• Title/Summary/Keyword: STORM

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Evaluation and Design of Infiltration and Filtration BMP Facility (침투 여과형 비점오염저감시설의 설계 및 평가)

  • Choi, Ji-Yeon;Maniquiz, Marla Chua;Lee, So-Young;Kang, Chang-Guk;Lee, Jung-Yong;Kang, Hee-Man;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 2010
  • Lots of pollutants typically originating from urban transportation are accumulating on the paved surfaces during dry periods and are washed-off directly to the river during a storm. Also, paved surfaces are contributing to increase in peak flows and volume of stormwater flows. These are the main reasons why the water quality of rivers and lakes remain polluted and still below standards. Currently, several management practices are being applied in developed countries but the design standards are still lacking. This research was conducted to develop a treatment technology that can be useful to address the problems concerning runoff quality and quantity. A lab scale infiltration device consisting of a pretreatment tank and media zone was designed and tested for various flow regimes characterizing the low, average and high intensity rainfall. Based on the experiments, the high intensity flow resulted to increase in outflow event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants, about twice as much as the average outflow EMC. However, 78 to 88% of the total suspended solids were captured and retained in the pretreatment tank because of sedimentation. The removal of heavy metals such as zinc and lead was greatly affected by the vertical placement of woodchip layer prior to the media zone. It was observed that the high carbon content (almost 50%) in the woodchip provided opportunity for enhancing its uptake of metal by adsorption. The findings implied that the reduction of pollutants can be greatly achieved by means of proper pretreatment to allow for settling of particles with a combination of using high carbon source media like woodchip and a geotextile mat to reduce the flow before filtering into the media zone and finally discharging to the drainage system.

Beach Deformation Caused by Typhoon Chaba in 2016 Along the Manseongri Coast Related Coastal Improvement Project (연안정비사업이 수행된 만성리 해수욕장에서 2016년 태풍 차바에 의한 해빈변화)

  • Park, Il Heum;Park, Wan-Gyu;Jeong, Seung Myong;Kang, Tae-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.710-718
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    • 2017
  • After Typhoon Chaba (No.18, 2016) collided with Manseongri Beach, a coastal improvement project was carried out since strong external forces such as waves, storm surges and wave-induced currents were observed to cause beach deformation. The shoreline, beach area and beach volume were periodically surveyed. On the basis of this field data, the beach deformation that occurred at Manseongri Beach has been formally described. Over three months after beach nourishment work began, the beaches were gradually stabilized in terms of natural external forces. However, this stabilization was interrupted by Typhoon Chaba. After two months of typhoon weather, the beach returned to a stable state and no changes were observed until one year after the beach recovery work. Just after the typhoon hit, the shoreline receded from the northern side, where no reduction of external forces occurred, while the rear beach area submerged by breakwater advanced. Also, the beach volume decreased by $3,395m^3$ after the typhoon, due to erosion that occurred on the northern beach, with deposition taking place on the southern backshore area. Therefore, it has been concluded that the coastal improvement project undertaken at Manseongri Beach has significantly contributed to conservation in areas of wave-dominant sediment transport.

Optimal Reservoir Operation Using Goal Programming for Flood Season (Goal Programming을 이용한 홍수기 저수지 최적 운영)

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Ahn, Jae-Hwang;Choi, Chang-Won;Yi, Jae-Eung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of multipurpose reservoir operation in flood season is to reduce the peak flood at a control point by utilizing flood control storage or to minimize flood damage by controlling release and release time. Therefore, the most important thing in reservoir operation for flood season is to determine the optimal release and release time. In this study, goal programming is used for the optimal reservoir operation in flood season. The goal programming minimizes a sum of deviation from the target value using linear programming or nonlinear programming to obtain the optimal alternative for the problem with more than two objectives. To analyze the applicability of goal programming, the historical storm data are utilized. The goal programming is applied to the reservoir system operation as well as single reservoir operation. Chungju reservoir is selected for single reservoir operation and Andong and Imha reservoirs are selected for reservoir system operation. The result of goal programming is compared with that of HEC-5. As a result, it was found that goal programming could maintain the reservoir level within flood control level at the end of a flood season and also maintain flood discharge within a design flood at a control point for each time step. The goal programming operation is different from the real operation in the sense that all inflows are assumed to be given in advance. However, flood at a control point can be reduced by calculating the optimal release and optimal release time using suitable constraints and flood forecasting system.

Estimation of reflectivity-rainfall relationship parameters and uncertainty assessment for high resolution rainfall information (고해상도 강수정보 생산을 위한 레이더 반사도-강수량 관계식 매개변수 보정 및 불확실성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Jeong;Kim, Jang-Gyeong;Kim, Jin-Guk;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.321-334
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    • 2021
  • A fixed reflectivity-rainfall relationship approach, such as the Marshall-Palmer relationship, for an entire year and different seasons, can be problematic in cases where the relationship varies spatially and temporally throughout a region. From this perspective, this study explores the use of long-term radar reflectivity for South Korea to obtain a nationwide calibrated Z-R relationship and the associated uncertainties within a Bayesian inference framework. A calibrated spatially structured pattern in the parameters exists, particularly for the wet season and parameter for the dry season. A pronounced region of high values during the wet and dry seasons may be partially associated with storm movements in that season. Overall, the radar rainfall fields based on the proposed modeling procedure are similar to the observed rainfall fields. In contrast, the radar rainfall fields obtained from the existing Marshall-Palmer relationship show a systematic underestimation. In the event of high impact weather, it is expected that the value of national radar resources can be improved by establishing an active watershed-level hydrological analysis system.

Comparison of Annual Soil Loss using USLE and Hourly Soil Erosion Evaluation System (USLE모형과 시강우를 고려한 토양유실 평가 시스템을 이용한 연간 토양유실량 비교 분석)

  • Kum, Dong-Hyuk;Ryu, Ji-Chul;Kang, Hyun-Woo;Jang, Chun-Hwa;Shin, Min-Hwan;Shin, Dong-Shuk;Choi, Joong-Dae;Lim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.991-997
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    • 2011
  • Soil erosion and sediment has been known as one of pollutants causing water quality degradation in water bodies. With global warming issues worldwide, various soil erosion studies have been performed. Although on-site monitoring of sediment loss would be an ideal method to evaluate soil erosion condition, modeling approaches have been utilized to estimate soil erosion and to evaluate various best management practices on soil erosion reduction. Although the USLE has been used in soil erosion estimation for the last 40 years, the USLE model has limitations in estimating event-based soil erosion reflecting rainfall intensity and rainfall duration for long-term period. Thus, the calibrated model, capable of simulating soil erosion using hourly rainfall data, was utilized in this study to evaluate the effects of rainfall amount and rainfall intensity on soil erosion. It was found that USLE soil erosion value is $3.06ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, while soil erosion values from 2006~2010 were $2.469ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $0.882ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $1.489ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $2.158ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, $1.602ton\;ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, respectively. Especially, soil erosion from single storm event for 2008-2010 would be responsible for 30% or more of annual soil loss. As shown in this study, hourly soil erosion estimation system would provide more detailed output from the study area. In addition, the effects of rainfall intensity on soil erosion could be evaluated with this system.

Estimation of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads for Rural Watershed by AvSWAT (AvSWAT를 이용한 농촌유역 비점원 오염물질 부하량 예측)

  • Kim, Jin-Ho;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Han, Kuk-Heon;Ruy, Jong-Su;Kim, Suk-Cheol;Yun, Sun-Gang;Lee, Jeong-Taek;Kwun, Soon-Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of nonpoint source pollutants discharge from a small rural watershed. A typical rural area in Gongju City, Korea, was selected as the research site. Water quality and quantity in streams and rainfall samples were analyzed periodically from May to October 2005. Pollutant loads were estimated from a nonpoint source pollution model (AvSWAT, Arcview Soil and Water Assessment Tool). During the rainy season, from June 26 to 30 September 2005 and the dry season, before 26 June and after 30 September 2005, biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands accounted for 91.3% and 93.7% of annual load, respectively, while total-N and total-P were 97.1% and 91.1% of annual load, respectively. The observed stream flow was $66.5m^3sec^{-1}$, while simulation stream flow was $66.2m^3sec^{-1}$. That can be assumed that simulation can be used to estimate the stream flow without practical measurement. However, the runoff trend following the occurrence of a storm event was not recorded properly.

Economic Analysis of Typhoon Surge Floodplain that Using GIS and MD-FDA from Masan Bay, South Korea (MD-FDA와 GIS를 이용한 마산만의 태풍해일 범람구역 경제성 분석)

  • Choi, Hyun;Ahn, Chang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.724-729
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    • 2008
  • In the case of 'MAEMI', the Typhoon which formed in September, 2003, the largest-scale damage of tidal wave was caused by the co-occurrence of Typhoon surge and full tide. Until now Korea has been focusing on the calculating the amount of damage and its restoration to cope with these sea and harbor disasters. It is essential to establish some systematic counterplans to diminish such damages of large-scale tidal invasion on coastal lowlands considering the recent weather conditions of growing scale of typhoons. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to make the counterplans for prevention against disasters fulfilled effectively based on the data conducted by comparing and analyzing the accuracy between observation values and the results of estimating the greatest overflow area according to abnormal tidal levels centered on Masan area where there was the severest damage from tidal wave at that time. It's necessary utilize data like high-resolution satellite image and LiDAR(etc.) for correct analysis data considering geographical characteristics of dangerous area from the storm surge. And we must make a solution to minimize the damage by making data of dangerous section of flood into GIS Database using those data (as stated above) and drawing correcter damage function.

Inundation Pattern Analysis of Excavation at Construction Site and Derivation of Diasaster Cause and Effect Using Fish-bone Diagram (굴착공사현장 침수양상 해석 및 어골도에 의한 침수피해 원인 및 결과 도출)

  • Yoo, Dong-Hyun;Song, Chang Geun
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2021
  • In the 21st century, a number of storm and flood disasters caused by rapidly changing climate change is increasing, and the number of flood accidents at construction sites is also increasing. However, no specific reduction measures have been presented and thereby safety management to prevent flood accident need to be improved. Therefore, in this study, the inundation pattern by downpour at the excavation site was interpreted and the inundation risk quantification method was used to classify the risk magnitude. Finally, using the fish-bone diagram, we derived the major reasons of inundation accident at construction site systematically. The simulation results showed that the inundation depths of small-scale excavation sites and excavation sites exceeded 3 m due to the fluid flowing through the excavation surface. In addition, depending on the excavation site, a high velocity temporarily observed and decreased due to the storage effect, or high velocity surpassing 10 m/s continued. Since this type of flooding can pose a risk to most or all workers, if proper management measures are insufficient, fatal damage to life and property could occur. Consideration of the roots of these disasters is judged to be helpful in understanding the causes of inundation accidents that result in casualties and presenting accident reduction measures.

Simulating flood inflow to multipurposed dam on 2020.8.7.~8.8 storm with ONE model (ONE 모형에 의한 2020.8.7.~8.8. 호우의 댐 유입량 모의)

  • Noh, Jaekyoung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.120-120
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    • 2021
  • 2020년 8월 7일부터 8월 8일까지 호우는 용담댐, 섬진강댐, 합천댐 하류 유역의 막대한 침수피해를 일으켰다. 이들 다목적 댐 유입량의 신뢰도 높은 모의는 홍수기 댐 운영 및 하류하천의 홍수 해석에 필수다. 여기서는 일 유출 모의 기반으로 개발된 ONE 모형을 10분 단위, 1시간 단위로 적용한 결과를 제시하고자 한다. 보통 홍수모의는 사상별로 실시하지만, 여기서는 1월1일부터 12월 31일까지 연속으로 모의한 결과에서 해당 홍수사상 결과를 제시하였다. 3개 다목적 댐의 홍수사상은 8월6일부터 8월 10일까지 5일간으로 설정하였다. 유역면적은 용담댐, 섬진강댐, 합천댐, 각각 930km2, 763km2, 925km2, 총강우량은 각각 490.7mm, 451.9mm, 452.4mm, 첨두유입량은 10분 단위는 각각 4,872.7m3/s, 3,533.7.0m3/s, 2,776.0m3/s, 1시간 단위는 각각 4,394.9m3/s, 3,401.8m3/s, 2,745.6m3/s, 총유입량은 각각 3억8,836만m3, 3억1,324만m3, 3억2,816만m3였다. 첨두유입량 상대오차가 0일 때의 매개변수로 모의한 결과를 제시하며, 총유입량 상대오차(Vq), R2, RMSE, NSE 등으로 평가하였다. 용담댐 결과는 10분 단위 경우 최대면적강우량 7.3mm, 첨두유입량 4,872.4m3/s, 총유입량 3억 8,138만m3, Vq 1.9%, R2 0.968, RMSE 207.347, NSE 0.978였고, 1시간의 경우 최대면적강우량 29.6mm, 첨두유입량 4394.9m3/s, 총유입량 4억157만m3, Vq -8.4%, R2 0.970, RMSE 186.962, NSE 0.982였다. 섬진강댐 결과는 10분 단위 경우 최대면적강우량 9.2mm, 첨두유입량 3,533.3m3/s, 총유입량 2억7,223만m3, Vq 18.4%, R2 0.885, RMSE 808.296, NSE 0.925였고, 1시간의 경우 최대 면적강우량 37.9mm, 첨두유입량 3401.6m3/s, 총유입량 2억7,029만m3, Vq 13.7%, R2 0.907, RMSE 285.544, NSE 0.936였다. 합천댐 결과는 10분 단위 경우 최대면적강우량 5.5mm, 첨두유입량 2,776.2m3/s, 총유입량 3억3,667만m3, Vq -2.7%, R2 0.941, RMSE 191.896, NSE 0.965였고, 1시간의 경우 최대면적강우량 17.0mm, 첨두유입량 2,746.7m3/s, 총유입량 3억1,333만m3, Vq 4.5%, R2 0.965, RMSE 140.739, NSE 0.981였다. 이상 ONE 모형으로 10분, 1시간 단위의 댐 홍수 유입량 모의결과는 높은 신뢰도를 나타냈다.

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Origin of limestone conglomerates in the Choson Supergroup(Cambro-Ordovician), mid-east Korea

  • Kwon Y.K.;Chough S.K.;Choi D.K.;Lee D.J.
    • 한국석유지질학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.63-65
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    • 2001
  • The Chosen Supergroup (Cambro-Ordovician), mid-east Korea consists mainly of shallow marine carbonates and contains a variety of limestone conglomerates. These conglomerates largely comprise oligomictic, rounded lime-mudstone clasts of various size and shape (equant, oval, discoidal, tabular, and irregular) and dolomitic shale matrices. Most clasts are characterized by jigsaw-fit (mosaic), disorganized, or edgewise fabric and autoclastic lithology. Each conglomerate layer is commonly interbedded with limestone-dolomitic shale couplets and occasionally underlain by fractured limestone layer, capped by calcareous shale. According to composition, characteristic sedimentary structures, and fabric, limestone conglomerates in the Hwajol, Tumugol, Makkol, and Mungok formations of Chosen Supergroup can be classified into 4 types: (1) disorganized polymictic conglomerate (Cd), (2) horizontally stratified polymictic conglomerate (Cs), (3) mosaic conglomerate (Cm), and (4) disorganized/edgewise oligomictic conglomerate (Cd/e). These conglomerates are either depositional (Cd and Cs) or diagenetic (Cm and Cd/e) in origin. Depositional conglomerates are interpreted as storm deposits, tidal channel fills, or transgressive lag deposits. On the other hand, diagenetic conglomerates are not deposited by normal sedimentary processes, but formed by post-depositional diagenetic processes. Diagenetic conglomerates in the Chosen Supergroup are characterized by autoclastic and oligomictic lithology of lime-mudstone clasts, jigsaw-fit (mosaic) fabric, edgewise fabric, and a gradual transition from the underlying bed (Table 1). Autoclastic and oligomictic lithologies may be indicative of subsurface brecciation (fragmentation). Consolidation of lime-mudstone clasts pre-requisite for brecciation may result from dissolution and reprecipitation of CaCO3 by degradation of organic matter during burial. Jigsaw-fit fabric has been considered as evidence for in situ fragmentation. The edgewise fabric is most likely formed by expulsion of pore fluid during compaction. The lower boundary of intraformational conglomerates of depositional origin is commonly sharp and erosional. In contrast, diagenetic conglomerate layers mostly show a gradual transition from the underlying unit, which is indicative of progressive fragmentation upward (Fig. 1). The underlying fractured limestone layer also shows evidence for in situ fragmentation such as jigsaw-fit fabric and the same lithology as the overlying conglomerate layer (Fig, 1). Evidence from the conglomerate beds in the Chosen Supergroup suggests that diagenetic conglomerates are formed by in situ subsurface fragmentation of limestone layers and rounding of the fragments. In situ subsurface fragmentation may be primarily due to compaction, dewatering (upward-moving pore fluids), and dissolution, accompanying volume reduction. This process commonly occurs under the conditions of (1) alternating layers of carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor sediments and (B) early differential cementation of carbonate-rich layers. Differential cementation commonly takes place between alternating beds of carbonate-rich and clay-rich layers, because high carbonate content promotes cementation, whereas clay inhibits cementation. After deposition of alternating beds and differential cementation, with progressive burial, upward-moving pore fluid may raise pore-pressure in the upper part of limestone layers, due to commonly overlying impermeable shale layers (or beds). The high pore-pressure may reinforce propagation of fragmentation and cause upward-expulsion of pore fluid which probably produces edgewise fabric of tabular clasts. The fluidized flow then extends laterally, causing reorientation and further rounding of clasts. This process is analogous to that of autobrecciation, which can be analogously termed autoconglomeration. This is a fragmentation and rounding process whereby earlier semiconsolidated portions of limestone are incorporated into still fluid portions. The rounding may be due mainly to immiscibility and surface tension of lime-mud. The progressive rounding of the fragmented clasts probably results from grain attrition by fluidized flow. A synthetic study of limestone conglomerate beds in the Chosen Supergroup suggests that very small percent of the conglomerate layers are of depositional origin, whereas the rest, more than $80\%$, are of diagenetic origin. The common occurrence of diagenetic conglomerates warrants further study on limestone conglomerates elsewhere in the world.

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