousness land cover through LID applications decreases the runoff volume and pollutants loading during flood events. In particular, applications of pervious pavement for parking lots and sidewalk, green roof, and their combinations reduced the total volume of runoff by 15~61 % and non-point pollutant loads by TSS 22~72 %, BOD 23~71 %, COD 22~71 %, TN 15~79 %, TP 9~64 % in the study site.

Correlation of Nonpoint Pollutant and Particulate Matters at a Small Suburban Area (비시가화지역에서 비점오염물질과 입자성물질의 유출 상관성)

  • Park, Ji-Young;Bae, Sang-Ho;Yoon, Young-H.;Lim, Hyun-Man;Park, Jae-Roh;Oh, Hyun-Je;Kim, Weon-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2012
  • In general, nonpoint pollutant of a watershed is drained out in the form of storm water runoff during rainfall events. As the bulk of the nonpoint pollutant is in adsorbed form on particulate matters, in order to understand the behavior of nonpoint pollutant it is essential to grasp the characteristics of particulate matters in rainfall runoff. Though, previous studies for the relationship between the runoff characteristics of pollutants and the size distribution of particulate matters are very rare. In this study, a small non-urbanized area (basin area of 52.8 ha) with various landuse types including paddy, dry fields and forest was selected and investigated in detail for the runoff properties of each pollutant during several rainfall events. The correlation and effects between particulate matters and nonpoint pollutant were analyzed quantitatively. As a result, the significant first flush was observed on each event and it became clear that fine particulate matters ($80{\mu}m$ or less) has contributed in the runoff process of nutrients and heavy metals. Organic matters ($BOD_5$, TOC), nutrients (TN, TP) and several heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg and Zn) represented high correlations with SS (total), VSS, SS (d < $20{\mu}m$) and SS ($20{\mu}m$ $$\leq_-$$ d < $80{\mu}m$). On the other hand, $COD_{cr}$, Cd, Mn and Pb did not show clear correlations with the behavior of particulate matters. Therefore, we have to examine the introduction of nonpoint pollution mitigation facilities considering the facts that nonpoint pollutant runoff process has high correlation with the behavior of particulate matters and is changeable based on the target pollutants.

Local Environments of Li in the Interlayer of Clay Minerals at Room and High Temperatures (상온 및 고온에서 점토광물 층간의 Li 환경)

  • Kim, Yeong-Kyoo;Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2007
  • We used $^6Li$ and $^7Li$ MAS NMR to investigate the fate and local environments of Li in the interlayer of clay minerals such as hectorite, Woming-montmorillonite, beidellite, and lepidollite at room and high ($250^{\circ}C$) temperature. Although $^6Li$ NMR spectra show narrower peaks than those of $^7Li$ NMR, S/N ratio is low and there are no obvious differences in chemical shifts suggesting that it is difficult to apply $^6Li$ NMR to have information on the local environments of Li in the clay interlayers. $^7Li$ NMR spectra, however, show changes in the peak width and quadrupole patterns providing information on the local environments of Li in the interlayer even though changes in the chemical shift are not observed. In montmorillonite, two different local environments of Li are observed; one has a narrow peak with typical quadrupole patterns whereas another has a broad peak without those of the patterns. Changes in the peak width is also observed from broad to narrow in the $^7Li$ NMR spectra for beidellite but not for hectorite at high temperature. Our results suggest that the peak width change in the broad peak is attributed to the coordination changes in the water molecules around Li which is tightly bonded on the basal oxygen of Si tetrahedra as inner-sphere complexes. The narrow peak in montmorillnoite can be assigned to the Li bended as outer-sphere complexes.

Effects of Environmental Factors on the Bacterial Community in Eutrophic Masan Reservoir (이화학적 수질인자가 부영양화된 마산저수지의 세균분포에 미치는 영향)

  • 남귀숙;손형식;차미선;조순자;이광식;이상준
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2003
  • The total bacterial numbers, Eubacterial community structures and environmental factors which affect bacterial community were estimated monthly using DAPI and fluorescent in situ hybridization monthly, from June to November 2000 to evaluate the correlation between the bacterial community and environmental factors in eutrophic agricultural Masan reservoir in Asan. Average water temperatures varied from 12.3 to $27.5^{\circ}C$, pH 7.5 to 9.0, DO 7. I~12.8 mg/L, COD 6.4~13.0 mg/L, chlorophyll a 30.5~99.0 mg/㎥, SS 7.S~25.7 mg/L, TN 1.748~3.543 mg/L., and TP 0.104~0.581 mg/L, respectively. Total bacterial numbers showed high ranges from 0.4 to 9.6$\times$ $10^{6}$ cells/ml, and these indicated the mesotrophic or eutrophic state. The ratio of Eubacteria to total bacteria was 67.6-88.0%, which was higher than that in other reservoir. The relationships of total bacteria and Eubacteria community were more significant with organic nitrogen (Org-N), and organic phosphorus (Org-P) than with water temperature. Proteobacteria groups showed strongly significant relationships with Org-P and Org-N and significant relationships with water temperature, conductivity, COD, and inorganic nitrogen. C-F group was the most significant with Org-N, and HGC group with water temperature. However, relationships of Chl-a, pH, DO and SS showed no significance with any bacterial community. These results were different from other studies, because of the specific characteristics of Masan reservoir such as old, shallow and eutrophic states. The seasonal variation of bacterial community in Masan reservoir does not seem to depend on phytoplankton dynamics but on storm event and organic materials from watershed and the sediment of reservoir.

Stand Water Balance and Stream Water Quality in Small Forested Watershed Yangpyong Gyeonggido (경기도(京畿道) 양평지역(陽平地域) 산림(山林) 소류역(小流域)의 수수지(水收支)와 계류수(溪流水)의 수질특성(水質特性))

  • Kim, Jung-You;Han, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of water quality variations by stand water balance in YangPyong-Gun Gejung-Lee small forest watershed. Water quantity. pH, $Cl^-$, $NO_3{^-}$, $SO_4{^{2-}}$, $Na^+$, $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$ were monitored in open rainfall for one unit storm and long-term stream water in small forest watershed from January. 1998 to December. 1999. The results were summarized as follows: The runoff rate was 46.4% in 1998 and 52.2% in 1999. The average pH values of rainfall were 4.8 to 6.2 and those of stream water were 6.4 to 7.1 in small forest watershed. Total amount of input anion and cation values (kg/ha) in rainfall were $SO_4{^{2-}}>NO_3{^-}>Ca^{2+}>NH_4{^+}>Cl^->Na^+>K^+>Mg^{2+}$ and in stream water were $NO_3{^-}>Ca^{2+}>SO_4{^{2-}}>Na^+>Cl^->K^+>Mg^{2+}>NH_4{^+}$ in the order, respectively. The dissolved $NH_4{^+}$ was stored 5.29kg/ha and output of the other contents were more flow than input in small forest watershed.

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GIS-based Disaster Management System for a Private Insurance Company in Case of Typhoons(I) (지리정보기반의 재해 관리시스템 구축(I) -민간 보험사의 사례, 태풍의 경우-)

  • Chang Eun-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.106-120
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    • 2006
  • Natural or man-made disaster has been expected to be one of the potential themes that can integrate human geography and physical geography. Typhoons like Rusa and Maemi caused great loss to insurance companies as well as public sectors. We have implemented a natural disaster management system for a private insurance company to produce better estimation of hazards from high wind as well as calculate vulnerability of damage. Climatic gauge sites and addresses of contract's objects were geo-coded and the pressure values along all the typhoon tracks were vectorized into line objects. National GIS topog raphic maps with scale of 1: 5,000 were updated into base maps and digital elevation model with 30 meter space and land cover maps were used for reflecting roughness of land to wind velocity. All the data are converted to grid coverage with $1km{\times}1km$. Vulnerability curve of Munich Re was ad opted, and preprocessor and postprocessor of wind velocity model was implemented. Overlapping the location of contracts on the grid value coverage can show the relative risk, with given scenario. The wind velocities calculated by the model were compared with observed value (average $R^2=0.68$). The calibration of wind speed models was done by dropping two climatic gauge data, which enhanced $R^2$ values. The comparison of calculated loss with actual historical loss of the insurance company showed both underestimation and overestimation. This system enables the company to have quantitative data for optimizing the re-insurance ratio, to have a plan to allocate enterprise resources and to upgrade the international creditability of the company. A flood model, storm surge model and flash flood model are being added, at last, combined disaster vulnerability will be calculated for a total disaster management system.