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Determining the Water Absorption and Rheological Properties of Rye Dough Made Using the Planetary Mixer P 600

  • Kim, Mun-Yong;Freund, Walter;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.456-462
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    • 2009
  • In comparison to processed wheat flour products, there is no established method for determining the water absorption of rye flour. The aim of this study was to work out a method using the Planetary mixer P 600 for the determination of water absorption (WA) and the rheological properties in rye dough made from rye flours of 4 different types (I-IV). In the correlation analysis showed that WA had positive correlation with ash, beginning of gelatinization, $125-160{\mu}m$ particles, sedimentation values at 20 and 25 min, bread yield, pH, and total titratable acidity, but had negative correlation with initial viscosity, gelatinization maximum, viscosities on swelling at 25, 28, and $31^{\circ}C$. The WA determined by the Planetary mixer P 600 agreed well with the experimental baking tests.

Silages of Rye Harvested at Different Stages: A Study on Microbial Inoculants Responses in Improving Rye Silage Fermentation Quality

  • Srigopalram, Srisesharam;Ilavenil, Soundharrajan;Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam;Yoon, Yong Hee;Kim, Won Ho;Choi, Ki Choon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2017
  • The present study analyzes the role of Lactic Acid Bacteria Mixture (LBM) on improving rye silage quality. Rye of four different stages (Booting, Heading, Flowering, and Late flowering) was collected and silage was prepared. The nutrient profile analysis of experimental silage groups showed no significant changes between control and LBM inoculation. Interestingly, the pH of rye silage in LBM treatments showed significant reduction than control (p<0.05) in all stages of rye silage. However, lowest pH (3.69) resulted on booting stage among other stages of rye. Subsequently significant lactic acid production was noted in all stages of LBM inoculation than control. Conversely maximum lactic acid production of (5.33%DM) was noted at booting stage followed by (4.86%DM) in heading stage. Further the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count in LBM inoculated group showed significant increase than control. Similarly, the silage of booting stage group registered maximum LAB population ($63.7{\times}10^6CFU/g$) after that heading stage ($32.3{\times}10^6CFU/g$). Further significant reduction in yeast growth and no fungal growth was noted in all LPM treatment groups. Hence, LBM inoculants could be a better additive for improving rye silage quality.

Effect of Cover Crops on the Soil Properties and Fruit Quality in a Persimmon Orchard (녹비작물이 단감과원의 토양 특성과 과실품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byeong-Sam;Cho, Kyung-Chul;Na, Yang-Gi;Yoon, Bong-Ki;Jung, Seok-Kyu;Cho, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Kyung-A;Choi, Hyun-Sug
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.413-421
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted into the effects of cover crops among the hairy vetch, red clover, rye, and hairy vetch+rye on the soil chemical and physical properties, and fruit yield in mature 'Fuyu' persimmon (Diospyros${\times}$kaki Thunb.) trees. The shallow-rooted red clover had poor dry matter production, resulting in the lowest coverage (66%) on the orchard floor. In contrast, the highest dry matter production observed in rye and hairy vetch+rye. Estimated N, P and K production from the cover crops were the highest on the hairy vetch+rye plots, increasing soil chemicals at a depth of 0-30 cm soil. Rye or hairy vetch+rye treatments decreased the soil bulk density and solid phase. As the hairy vetch+rye treatment increased fruit yield and sugar contents, it could be proposed as an suitable cover crop for improving productivity of persimmon trees.

Effects of Timing of Rye Harvest Date and Residue Residue Chemical Treatment Corn for Silage (호밀의 수확 및 제초제 처리시기가 후작 사일리지용 옥수수에 미치는 영향)

  • 김원호;김동암;김종덕
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was conducted in 1992 and 1993 at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon to determine timing of rye(Secde cemde L.) harvest and residue chemical treatment prior to tillage in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea muys L.). Eight treatments were established in 1993 which included four treatments such as no paraquat (1, l'diiethyl- 4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride), paraquat treatment at 10, 23, and both 23 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 14, and another four treatments such as no paraquat, paraquat treatment at 1, 5 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 26. No paraquat treatment significantly resulted in reductions in corn plant height on June 3 and 10 when rye was harvested on April 14, but differences in the plant height and leaf number of corn among treatments were generally nonsignificant. Corn LA1 and silk emergence were not affected by paraquat treatment times regardless of rye harvested dates, but silk emergence was delayed by 1 to 2 days with no paraquat when rye harvested on April 14. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly increased by paraquat treatment at 10 and 5 days prior to tillage treatment when rye was harvested on April 14 and 26, respectively, but other agronomic characteristics such as dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover and ear yields of corn at harvest showed little or no response to paraquat treatment times.

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Effect of harvest dates on β-carotene content and forage quality of rye (Secale cereale L.) silage and hay

  • Zhao, Guo Qiang;Wei, Sheng Nan;Liu, Chang;Kim, Hak Jin;Kim, Jong Geun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.354-366
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    • 2021
  • Limited data about the effects of various factors on forage quality and β-carotene content of rye produced in Korea are available, so this study investigated the effects of two preservation methods. Samples were collected from rye harvested every 5 days between April 25 and May 31, and comparisons were done among rye silage wilted for different periods of time and hay of three growth stages of rye. For the silage, dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents increased with advanced maturity of rye, whereas crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), total digestible nutrients (TDN), relative feed value (RFV), and DM loss decreased (p < 0.0001). Wilting increased the DM content and pH value significantly (p < 0.0001). Silage harvested at the heading stage had the lowest pH value (4.45), propionic acid (0.83 g/kg DM), butyric acid (0 g/kg DM), and fungi and yeast populations (3.70 Log CFU/g of fresh matter [FM]); conversely, it had the highest lactic acid (9.7 g/kg DM), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (6.87 Log CFU/g of FM), total microorganisms (TM) (7.33 Log CFU/g of FM), and Flieg's score (70) (p < 0.0001). Wilting elevated LAB and TM populations, but it had no consistent effect on other fermentation products. Both delayed harvest and prolonged wilting decreased β-carotene content. Rye silage harvested around May 9 (heading stage) with 24 h of wilting was preferred for highland, Pyeongchang. For rye hay, advanced maturity decreased DM loss, IVDMD, TDN, and RFV, but it increased DM, ADF, and NDF significantly (p < 0.05). β-carotene was decreased by delay of hay-making. Consequently, to attain lower DM loss and higher hay quality, the harvest date of May 9 (heading stage) is recommended.

Changes in Shelf-Life, Water Activity, and Texture of Rye-Wheat Mixed Bread with Naturally Fermented Raisin Extract and Rye Sourdough during Storage (건포도 천연 발효액과 호밀 사워도우를 이용한 호밀-밀 혼합빵의 저장 중 저장수명, 수분활성도 및 조직감의 변화)

  • Kim, Mun-Yong;Chun, Soon-Sil
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 2009
  • This study examined effects on shelf-life extension and prevention of starch retrogradation in rye-wheat mixed bread (RWMB) samples prepared with substitutions of 20, 40, 60, and 80% rye sourdough (RSD) as well as a control made with the addition of naturally fermented raisin extract. These effects were investigated using mold growth, water activity, and textural characteristics during a storage period of 8 days at $20^{\circ}C$. The activities of the rye sourdough were examined in terms of pH, total titratable acidity, general bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast counts. As the incubation time of the sour dough increased, pH decreased, while total titratable acidity increased. General bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast counts increased with increasing incubation time. Mold grew on the external surface of the control group after 6 days and on the surface of the RSD bread samples after 8 days, respectively. With regard to water activity, the control group had increasing activity as the storage period increased. In addition, the 20, 40, 60, and 80% RSD samples had increasing water activities until the 4th day however, these strongly decreased by the 6th day. In terms of textural characteristics, as the storage period increased, hardness increased, while springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience decreased. There were no significant differences in gumminess among the samples. The control, 20, 40, and 60% RSD samples had decreases in chewiness with increasing storage time, however, the 40% RSD sample did not differ significantly during the storage period. Finally, water activity was negatively correlated with hardness (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that substituting rye sourdough in rye-wheat mixed bread has a prolongation effect on shelf-life, but no effect on the prevention of starch retrogradation.

Effects of Maturity at Harvest and Wilting Days on Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage

  • Kim, J.G.;Chung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Ham, J.S.;Kang, W.S.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1233-1237
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    • 2001
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of maturity at harvest and wilting days on the quality of round baled rye (Secale cereale L.) silage. This study was a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement in a split plot design with 3 replicates. The main plot was 3 harvesting dates at the stage of boot (20 Apr.), heading (29 Apr.) and flowering (14 May). The subplot was wilting day : 0 (unwilted), 0.5 and 1 day (0, 1, and 2 days at boot stage). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of rye silage were significantly greater than those of rye before ensiling, but crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were vice versa. Buffering capacity (BC) of rye harvested at flowering stage was decreased from 264 to 202 meq/kg at 1 day wilting, however, it was increased when harvested at boot or heading stage. The pH in wilted silage was the highest while that of flowering stage was the lowest. Water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of wilting rye was lower than that of unwilted, and the lowest at late harvesting stage. All plots had minimal WSC content for silage fermentation. Wilting treatment and delayed harvesting date caused an increase in dry matter (DM) content of round bale silage. The content of ammonia-N expressed as a portion of total N showed negative correlation with DM content. High quality silage according to ammonia-N content could be obtained from mid-harvest with wilting. There were highly significant differences in each organic acid between harvesting dates and wilting periods. Acetic and butyric acid contents were increased with delayed harvesting and prolonged wilting period, the lactic acid content, however, was decreased. This study demonstrated that harvest of rye from heading to flowering stage with wilting would be a recommendable method for making high quality rye silage using round bale system.

Effect of Intercropping of Spring-Sowing Rye for Organic Soybean Cultivation (콩 유기재배시 춘파호밀 간작의 효과)

  • Yoon, Deok-Hoon;Nam, Ki-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.529-538
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the sowing time and sowing methods of the Rye(Secale cereale L.) for an organic soybean farming system. It can be seen that there was no significantly differences on soil chemical properties in the rhizosphere due to the Rye's sowing season. A soil chemical properties due to the Rye's sowing date in spring, O.M.(g $kg^{-1}$) contents was increased at a late Rye's sowing dat, while on the other pH, Avail. $P_2O_5$(mg $kg^{-1}$) and CEC(cmol+ $kg^{-1}$) were decreased. A highest yields of soybean was achieved at the plot which the Rye was sowed on 20th March with two-line, 5 row and 70cm row-space.

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Comparison of Dry Matter Yield, Feed Value and Stock Carrying Capacity at Mixture of Rye, Triticale and Legume in Central Region of Korea (중부지역에서 호밀, 트리티케일과 두과 사료작물 혼파에 따른 생산성, 사료가치 및 가축사육능력 비교)

  • Park, Sang-Soo;Noh, Jin-Hwan;Park, Jun-Hyuk;Yoon, Ki-Yong;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2012
  • This experiments was conducted to investigate the influence on growth of rye, triticale with legume and investigated their productivity, feed value and stock carrying capacity in order to select the appropriate forage species in the central region of Korea. In the results, Rye+Red clover showed 5.2ton/ha of dry matter yield. But there was no significant difference with Triticale+Red clover and Rye in upland field. In paddy field, Rye+Hairy vetch showed 5.2ton/ha, but there was no significant difference with Triticale+Hairy vetch and Rye. Mixture effects with Rye, Triticale and Red clover, Hairy vetch by relative yield were more than 1.00 compared to monoculture, and their mixture effect was recognized in upland and paddy field. Relative feed value was highest in the applications of Triticale mixture in upland and paddy field. The average value of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ showed the highest one as 2.75head/ha/yr in Rye+Red clover in upland field and 2.84head/ ha/yr in Triticale+Hairy vetch in paddy field. According to the results, Rye+Red clover in upland field and Triticale+Hairy vetch in paddy field were considered to be the most appropriate winter forage crops for the central region of Korea in terms of productivity, feed value and stock carrying capacity.

Analysis of Growth and Development in Rye Cultivars Based on the Feekes Scale in Rotation to Sowing Dates (추파용 호밀 품종의 파종기에 따른 Feekes scale에 의한 생장발달 분석)

  • Kim, Su-Gon;Kim, Jong-Duk;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Park, Hyung-Soo;Ko, Han-Jong;Ha, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Dong-Am
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was carried out to assess the growth and development of five rye(Secale cereale L.) cultivars based on the Feekes scale in relation to sowing date at the Experimental Livestock Farm, Seoul National University(SNU), Suwon from 30 September 2001 to 4 May 2002. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of two sowing date such as early(30 September) and late(15 October). The subplots consisted of rye cultivars of five different maturity groups such as 'Kodiak', 'Koolgrazer', 'Danko', 'Homil22' and 'Olhomil'. The plant height of early sowing rye cultivars was higher than that of late one. Among the rye cultivars tested, plant heights of early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars. The tiller number at early sowing(48.0) was higher than that of late(24.3), however, late maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars among the rye cultivars tested. Growth and development in the early sowing were generally three days earlier than those of late sowing cultivars. Growth and development in 'Olhomil' rye cultivars was earlier than 'Danko' rye cultivars when sown in early, but 'Olhomil' and 'Koolgrazer' rye cultivars showed an early maturity than 'Danko' rye when sown in late. Therefore, the developmental stages of winter rye cultivars could be categorised the following maturity; 'Olhomil' and 'Koolgrazer' are early in maturity, 'Homil22' is medium, and 'Kodiak' and 'Danko' are late in maturity.