• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rye

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Change of Weeds Occurrence, Early Growth and Yield of Soybean at Simultaneous Planting with Rye as Living Mulch (초생피복용 호밀과 동시파종 시 잡초발생, 콩의 초기생육 및 수량 변화)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Moon, Jung-Kyung;Kwon, Young-Up;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Kim, Si-Ju
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.236-241
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    • 2013
  • Introduction of rye living mulch in soybean production is important for labor-saving and reduction of herbicide usage for weeding by weed suppression and for soil conservation by mulching of rye. Soybean and rye were row-planted and broadcasted simultaneously at different planting times (May 15, May 25, June 5) and row widths (35 and 70 cm) in 2010, different soybean cultivars (Daepoong, Singi) and planting times (May 15 and June 1) in 2011, respectively, and investigated weed occurrence, early growth and yield of soybean. Acalypha australis, which is known to herbicide-resistant weed, could be controlled ecologically by rye living mulch. Occurrence of Acalypha australis was controlled effectively also by mixture of alachlor and linulon at no mulch in 2011. Early growth amount of soybean plant per area was increased by narrow row width (35 cm) at rye living mulch, which was helpful in the control of weeds, but grain yield of soybean with narrow row was decreased compared to conventional row width (70 cm) at the planting in early June. It is concluded that soybean planting as row width 70 cm in early June is proper at simultaneous planting with rye.

The Effect of Moisture Control on Fermentation Characteristics of Barley and Rye Silages (수분 조절이 보리와 호밀 silage의 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Chan;Kim, Sam-Churl
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2010
  • This study examined the effect of moisture level at ensiling on fermentation characteristics of barley and rye silage. The moisture levels, 60 (low; LM), 70(medium; MM) and 80% (high; HM), were controled by adding water or pre-wilting. Barley silage had higher pH and latate:acetate ratio in LM than the other treatments, but those of rye in MM were higher. The concentrations of lactate, total FA and acetate in HM were higher than the other treatments, but propionate concentration in LM was higher than HM. Total N concentrations of barley and rye were highest in MM and LM, respectively. The $NH_3-N$ concentration and total N:$NH_3-N$ ratio of barley were higher in HM than those in LM and MM. With increasing moisture content, buffering capacity of barley and rye silages increased, whereas decreased by increase of pH. There was a negative correlation between moisture content vs. pH of barley and rye silages. However, moisture content vs. the concentrations of total VFA and $NH_3-N$ and the ratio of total N:$NH_3-N$ had a positive correlation. Tn conclusion, the ideal moisture content of barley and rye for silage was 70-80%, but silage quality could be rapidly decreased by pre-wilting to 60% moisture content.

A Comparison on Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value of Winter Forage Crops Cultivated after Rice Harvest in the Central Inland Region (중부내륙지방에서 벼 수확 후 재배한 월동 사료작물들의 생산성 및 사료가치 비교)

  • Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics, yield, and chemical compositions of winter forage crops cultivated after rice harvest in the central inland region. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 species (Rye, Oat, Triticale and Italian ryegrass), and varieties were "Marton", "Donghan", "Shinyoung" and "Kowinnearly", respectively. As a result, dry matter yield and TDN yield were higher in rye than in the other winter forage crops, and lowest in Oat(p<0.05). Crude protein and crude fat content were significantly higher in Italian ryegrass(p<0.05). However, Crude ash and ADF content did not show significant difference among winter forage crops. NDF content was higher in order of Rye > Triticale > Oat > Italian ryegrass(p<0.05). TDN and total amino acid content (EAA+NEAA) were higher in order of winter forage crop with high crude protein content (Italian ryegrass > Oat > Triticale > Rye). Total mineral content was higher in order of Rye > Triticale > Oat > Italian ryegrass(p<0.05), and total free sugar content was higher in order of Oat > Italian Ryegrass > Triticale > Rye(p<0.05). Compared with the results above, Italian ryegrass and Oat are high in crude protein, TDN, amino acid and free sugar content. Rye and Triticale have the merit that feed value is decreased but high yield(dry matter and TDN yield) can be maintained. Therefore, it is advantageous to grow Rye and Triticale as winter forage crops after rice harvest in the central inland region.

Effects of Spring-sown Rye Living Mulch on Weed Suppression and Soybean Production (춘파호밀 리빙멀치가 잡초억제 및 콩 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Kwon, Young-Up;Lee, Jae-Eun;Jung, Gun-Ho;Seong, Jang-Hoon;Kim, Chung-Guk;Kim, Wook-Han
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.192-198
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    • 2011
  • Establishment of mechanized soybean production system without herbicide is required for organic soybean production in recent. Effects of mechanized soybean planting with partial tillage between growing rye living mulch, which was sown in April or early May, on weed suppression, soybean early growth and yield were investigated with different rye sowing dates and locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Effect of rye living mulch on weed suppression at 40~50 days after soybean planting was high as much as 70~90% regardless of rye sowing dates. In particular, a strong suppression effect on the occurrence and growth of Echinochloa crus-galli which occupied 60~80% of total weed biomass was observed. Rye living mulch sown on April 9, of which biomass was more than that sown on April 27, inhibited soybean early growth severely and reduced soybean grain yield in 2007. However, soybean grain yield was no t reduced despite suppression of early growth of soybean plant by living mulch sown during from late April to early May compared with conventional planting. Rye sowing before late April was not proper considering tendency of weed occurrence in spring because of unfavorable changes in weed suppression, early growth and grain yield of soybean according to amount of living mulch.

Effect of Feeding Rye Silage and Feed Restriction on both Growth and Reproductive Performances in Replacing Gilts (후보돈에서 호맥 사일리지의 급여와 사료의 제한급여가 생산성과 번식능력에 미치는 효과)

  • 조진호;한영근;민병준;진영걸;김해진;유종상;김정우;김인호
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding rye silage and feed restriction on both growth and reproductive performances in replacing gilts. Twenty four replacing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire, 67.63±1.17kg initial BW) were used in 49 d growth assay. Dietary treatments were included 1) CON(basal diet), 2) S15(15% feed restriction + ad libitum rye silage) and 3) S30(30% feed restriction + ad libitum rye silage). In growth performance, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were the highest in CON among treatments(P<0.05). Average daily silage intake was not significantly different between S15 and S30 treatments(P>0.05). Feed conversion ratio was the lowest in CON among treatments(P<0.05). Average silage intake of S15 and S30 treatments was increased as time goes by(P<0.05). While all gilts of S15 and S30 treatments became pregnant, one gilt of CON became pregnant. Also, first estrus and mating were occured earlier in S15 and S30 than those of CON. In conclusion, 15% feed restriction and feeding rye silage reduced growth performance, reached earlier to first estrus and increased pregnancy rate in replacing gilts.

Estimation of Soybean N Fraction Derived from N Sources by $^{15}N$ in Soybean Cultivation with Rye as Green Manure (호밀녹비 이용 시 중질소($^{15}N$)를 이용한 질소원 유래별 콩의 집적질소 분획추정)

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Lee, Seong-Hee;Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Jae-Eun;Lee, Chung-Keun;Kwon, Young-Up
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2008
  • Winter season cultivation of rye as green manure for soybean have been a favorite with farmer because it could remove a risk of injury by continuous cropping and increase N uptake and yield of soybean. Effects of rye green manure on soybean N uptake, $N_2$ fixation and yield were investigated with $^{15}N$ as pot experiment in greenhouse in 2004 and field in 2005, respectively. The N derived from N fertilizer ($^{15}N$) in rye green manure increased with increasing of N fertilizer rate compared to N derived from soil. N uptake and DM yield of soybean at the pot with paddy soil was higher than those at the pot with upland soil mainly due to the increase of N uptake from paddy soil. Total $^{15}N$ recovery in soil was higher at rye green manure than no green manure because $^{15}N$ applied to rye plant was remained highly as soil organic N compared to chemical N fertilizer. $^{15}N$ recovery in soybean plant increased in proportion to amounts of N fertilizer applied to rye. The N fractions from $N_2$ fixation of soybean plant at the pot experiment in 2004 ranged from 92% to 95%, on the other hand those in field experiment in 2005 ranged from 82% to 84%. Estimation of amount of $N_2$ fixation was not different between Difference method and $^{15}N$ method in 2004 and 2005.

Effects of Seeding Rate on Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) - Rye (Secale cereale) Mixtures for Green Manure Production in Upland Soil (밭토양에서 녹비작물 헤어리베치와 호밀의 혼파비율이 Biomass 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Weon-Tai;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Lee, Jong-Ki;Kim, Min-Tae;Cho, Hyun-Suk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.327-331
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    • 2009
  • Korean government has promoted the policy of chemical fertilizer reduction by 40% reduction from 2003 to 2013. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere and rye (Secale cerale L.) accumulates soil nitrogen to reduce potential nitrogen loss. The objective of this research was to identify optimum seeding rates of hairy vetch-rye mixtures in the central regions of Korea. The experiment of mixture rate was carried out for maximum production in 2006 and 2007. The best seeding rate mixture for maximum biomass production was 6.75 kg hairy vetch and 5 kg rye per 10a. Pure hairy vetch and rye were used as control. The nitrogen production of mixture treatments were higher than pure rye. The hairy vetch and rye mixture can scavenge potentially leachable nitrogen, while maintaining soil fertility by adding fixed nitrogen to the cropping system.

Impacts of Cover Crops on Early Growth, Nitrogen Uptake and Carbohydrate Composition of Pepper Plants (고추의 초기생장, 질소흡수 및 탄수화물 합성에 대한 녹비작물 시용효과)

  • Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Choi, Du-Hoi;Kim, Tae-Wan;Song, Beom-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.44-49
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    • 2008
  • Sufficient inorganic nitrogen supply for crop growth is crucial for economically sustainable organic farming. The effects of an application of cover crop biomass on crop growth, nitrogen utilization and carbohydrate composition were investigated during early stage. Short-term changes in soil nitrogen after incorporating fresh hairy vetch and rye shoots were measured. The inorganic nitrogen from cover crops reached the peak at 15 ($NH_4-N$) and 24 ($NO_3-N$) days after incorporation, and then decreased rapidly. The highest concentration of soil nitrate showed at 27 days of incorporation in hairy vetch and at 18 days in rye, and three fold differences exhibited between two treatments. Crop growth under hairy vetch or rye incorporation significantly differed. At 20 DAT, dry matter production in NPK and hairy vetch was about two fold greater than that in rye. Difference in decomposing rates of hairy vetch and rye had also influence on nitrogen status in leaves and roots of pepper plants. Total nitrogen was greater in NPK and hairy vetch than in rye until 20 DAT, whereas inorganic nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite) concentration was higher in rye. Temporal changes in soluble sugars and starch in pepper plants among treatments were similar, although difference in the amount existed. It was suggested that hairy vetch as an alternative nitrogen source promoted crop growth and mineral utilization during early growth stage, whereas an obvious effect in rye was not found.

Effects of Mixed-Sowing of Legume and Applying of Cattle Manure on the Productivity, Feed Values and Organic Hanwoo Carrying Capacity of Rye in Southern Area of Gyeongbuk Province (경북남부지방에서 콩과 사료작물의 혼파와 우분의 시용이 호밀의 생산성, 사료가치 및 단위면적당 유기한우 사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwangbo, Soon;Choi, Kwang-Won;Jung, Soon-Mi;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.583-593
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed-sowing of legume forage and applying of cattle manure on the productivity of organic rye to provide dairy farmers with safe organic feeds. Also the present study aimed to evaluate optimal applying level of cattle manure and carrying capacity of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) per unit area. The amount of crude protein was significantly higher in the mixed-sowing of legume forage (average 760~786 kg/ha) than in the single-sowing of rye (average 353 kg/ha) (p<0.05). The mixed-sowing of forage peas and the single-sowing of rye tended to improve by increasing the level of nitrous fertilization rather than the fertilization treatment. The amount of crude protein on the rye according to the mixed-sowing of legume was significantly higher in the mixture (average 8.29~9.90%) than in the single (average 4.93%) (p<0.05). The comparison by the level of nitrogen fertilization indicated significantly high for the rye in 50 kg N/ha than in fertilization treatments (p<0.05). Total digestible nutrients (TDN) amount in the single-sowing of rye was average 46.86% and has lower than average 49.96~50.12% of the mixed-sowing of legume, and especially the mixed-sowing of forage pea was the highest with 54.55% in 150 kg N/ha for the level of nitrogen fertilization (p<0.05). The breeding ability of annual organic livestocks per unit area according to the feed value of rye presented significantly higher ability in the mixed-sowing of legume (3.72~4.12 heads) than the single-sowing of rye (average 2.26 heads) (p<0.05). By summarizing above results, the mixed-sowing of legume is required to improve the productivity and the feed value of rye for increasing organic livestock breeding ability in southern area of Gyeongbuk regions, and the study for identifying the appropriate fertilization level using livestock excretions is further necessary.

Transmission of Reciprocal Translocation in Rye, Secale cereale (호밀 상호전좌의 Transmission에 대하여)

  • 이웅직
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.139-142
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    • 1975
  • The rye strain 72-1 derived from the cross between ♀(OB, normal)$\times$♂(2B, Ⅵ+and Ⅵ-) were investigated. It was found that (Ⅵ+, Ⅵ-), Ⅵ+, Ⅵ- were segregated and the frequency of quadrivalent per PMC were varied in different plants. The frequency of transmission of B chromosome to the strain 72-1 showed 61.9%. The plnat 72-1-15 was found to be trisomic together with 2 B chromosomes.

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