• Title, Summary, Keyword: S-adenosylmethionine

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Distribution of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase in the Pancreatic Tissues of Various Animals and Changes of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase Activities and S-Adenosylmethionine in the Developing Rat Organs (췌조직과 성장 발육에 따른 흰쥐 조직내 S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase 활성도 및 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine의 분포)

  • Park, Seung-Hee;Yu, Tae-Moo;Hong, Sung-Youl;Lee, Hyang-Woo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.430-439
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    • 1994
  • S-Adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (ATP: methionine S-Adenosyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.6; AdoMet synthetase) catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine(AdoMet) from methionine in the presence of ATP. To elucidate the role of transmethylation reaction in the pancreatic tissues, we examined AdoMet synthetase and isozyme activities, and AdoMet contents in the various tissues. The activities of AdoMet synthetase marked the highest in the kidney, and the lowest in the testis among the various tissues of rat. Considerable amounts of AdoMet synthetase activities were detected in the pancreatic tissues of various animals except for those of frog. The level of ${\alpha}$ and ${\gamma}$ isozyme activities were present in the pancreatic tissues of various animals, while ${\beta}$ isozyme activities were detected as trace. AdoMet synthetase activities of rat brain, liver, testis were decreased with growth. In the rat pancreatic tissues, AdoMet synthetase activities were increased during 16 days after birth and then decreased between 16 and 47 days of age. Levels of AdoMet contents of rat brain and testis were decreased with growth. However, AdoMet contents of rat pancreas were decreased until 26 days of age, and then increased thereafter. AdoMet synthetase isozyme patterns did not vary with growth in the pancreas and testis. But, in the liver, ${\beta}$ form is strikingly increased with growth.

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Effects of Dietary Folate Supplementation on the Homocystine Diet-Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hepatic S-Adenosylmethionine Metabolism in Rats (엽산 보충이 호모시스틴 식이에 의해 유발된 고호모시스테인혈증과 간의 S-Adenosylmethionine 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김지명;이화영;장남수
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.811-818
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    • 2003
  • We investigated the effects of dietary folate supplementation on plasma homocysteine, vitamin B$_{12}$ and hepatic levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats. All animals were fed 0.3% homocysteine diet for 2 weeks, then they were placed either on a 0.3% homocystine or no homocystine with or without 8 mg/kg folate diet for 8 weeks. Homocystine diet induced hyperhomocysteinemia up to 3.5-fold at 10 weeks (28.0 $\pm$ 4.8 $\mu$mol/l vs. 7.9 $\pm$ 0.3 $\mu$mol/l). Dietary folate supplementation caused a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels which had been increased by a homocystine-diet. Also, dietary folate supplementation made them return to control levels at 4 wk when the diet was free of homocystine. Plasma folate levels were markedly decreased with homocystine diet with no folate supplementation. Plasma vitamin B$_{12}$ did not differ between groups. Dietary homocystine increased hepatic levels of SAM in folate supplementation group at 10 weeks (p<0.05). Dietary folate supplementation increased hepatic levels of SAM/SAH ratios in homocystine group (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary folate supplementation can effectively ameliorate the detrimental effects of hyperhomocysteinemia.mia.

Studies on the active site of the Arabidopsis thaliana S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: $Lys^{81}$ residue involvement in catalytic activity

  • Park, Sung-Joon;Cho, Young-Dong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2000
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) cDNA ($GenBank^{TM}$ U63633) was cloned, then the AdoMetDC protein was expressed and purified. The purified AdoMetDC was inactivated by salicylaldehyde in a pseudo first- order kinetics. The secondorder rate constant for inactivation was 126 $M^{-1}min^{-1}$ with the slope of n=0.73, suggesting that inactivation is the result of the reaction of one lysine residue in the active site of AdoMetDC. Site-specific mutagenesis was performed on the AdoMetDC to introduce mutations in conserved $lysine^{81}$ residues. These were chosen by examination of the conserved sequence and proved to be involved in enzymatic activity by chemical modification. Changing $Lys^{81}$ to alanine showed an altered optimal pH. The substrate also provided protection against inactivation by salicylaldehyde. Considering these results, we suggest that the $lysine^{81}$ residue may be involved in catalytic activity.

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Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Hepatic Injury from Sequential Cold and Warm Ischemia

  • Lee, Yu-Bum;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 2000
  • We investigated whether S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) treatment improved ischemic injury using perfused rat liver after sequential periods of 24 h cold and 20 min re-warming ischemia. SAM (100 $\mu\textrm{mol/L}$) was added to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and Ringers lactate solution. After cold and sequential warm ischemia, releases of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) markedly increased during repefusion. The increase in PNP was significantly reduced by SAM treatment. While the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in ischemic livers significantly decreased, the concentration of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) increased. This decrease in GSH and increase in GSSG were suppressed by SAM treatment. Lipid peroxidation was elevated in cold and warm ischemic and reperfused livers, but this elevation was also prevented by SAM treatment. Hepatic ATP levels were decreased in the ischemic and reperfused livers to 42% of the control levels. However, treatment with SAM resulted in significantly higher ATP levels and preserved the concentration of AMP in ischemic livers. Our findings suggest that SAM prevents oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and helps preserve hepatic energy metabolism.

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S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Regulates Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces spp. in a Mode Independent of Its Role as a Methyl Donor

  • Zhao Xin-Qing;Jin Ying-Yu;Kwon Hyung-Jin;Yang Young-Yell;Suh Joo-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.927-932
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    • 2006
  • S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a ubiquitous biomolecule serving mainly as a methyl donor. Our recent studies revealed that SAM controls antibiotic production in Streptomyces. In this study, the functional mode of SAM was studied in S. coelicolor and S. antibioticus ATCC11891, employing S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a methylation reaction product of SAM. Actinorhodin biosynthesis did not require SAM as a methyl donor, whereas SAH enhanced the actinorhodin biosynthesis up to the level comparable to SAM, and the most effective concentration of SAH was higher than that of SAM. In the case of oleandomycin that requires SAM for its biosynthesis, both SAM and SAH at the concentration as low as 100 mM showed comparable efficacy in enhancing the production; SAM at 1 mM concentration additionally stimulated to give a 5-fold enhancement of oleandomycin production. In vitro autophosphorylation of protein kinase AfsK was found to be activated by both SAM and SAH, as well as other structurally related compounds. Our studies demonstrate that SAM regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in a mode independent of its role as a methyl donor and suggest that SAM acts directly as an intracellular signaling molecule for Streptomyces.

Purification and Characterization of S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase from Soybean (Glycine max) Axes

  • Kim, Dae-Gun;Park, Tae-Jin;Kim, Jong-Yeol;Cho, Young-Dong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 1995
  • S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase was purified to homogeneity from soybean (Glycine max) axes. The enzyme was purified 216-fold with a 1.5% yield by ammonium sulfate fractionation, acetone fractionation, ion exchange chromatography with DEAE-sephacel, gel filtration with Sephacryl S-300, and afffinity chromatography with ATP-agarose. The enzyme activity reached a maximum 3 days after germination. SAM synthetase had a subunit molecular weight of 57,000 daltons from a silver stained single band on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 110,000 daltons from Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. The enzyme was composed of two identical subunits. The $K_m$ values of the enzyme for L-methionine and ATP were 1.81 and 1.53 mM, respectively. The enzymatic activity was not affected by polyamines, agmatine, or SAM analogues, but was inhibited by SAM. The inhibition pattern was showed non-competitive for L-methionine and uncompetitive for ATP. The activity of SAM synthetase was inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents. The enzyme was induced by treatment with $10^{-3}$ M putrescine at germination. Experimental data revealed a possible novel regulation mechanism of polyamine biosynthesis through several endogenous intermediates.

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5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine Induces Hepatoma Cell Apoptosis via Enhancing Methionine Adenosyltransferase 1A Expression and Inducing S-Adenosylmethionine Production

  • Liu, Wei-Jun;Ren, Jian-Guo;Li, Ting;Yu, Guo-Zheng;Zhang, Jin;Li, Chang-Sheng;Liu, Zhi-Su;Liu, Quan-Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6433-6438
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    • 2013
  • In hepatocellular cancer (HCC), lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment can be caused by a loss of epigenetic modifications of cancer cells. Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A is inactivated in HCC and may be stimulated by an epigenetic change involving promoter hypermethylation. Therefore, drugs releasing epigenetic repression have been proposed to reverse this process. We studied the effect of the demethylating reagent 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-Aza-CdR) on MAT1A gene expression, DNA methylation and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) production in the HCC cell line Huh7. We found that MAT1A mRNA and protein expression were activated in Huh7 cells with the treatment of 5-Aza-CdR; the status of promoter hypermethylation was reversed. At the same time, MAT2A mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in Huh7 cells treated with 5-Aza-CdR, while SAMe production was significantly induced. However, 5-Aza-CdR showed no effects on MAT2A methylation. Furthermore, 5-Aza-CdR inhibited the growth of Huh7 cells and induced apoptosis and through down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3. Our observations suggest that 5-Aza-CdR exerts its anti-tumor effects in Huh7 cells through an epigenetic change involving increased expression of the methionine adenosyltransferase 1A gene and induction of S-adenosylmethionine production.

Optimization of Rhamnetin Production in Escherichia coli

  • Sung, Su-Hyun;Kim, Bong-Gyu;Ahn, Joong-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.854-857
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    • 2011
  • POMT7, which is an O-methyltransferase from poplar, transfers a methyl group to several flavonoids that contain a 7-hydroxyl group. POMT7 has been shown to have a higher affinity toward quercetin, and the reaction product rhamnetin has been shown to inhibit the formation of beta-amyloid. Thus, rhamnetin holds great promise for use in therapeutic applications; however, methods for mass production of this compound are not currently available. In this study, quercetin was biotransformed into rhamnetin using Escherichia coli expressing POMT7, with the goal of developing an approach for mass production of rhamnetin. In order to maximize the production of rhamnetin, POMT7 was subcloned into four different E. coli expression vectors, each of which was maintained in E. coli with a different copy number, and the best expression vector was selected. In addition, the S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis pathway was engineered for optimal cofactor production. Through the combination of optimized POMT7 expression and cofactor production, the production of rhamnetin was increased up to 111 mg/l, which is approximately 2-fold higher compared with the E. coli strain containing only POMT7.

Significantly Enhanced Production of Acarbose in Fed-Batch Fermentation with the Addition of S-Adenosylmethionine

  • Sun, Li-Hui;Li, Ming-Gang;Wang, Yuan-Shan;Zheng, Yu-Guo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.826-831
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    • 2012
  • Acarbose, a pseudo-oligosaccharide, is widely used clinically in therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In the present study, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to selected media in order to investigate its effect on acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196. Acarbose titer was seen to increase markedly when concentrations of SAM were added over a period of time. The effects of glucose and maltose on the production of acarbose were investigated in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. Optimal acarbose production was observed at relatively low glucose levels and high maltose levels. Based on these results, a further fed-batch experiment was designed so as to enhance the production of acarbose. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose level of 10 g/l and an initial maltose level of 60 g/l. Then, 12 h post inoculation, 100 ${\mu}mol/l$ SAM was added. In addition, 8 g/l of glucose was added every 24 h, and 20 g/l of maltose was added at 96 h. By way of this novel feeding strategy, the maximum titer of acarbose achieved was 6,113 mg/l at 192 h. To our knowledge, the production level of acarbose achieved in this study is the highest ever reported.