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Local Environments of Li in the Interlayer of Clay Minerals at Room and High Temperatures (상온 및 고온에서 점토광물 층간의 Li 환경)

  • Kim, Yeong-Kyoo;Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2007
  • We used $^6Li$ and $^7Li$ MAS NMR to investigate the fate and local environments of Li in the interlayer of clay minerals such as hectorite, Woming-montmorillonite, beidellite, and lepidollite at room and high ($250^{\circ}C$) temperature. Although $^6Li$ NMR spectra show narrower peaks than those of $^7Li$ NMR, S/N ratio is low and there are no obvious differences in chemical shifts suggesting that it is difficult to apply $^6Li$ NMR to have information on the local environments of Li in the clay interlayers. $^7Li$ NMR spectra, however, show changes in the peak width and quadrupole patterns providing information on the local environments of Li in the interlayer even though changes in the chemical shift are not observed. In montmorillonite, two different local environments of Li are observed; one has a narrow peak with typical quadrupole patterns whereas another has a broad peak without those of the patterns. Changes in the peak width is also observed from broad to narrow in the $^7Li$ NMR spectra for beidellite but not for hectorite at high temperature. Our results suggest that the peak width change in the broad peak is attributed to the coordination changes in the water molecules around Li which is tightly bonded on the basal oxygen of Si tetrahedra as inner-sphere complexes. The narrow peak in montmorillnoite can be assigned to the Li bended as outer-sphere complexes.

Effects of Environmental Factors on the Bacterial Community in Eutrophic Masan Reservoir (이화학적 수질인자가 부영양화된 마산저수지의 세균분포에 미치는 영향)

  • 남귀숙;손형식;차미선;조순자;이광식;이상준
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2003
  • The total bacterial numbers, Eubacterial community structures and environmental factors which affect bacterial community were estimated monthly using DAPI and fluorescent in situ hybridization monthly, from June to November 2000 to evaluate the correlation between the bacterial community and environmental factors in eutrophic agricultural Masan reservoir in Asan. Average water temperatures varied from 12.3 to $27.5^{\circ}C$, pH 7.5 to 9.0, DO 7. I~12.8 mg/L, COD 6.4~13.0 mg/L, chlorophyll a 30.5~99.0 mg/㎥, SS 7.S~25.7 mg/L, TN 1.748~3.543 mg/L., and TP 0.104~0.581 mg/L, respectively. Total bacterial numbers showed high ranges from 0.4 to 9.6$\times$ $10^{6}$ cells/ml, and these indicated the mesotrophic or eutrophic state. The ratio of Eubacteria to total bacteria was 67.6-88.0%, which was higher than that in other reservoir. The relationships of total bacteria and Eubacteria community were more significant with organic nitrogen (Org-N), and organic phosphorus (Org-P) than with water temperature. Proteobacteria groups showed strongly significant relationships with Org-P and Org-N and significant relationships with water temperature, conductivity, COD, and inorganic nitrogen. C-F group was the most significant with Org-N, and HGC group with water temperature. However, relationships of Chl-a, pH, DO and SS showed no significance with any bacterial community. These results were different from other studies, because of the specific characteristics of Masan reservoir such as old, shallow and eutrophic states. The seasonal variation of bacterial community in Masan reservoir does not seem to depend on phytoplankton dynamics but on storm event and organic materials from watershed and the sediment of reservoir.

Stand Water Balance and Stream Water Quality in Small Forested Watershed Yangpyong Gyeonggido (경기도(京畿道) 양평지역(陽平地域) 산림(山林) 소류역(小流域)의 수수지(水收支)와 계류수(溪流水)의 수질특성(水質特性))

  • Kim, Jung-You;Han, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of water quality variations by stand water balance in YangPyong-Gun Gejung-Lee small forest watershed. Water quantity. pH, $Cl^-$, $NO_3{^-}$, $SO_4{^{2-}}$, $Na^+$, $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$ were monitored in open rainfall for one unit storm and long-term stream water in small forest watershed from January. 1998 to December. 1999. The results were summarized as follows: The runoff rate was 46.4% in 1998 and 52.2% in 1999. The average pH values of rainfall were 4.8 to 6.2 and those of stream water were 6.4 to 7.1 in small forest watershed. Total amount of input anion and cation values (kg/ha) in rainfall were $SO_4{^{2-}}>NO_3{^-}>Ca^{2+}>NH_4{^+}>Cl^->Na^+>K^+>Mg^{2+}$ and in stream water were $NO_3{^-}>Ca^{2+}>SO_4{^{2-}}>Na^+>Cl^->K^+>Mg^{2+}>NH_4{^+}$ in the order, respectively. The dissolved $NH_4{^+}$ was stored 5.29kg/ha and output of the other contents were more flow than input in small forest watershed.

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GIS-based Disaster Management System for a Private Insurance Company in Case of Typhoons(I) (지리정보기반의 재해 관리시스템 구축(I) -민간 보험사의 사례, 태풍의 경우-)

  • Chang Eun-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.106-120
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    • 2006
  • Natural or man-made disaster has been expected to be one of the potential themes that can integrate human geography and physical geography. Typhoons like Rusa and Maemi caused great loss to insurance companies as well as public sectors. We have implemented a natural disaster management system for a private insurance company to produce better estimation of hazards from high wind as well as calculate vulnerability of damage. Climatic gauge sites and addresses of contract's objects were geo-coded and the pressure values along all the typhoon tracks were vectorized into line objects. National GIS topog raphic maps with scale of 1: 5,000 were updated into base maps and digital elevation model with 30 meter space and land cover maps were used for reflecting roughness of land to wind velocity. All the data are converted to grid coverage with $1km{\times}1km$. Vulnerability curve of Munich Re was ad opted, and preprocessor and postprocessor of wind velocity model was implemented. Overlapping the location of contracts on the grid value coverage can show the relative risk, with given scenario. The wind velocities calculated by the model were compared with observed value (average $R^2=0.68$). The calibration of wind speed models was done by dropping two climatic gauge data, which enhanced $R^2$ values. The comparison of calculated loss with actual historical loss of the insurance company showed both underestimation and overestimation. This system enables the company to have quantitative data for optimizing the re-insurance ratio, to have a plan to allocate enterprise resources and to upgrade the international creditability of the company. A flood model, storm surge model and flash flood model are being added, at last, combined disaster vulnerability will be calculated for a total disaster management system.

A Prediction Model for Removal of Non-point Source Pollutant Considering Clogging Effect of Sand Filter Layers for Rainwater Recycling (빗물 재활용을 위한 모래 정화층의 폐색특성을 고려한 비점오염원 제거 예측 모델 연구)

  • Ahn, Jaeyoon;Lee, Dongseop;Han, Shinin;Jung, Youngwook;Choi, Hangseok
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.23-39
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    • 2014
  • An artificial rainwater reservoir installed in urban areas for recycling rainwater is an eco-friendly facility for reducing storm water effluence. However, in order to recycle the rainwater directly, the artificial rainwater reservoir requires an auxiliary system that can remove non-point source pollutants included in the initial rainfall of urban area. Therefore, the conventional soil filtration technology is adopted to capture non-point source pollutants in an economical and efficient way in the purification system of artificial rainwater reservoirs. In order to satisfy such a demand, clogging characteristics of the sand filter layers with different grain-size distributions were studied with real non-point source pollutants. For this, a series of lab-scale chamber tests were conducted to make a prediction model for removal of non-point source pollutants, based on the clogging theory. The laboratory chamber experiments were carried out by permeating two types of artificially contaminated water through five different types of sand filter layers with different grain-size distributions. The two artificial contaminated waters were made by fine marine-clay particles and real non-point source pollutants collected from motorcar roads of Seoul, Korea. In the laboratory chamber experiments, the concentrations of the artificial contaminated water were measured in terms of TSS (Total Suspended Solids) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and compared with each other to evaluate the performance of sand filter layers. In addition, the accumulated weight of pollutant particles clogged in the sand filter layers was estimated. This paper suggests a prediction model for removal of non-point source pollutants with theoretical consideration of the physical characteristics such as the grain-size distribution and composition, and change in the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of sand filter layers. The lumped parameter ${\theta}$ related with the clogging property was estimated by comparing the accumulated weight of pollutant particles obtained from the laboratory chamber experiments and calculated from the prediction model based on the clogging theory. It is found that the lumped parameter ${\theta}$ has a significant influence on the amount of the pollutant particles clogged in the pores of sand filter layers. In conclusion, according to the clogging prediction model, a double-sand-filter layer consisting of two separate layers: the upper sand-filter layer with the effective particle size of 1.49 mm and the lower sand-filter layer with the effective particle size of 0.93 mm, is proposed as the optimum system for removing non-point source pollutants in the field-sized artificial rainwater reservoir.

Morphologic Response of Gravel Beach to Typhoon Invasion - A Case Study of Gamji Beach Taejongdae in Busan (태풍 내습 시 자갈 해빈의 지형반응 - 부산 태종대 감지 해빈의 사례)

  • Lee, Young Yun;Chang, Tae Soo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2020
  • To understand the impact of typhoons on Gamji gravel beach Taejongdae in Busan, we carried out beach profiling using a VRS-GPS system and a Drone photogrammetry for the typhoons 'Kong-rey' invaded in October 2018 and 'Danas' in July 2019. In addition, grain sizes are analyzed to investigate the overall distribution pattern of gravels on the beach, and the beach topography is surveyed periodically to confirm the recovery rate of the beach. Grain-size analysis reveals that mean gravel sizes, in general, become finer from -6.2Φ to -5.4Φ towards the east in the seashore line direction. Variation in mean sizes is obviously observed in the cross-shore direction. Gravels in the swash zone are relatively fine about -4.5Φ in size and equant in shape, whereas the coarse and oblate gravels ranged from -5Φ to -6Φ are found in the berm. Gamji gravel beach particularly has two lines of berms: a lower berm situated facing beach and an upper berm about 10 m landward. After the typhoon Kong-rey passed by, about 1.4 m of severe erosion in upper berm occurred, and the berm eventually disappeared. On the backshore of the upper berm about 50 cm of erosion took place so that the elevation became lower. However, tangible erosion was not observed in the lower berm. When typhoon Danas hit, rated as mild storm, both upper and lower berm were eroded out. However, about 50 cm of deposition occurred only in the backshore. Only three days later, the new lower berm was formed, meaning that sedimentation rate must be high. This result indicates that Gamji gravel beach is recovered very fast from erosion caused by the typhoons when it is under the fair-weather condition even though beach morphology changes dramatically in a short period of time. Gravel beach is estimated to be or evaluated very resilient to typhoon erosion.

Influences of Environmental Factors on Soil Erosion of the Logging Road in Timber Harvested Area (성숙임목벌채지(成熟林木伐採地)에서 운재로(運材路)의 침식(浸蝕)에 미치는 환경요인(環境要因)의 영향(影響))

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon;Woo, Bo-Myeong;Jeong, Do-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.2
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 1995
  • This research aimed at the contribution to obtaining the scientifical data which were required for planning she environmentally sound and sustainable management, particularly in the field of the logging road construction. Main natural environmental variables including natural vegetation, rainfall, soil runoff were measured in the logging road on-sites and analysed. This project was carried out at the (mt.)Paekunsan Research sorest of Seoul National University, located in Gwangyang, Chollanam-do in southern part of Korea, from 1993 to 1994. 1. The explanatory variables for erosion and sedimentation on logging road surface were accumulated rainfall, erosion distance, cross-sectional gradient, and soil hardness. The erosion and sedimentation on logging road was increasing positively in proportion to the accumulated rainfall, soil distance from starting point of the logging road, and cross-sectional gradient. 2. On cut-slope of logging road, cut-slope shape, part of the slope, plant coverage, soil hardness, sand content, accumulated rainfall, clay content, and silt content were effective factors. Cut-slope erosion and sedimentation on logging roam increased as with the lower plant coverage, the lower accumulated rainfall, the high sand content in the soil. 3. On fill-slope of logging road, there were three significant variables such as total rainfall and number of rainfall-storm. Fill-slope erosion and sedimentation had a positive correlation with the amount of rainfall, the number of rainfall, the soil hardness. 4. The total erosion and sedimentation on logging road were $5.04{\times}10^{-2}m^2/m^2$ in logging road construction year, $7.37{\times}10^{-2}m^2/m^2$ in next year. The erosion and sedimentation on logging road surface were 32.7% of total erosion and sedimentation on Logging road in construction year, and 57.1% in next year, respectively. The erosion and sedimentation on cut-slopes were 30.4% on logging road in construction year, fill-slopes of total erosion and sedimentation and 21.0% in next year, respectively. The erosion and sedimentation on fill-slopes were 36.9% on logging road in construction year, 21.9 in next year. To decrease the erosion and sedimentation at the logging road from the beginning stage of construction, the effective revegetation works should be implemented on the cut-slope and fill slopes, and erosion control measures such as optima. road design must be constructed on read surface.

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Characteristics of Recent Foraminifera and Surface Sediments in Gomso- Bay Tidal Flat, West Coast of Korea: Potential for Paleoenvironmental Interpretations (곰소만 조간대의 현생 유공충과 표층 최적물의 특성: 고환경 해석에 적용 가능성)

  • 우한준;장진호
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.184-196
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    • 1995
  • The line-SW is located in the mouth of Gomso Bay (20 Km long and 5-8 Km wide),west coast of Korea. This area is composed of sand flat, mud flat, sand shoal and chenier, The difference of physical, geological and geomorphic conditions in subenvironments of the bay may control and produce distingtive foraminiferal populations and assemblages. This study investigates whether five a priori subenvironments (five local zonations) in Gomso-Bay tidal flat can be distinguished from each other on the basis of total (living plus dead) foraminiferal assemblages. Seventy-four species (67 benthic; 7 planktonic) were recorded in total assemblages of surface sediments from 10 stations. Ammonia beccarii tepida, Discorbis candeiana, Elphidium etigoense and Eponides nipponicus were most dominant species in living and total assemblages. The relative abundance (%) of living population was high at upper flat and decreased from upper to lower flat. The low percentages of living populations in middle to lower flat are probably influenced by the decreasing reproduction of foraminifera caused by high energy condition and addition of dead species from offshore. The occurence of planktonic foraminifera in middle to lower flat (5.3∼6.6%) indicates introduction of planktonic foraminifera from offshore by storm and/or tidal current. The relatively high numbers of species in lower middle to lower flat are probably caused by a mixing of faunas from these areas and offshore. The high numbers of total individuals per 50 ml of sediment in upper flat indicate that this area is a relatively stable environment where waves and currents are protected by the chenier. Five biofacies of the total foraminiferal assemblages were established on the basis of dominant species (those representing more than 20% of the total assemblages in any station) in the five a priori subenvironments recognized along the Line-SW transect in Gomso-Bay tidal flat. Five biofacies are potentially useful in paleoenvironmental interpretation in late Quaternary Gomso-Bay tidal deposits.

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Sedimentary Characteristics and Evolution History of Chenier, Gomso-Bay tidal Flat, Western Coast of Korea (황해 곰소만 조간대에 발달한 Chenier의 퇴적학적 특성과 진화)

  • 장진호;전승수
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.212-228
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    • 1993
  • A chenier, about 860 m long, 30 to 60 m wide and 0.6∼1.6 m high, occurs on the upper muddy tidal flat in the Gomso bay, western coast of Korea, It consists of medium to fine sands and shells with small amounts of subangular gravels. Vertical sections across the chenier show gently landward dipping stratifications which include small-scale cross-bedded sets. the most probable source of the chenier is considered to be the intertidal sandy sediments. Vibracores taken along a line transversing the tidal flat reveal that the intertidal sand deposits are more than 5 m thick near the low-water line and become thinner toward the chenier. The most sand deposits are undertrain by tidal muds which occur behind the chenier as salt marsh deposits. C-14 age dating suggests that the sand deposits and the chenier are younger than about 1,800 years B.P. The chenier has originated from the intertidal sand shoals at the lower to mid sand flat, and has continuously moved landward. A series of aerial photographs (1967∼1989) reveal that intertidal sand shoals (predecessor of the western part of chenier) on the mid flat have continuously moved landward during the past two decades and ultimately attached to the eastern part of the chenier already anchored at the present position in the late 1960s. Repeated measurements (four times between 1991 and 1992) of morphological changes of the chenier indicate that the eastern two thirds of the chenier, mostly above the mean high water, has rarely moved whereas the western remainder below the mean high water, has moved continuously at a rate of 0.5 m/mo during the last two years (1991∼1992). This displacement rate has been considerably accelerated up to 1.0 m/mo in winter, and during a few days of typhoon in the summer of 1992 the displacement amounted to about 8∼11 m/mo for the entire chenier. these facts suggest that macro-tidal currents, coupled with winter-storm waves and infrequent strong typhoons, should play a major role for the formation and migration of chenier after 1,800 B.P., when the sea level already rose to the present position and thereafter remained constant.

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Compositional Variations of the Beach Sediments in Cheju Island (제주도 해빈퇴적물의 구성성분)

  • 지옥미;우경식
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.480-492
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    • 1995
  • Petrographic investigation has been carried out to determine the composition of the beach sediments and the affecting factors which have controlled their compositional variations from Hyupjae, Aeweol, Iho, Samyang, Hamdeok, Sehwa, Pyoseon, Jungmun, and Hwasun areas along the coast of the Cheju Island. Average mean sizes of the beach sediments are Hyupjae 2.2ø, Aeweol 0.8ø, Iho 1.4ø, Samyang 2.4ø, Hamdeok 1.6ø, Sehwa 1.5ø, Pyoseon 2.1ø, Jungmun 0.4ø, and Hwasun 0.9ø, thus, aries from 0.4 to 2.4ø. The beach sediments from Pyoseon and Hwasun areas are poorly sorted, those from Aeweol and Jungmun areas are moderately sorted and those from the rest of the areas are moderately well sorted. While-colored beach sediments in Hyupjae, Aeweol, Hamdeok, Sehwa, and Pyoseon areas are mostly composed of calcareous shells (more than 85%) such as mollusk, red algae, benthic foraminiferas, etc., whereas volcanic rock fragment is the dominant component of the black-colored beach sediments in Iho, Samyang, and Hwasun areas. Especially, the relatively white-colored beach sediment in Jungmun area, which is on e of the carbonate-dominant areas, shows a higher content of rock fragments than the other carbonate-dominant areas. The beach sediments in Pyoseon area show a high content of carbonate intercalates. Considering the contributions by organisms according to grain size, grains with the size range of 1∼2ø are mostly composed of calcareous red algae fragments, and grains with the size range of 2∼3ø consist of mollusk fragments. It is also notable that bryozoan fragments comprise about 48% of the sediment in Samyang area with the size range of 0∼1ø. The composition of the beach sediments in Cheju Island appears o be controlled by the riverine supply rate of volcanic rock fragments, the lithology of the rocks distributed ear the beaches, the direction of alongshore currents, and the direction of storms, etc.. It is suggested that the beach sediments in Iho and Samyang areas show black color because of the higher supply rate of the volcanic rock fragments from the nearby rivers, whereas those in the rest of the areas show white color due to the relatively lower content of volcanic rock fragments and higher content of carbonate components transported from shallow marine environment. In Hwasun area, the content of volcanic rock fragments is high, and they are directly from the tuffaceous rocks distributed nearby. Also, the volcanic rock fragments in Jungmun area are transported not only from the rivers nearby but also from the nearby tuffs by storm activities. The beach sediment in Pyoseon area contains a high content of carbonate intercalates, which formed in the nearby shallow marine environment through marine cementation. This indicates that active marine cementation occurs in shallow marine environment near Pyoseon area.

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