• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rye

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Effect of Winter Annual Forage Crops on Growth , Yield and Quality of Silage Corn (추파사료작물이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장 , 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;김원호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted in 1991 and 1992 to determine the effects of winter annual forage corps such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.), rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera L.), oats (Auena satiua L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), vetch (Vicia satiua L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolim multiflorum Lam.) on subsequent growth, yield and quality of silage corn (Zea mays L.). The winter annual forage crops were seeded at the end of August and harvested in the fall and spring before corn planting. Corn-leaf numbers, plant heights and LA1 were generally reduced during early development when corn followed Italian ryegrass(P<0.05) and winter rye, but the silking date of corn was not affected by the winter annual forage crops. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly reduced when corn followed Italian ryegrass and late maturing Kodiak winter rye. The yield reductions for corn following Italian ryegrass and Kodiak winter rye, relative to corn which did not follow the winter annual forage crops, were 49 and 19% respectively. but the corn yield was slightly improved by 2 and 3%, respectively. when corn followed crimson clover and vetch. No quality differences in corn stover were observed among the treatments except for the lowest ADF and NDF contents and the highest IVDMD where corn followed ltaliabn ryegrass.

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effect of Cattle Compost and NPK Application on Growth and Dry Matter Accumulation of Selected Forage Crops on Neqly Reclaimed Uplands (신개간지에서 구비 및 삼요소시용이 청예사료작물의 생육 및 건물축적에 미치는 영향)

  • 한민수;박종선
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 1991
  • A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of cattle compost application on the change of soil physical properties and their relationship to yield performance of selected main forage crops. Maize(CV. Suweon 19) and sorghum hybrids(CV. Pioneer 9'31) as a summer crops and winter rye were grown on newly reclaimed red yellow soils(Fine loamy, Typic Hapludults) under different application rate of cattle compost associated with chemical NPK fertilization, from Oct. 1986 to Sept. 1989. Experimental field was laid down as a split plots design with four replications. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Cattle compost application reclaimed soil physical propeties, such as formation of granular structure and water holding capacity, and it result in a great increase of plant growth and the rate of dry matter accumulation. 2. While cattle compost treatment reduced the portion of soild phase of the three phase constituents of soils, it increased the portion of air phase and liquid phase comparatively. 3. Organic matter, N, P, K, and mineral content in soil were markedly increased in the plot treated with compost. 4. Cattle compost application increased fodder production both in maize-rye and sorghum hybrids-rye cultivation. Annual dry matter yield of maize-rye cropping was 2183(NI'K only), 2425(NPK+compvst 3000 kg) and 2800kg/lOa(NPK + compost 6000kg/10a).

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Potential effects of Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria on Fermentation Quality of Rye Haylage (신규 젖산균 첨가가 저 수분 호밀 사일리지의 발효 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki Choon;Soundarrajan, Ilavenil;Srisesharam, Srigopalram;Park, Hyung Soo;Kim, Ji Hye;Jung, Jeong Sung;Kim, Hyun Seup
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2016
  • The present study was carried out to explore the potential effects of novel lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus penticeous KCC-23 (KCC-23) and Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-24 (KCC-24) on rye haylage fermentation at National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan province in Korea. The experiment contains three different groups such as control without lactic acid bacteria, rye haylage with KCC-23 and rye haylage KCC-24. After experimental periods, the content of crude protein, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the activity of total digestible nutrient (TDN) and In-vitro digestibility (IVD) was similar in control and LAB treated haylage (p<0.05). The pH was reduced in KCC-23 and KCC-24 treated rye haylage as compared to control (p<0.05). The lactic acid concentration in haylages was increased by L. plantarum KCC-23, and KCC-24 supplement. Whereas, the less amount of acetic acid and butyric acid was noted in KCC-23 and KCC-24 treated haylage as compared with control (p<0.05). The KCC-23 and KCC-24 were dominantly grown in experimental haylage as compared with control. It indicates, the addition of KCC-23, and KCC-24 enhances fermentation quality of haylages as compared control. The present study suggests that KCC-23 and KCC-24 are potent strains that were improving the fermentation process in rye haylage

Effects of Sowing Time and Seeding Rate on Growth Chrcteristics, Winter Survival and Dry Matter Yield of Forage Rye (SeCale cereale L.) (파종기와 파종량이 사료용 호밀의 생육특성 , 월동성 및 건물수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;성경일;권찬호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 1986
  • This study was conducted at the forage experiment field of SNU, Snweon to investigate effects of sowing time and seeding rate on growth characteristics, winter survival and dry matter yield of forage rye (Secale cereale L.) as fresh-cut forage. Treatments involved 9 combinations of sowing times (September 8, 28 and October 18) and seeding rates(80, 130 and 180kg $ha^{-1}$). Plant height was not influenced by the time of sowing, but forage rye had a tendency to be taller as increasing seeding rate when sown on September 8 and October 28 and harvested in fall and spring, respectively, Winter survival was reduced by fall harvesting in the plot sown on September 8, however, total dry matter yield was increased by the fall harvesting. Average dry matter yields of 5884, 4993 and 3525kg $ha^{-1}$ were obtained when forage rye was sown on September 8, 28 and October 18, respectively. Dry matter yield was decreased as delaying the time of sowing, but a tendency toward higher yield of forage rye by increasing seeding rate was observed. Yield difference by seeding rates was markedly larger when forage rye was sown on October 18 than September 8 and 28. Based on the results of this study, it appears that the dry matter yield of forage rye could be enhanced by sowing early to late September under upland condition in the middle plain are of Korea. The seeding rates of 80 to 130 kg $ha^{-1}$ and 180kg $ha^{-1}$ would be suitable for early to mid fall and late fall sowings, respectively.

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Effect of Tillage System and Fertilizer Type on the Forage Yield, Quality, and Production Cost of Winter Rye (경운방법 및 비료종류가 호밀의 사초수량, 품질 및 생산비에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종덕;김수곤;권찬호
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage system and fertilizer type on the forage yield, quality, and production cost of winter rye. This experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement for two tillage system (Tillage and No-tillage) and two fertilizer type (Chemical and Manure compost). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) content, TDN (total digestible nutrients) yield, and CP (crude protein) yield of rye, but the DM yield was significantly higher for rye in tillage compared to the no-tillage system. The use of chemical fertilizer type also showed significant increase in DM, TDN and CP yields compared to the use of manure compost as fertilizer. The CP content for rye was significantly higher in no-tillage compared to tillage system, but the type of fertilizer used has no significant effect. No significant effects were observed for NDF (neutral detergent fiber), ADF (acid detergent fiber), and TDN in tillage system and fertilizer type of rye. The total cost to prepare 1 ha is lower in no-tillage compared to tillage, but production cost in rye per kg of fresh, DM and TDN were almost the same as tillage system because of lower forage production. The total cost to prepare 1 ha with the use of chemical fertilizer was higher than using manure compost as fertilizer, however, the cost to produce 1 kg of fresh, DM and TDN were lower when using chemical as fertilizer because of higher yield. Based on the results of this study, tillage system and fertilizer type affected forage yield more than forage quality. Production cost per 1 kg of tillage was lower compared to no-tillage, and that of chemical was lower than manure because of higher forage yield.

Crossability and Chromosome Variation in the Early Generation of the Crosses between the Hexaploid Triticale and Diploid Rye (6배체 트리티케일 2배체 호밀과의 잡종 초기세대에서 교잡 친화성 및 염색체 변이)

  • 황종진;이홍석;하용웅
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.485-495
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was carried out to obtain the information on the crossability, variation of chromosome number in pollen mother cell (PMC) and somatic cell of the progeny from the cross between hexaploid triticale cv. Sinkihomil and two diploid rye varieties. Seed set was 39.3 to 41.6% (averaged 40.5%) in the cross between triticale (P$_1$) and rye(P$_2$), which resulted in 0.33% in F$_2$(selfed F$_1$), 2.69% in F$_1$/P$_1$ 5.47% in F$_1$/P$_2$ respectively. However, seed set was extremely low in both reciprocal crosses when triticale was used as male. Germination rate of the crossed seed was 94.0% in F$_1$ 40.8% in F$_2$(selfed F$_1$), 59.5% in F$_1$/P$_1$ and 65.9% in F$_1$/P$_2$ from the cross between triticale and rye, respectively. Pollen fertility of F$_1$ plant was averaged 18.7% in the cross between triticale and rye. Number of Uni-, Bi-, and Trivalent in PMC was 12. 6, 6.94, and 0.53, respectively, in the F$_1$ between the triticale and rye. There were 28 chromosomes in F$_1$, 21 to 34 in F$_2$, 34 to 38 in F$_1$/P$_1$ and 19 to 23 in F$_1$/P$_2$ from the cross between the triticale and rye, respectively.

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'Jungmo2509', the First Rye Cultivar of Self-Fertility in the Korea (국내 최초의 자식성 호밀 품종 '중모2509')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Kim, Jin-Jin;Kim, Dea-Wook;Ku, Ja-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2021
  • Rye (Secale cereal L.) is the most tolerant to abiotic stress including low temperature, drought, and unfavorable soil conditions among the winter cereals. Rye is the rapid growth of early spring results from increasing areas for the use of the forage and green manure in the middle part of Korea. "Jungmo2509", a rye cultivar was developed by the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA in 2014. It was developed from a cross between "Olhomil", a self-compatible cultivar, and "Synthetic II", a self-incompatible line. "Jungmo2509" is an erect plant type and of a middle size, with a green leaf color, a yellowish-white colored culm, and a yellowish brown-colored, small-size grain. The heading date of "Jungmo2509" was April 23, which was 5 days later than that of "Gogu", respectively. But "Jungmo2509" showed greater resistance to lodging compared to that of the check cultivar, with similar to winter hardiness, wet injury, and disease resistance. "Jungmo2509" was a higher to than "Gogu" in terms of protein content (9.4% and 8.0%, respectively), total digestible nutrients (TDN) (55.7% and 55%, respectively). The seed productivity of "Jungmo2509" was approximately 2.08 ton 10a-1, which was 11% lower than that of the check. Almost all rye cultivars are out-crossing due to genes controlling incompatibility, but "Jungmo2509" is higher seed fertility (56%) than that of Gogu (0%). it has self-compatible genes. "Jungmo2509" is erect in plant type and resistance for lodging. Therefore, "Jungmo2509" can produce uniform seeds for processed grains of human consumption and utilize them as parents for breeding the rye hybrids with high forage yields.

Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Potential of Winter Cover Crop Cultivation in Rice Paddy Soil

  • Lee, Seul-Bi;Haque, Mozammel;Pramanik, Prabhat;Kim, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.234-242
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Cultivation of winter cover crops is strongly recommended to increase land utilization efficiency, animal feeding material self-production, and to improve soil and environmental quality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four major winter crops (barley, Chinese milk vetch, hairy vetch, and rye) having different C/N ratio were seeded in silt loam paddy soil in the November 2007 and the aboveground biomass was harvested on the late May 2008 to evaluate its effectiveness as green manure, and root biomass distribution was characterized at the different depth (0-60 cm) to study its effect on physical properties and carbon sequestration in soil. During this experiment, the naturally growing weed in the rice paddy soil in Korea, short awn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol), was considered as control treatment. Above-ground biomass of all cover crops selected was significantly higher than that of the control treatment (2.8 Mg/ha). Comparatively higher above-ground biomass productivity of rye and barley (15.8 and 13.5 Mg/ha, respectively) suggested that these cover crops possibly had the highest potential as a green manure and animal feeding material. Root biomass production of different cover crops followed the same trend as that for their above ground biomass. Rye (Secale cereal) might have the highest potential for soil C accumulation (7893 C kg/ha) by root biomass development, and then followed by barley (6985 C kg/ha), hairy vetch (6467 C kg/ha), Chinese milk vetch (6671 C kg/ha), and control (5791 C kg/ha). CONCLUSION(s): Cover crops like rye and barley having high biomass productivity might be the most effective winter cover crops to increase organic carbon distribution in different soil aggregates which might be beneficial to improve soil structure, aeration etc. and C sequestration.

Study on the Quality of Whoie Crop Silage and Yield by Stage of Maturity of Rye Plant II. Quality of whole crop rye silage by stage of maturity (호맥의 생육시기별 수량과 Whole crop silage의 품질에 관한 연구 II. 호맥의 생육시기별 Silage의 품질)

  • 고영두;곽종형;문영식
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 1987
  • With a purpose of evaluation rye crop as winter green feed, a cultivar was sown in autumn and harvested at booting, heading, milk, dough and yellow-ripe stages, and processed into silage. The quality of the silage was assessed in terms of ammonia-N, recovery rate in dry matter, pH, and the composition of organic acids. The results obtained are: 1. The recovery rate in dry matter from the silage was the highest when harvested at yellow stage (P<0.01). The ratio of ammonia-N to total-N was low when the rye crop was harvested during milk (9.4%) and dough ( 12.7%) stages (P$NH_3-N$. 3. Silage quality based on the composition of organic acids was highly evaluated when the crop was harvested during milk, and dough stages. 4. Considering both the DM yield and quality of the silage, it was found that rye crop should be harvested at dough stage and ensiled.

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Values of Winter Fallow Crops on Soil Properties and Watermelon Productivity in Plastic Greenhouse

  • Uhm, Mi-Jeong;Chon, Hyong-Gwon;Noh, Jae-Jong;Song, Young-Ju;Kwon, Sung-Whan;Sheikh, Sameena
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to screen fallow crops during winter period for improvement of soil quality and utilizing as mulching material in watermelon cropping system during winter period. Five fallow crops, mainly, hairy vetch, barley, rye, oat and wheat, were sown in early November. They were mowed for covering the soil surface instead of polyethylene (PE) film before watermelon planting in early April the following year. The highest absorbed nutrients and dry matter yield were found in rye. Bulk density in plots with fallow crop was lower than control plot. There was observed no significant differences among the fallow crops. However, porosity was the lowest in control plot. Soil EC reduced to 12%, 13%, 14%, 16% and 22%, respectively, by cultivation of hairy vetch, oat, wheat, barley and rye. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activities were higher in soil treated with gramineous crops, such as barley, rye and oat. The growth of watermelon was more affected by regeneration of fallow crop than the occurrence of weed, especially in plots treated with rye or oat. Also, the fruit damage by aphid was found severe in these treatment plots. The fruit yield in plots treated with hairy vetch and barley was increased 5.7% and 2.6%, respectively, compared to that of PE films. The present experiment findings implied that these fallow crops had significant beneficial effects on improvement of soil qualities and could be utilized for mulching materials in watermelon cropping system.