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Genomic and evolutionary analysis with gluten proteins of major food crops in the Triticeae tribe

  • Kim, Sang Heon;Seo, Yong Weon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.86-86
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    • 2017
  • Prolamins are the main seed storage proteins in cereals. Gluten proteins seem to be prolamins because their primary structure have the meaningful quantity of proline and glutamine amino acid residues. Gluten proteins are found in crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale) which are major food crops in the Triticeae tribe. Glutenin and gliadin, hordein, and secalin are typical gluten proteins found in wheat, barley, and rye, respectively. Gluten affect grain quality so that many researches, such as isolation or characterization of their genes, have been carried out. To improve the quality of grains in the Triticeae tribe, it is necessary to understand the relationship within their gluten proteins and their evolutionary changes. The sequences of nucleotides and amino acids of gluten protein including glutenins, gliadins, hordeins, and secalins were retrieved from NCBI (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and Uniprot (http://www.uniprot.org/). The sequence analysis and the phylogenetic analysis of gluten proteins were performed with various website tools. The results demonstrated that gluten proteins were grouped with their homology and were mostly corresponded with the previous reports. However, some genes were moved, duplicated, or disappeared as evolutionary process. The obtained data will encourage the breeding programs of wheat, barley, rye, and other crops in the Triticeae tribe.

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Effects of legume mixture on nitrogen fixation and transfer to grasses in spring paddy field

  • Lee, H.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2011
  • Nitrogen fixation by legumes can be valuable sources for organic farming. This study was to investigate the effect of different legume mixtures on nitrogen fixation and transfer to grasses on spring paddy field. Three different mixtures were used (rye+hairy vetch, Italian ryegrass+crimson clover, oat+pea) in a randomized complete block design with three replications and sowed in pots with different sowing rate (5:5 rye:hairy vetch,7:3=Italian:crimson, 6:4=oat:pea) on early March. $(^{15}NH_4)SO_4$ solution at. 99.8 atom%$^{15}N$ was applied to the each pot at the rate of 2kg N $ha^{-1}$ on $16^{th}$ April. Forage were harvested at ground level in heading stage and separated into legume and grass. Total N content and $^{15}N$ value were determined using a continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. DM yield of rye+vetch, Italian+crimson and oat+pea were 6,607, 3,213 and 4,312kg/ha, respectively. Proportion of N from fixation was 0.73(rye+vetch), 0.42(Italian+crimson) and 0.93(oat+pea). The percentages of N transfer from legume to grass were from 61% to 24% in different method by treatments and -35% to 21% in isotope dilution method.

Fallow Cover Crop Species and Nitrogen Rate of Fertigated Solution on Cucumber Yield and Soil Sustainability in Greenhouse Condition

  • Lee, Seong Eun;Park, Jin Myeon;Noh, Jae Seung;Lim, Tae Jun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2014
  • Nutrient accumulation in surface soil has become a serious problem for cucumber production in greenhouse. However, still in many cases, soil management practices are only focused on maintaining crop yield, regardless of sustainability related with soil chemical properties. This study was conducted to propose a sustainable soil management practice by investigating the impact of cover crop species and nitrogen rate of fertigated solution on cucumber yield and soil chemical properties in greenhouse condition. Rye and hairy vetch were tested as a fallow cover crop, and each amount of urea (1/2, 3/4, 1 times of N fertilizer recommendations), determined by soil testing result, was supplied in fertigation plots as an additional nitrogen source. The result showed that the yield of cucumber was higher in rye treatment than control and hairy vetch treatment. In addition, rye effectively reduced EC and accumulated nutrients from the soil. Meanwhile, N concentration of fertigated solution showed no significant effect on the growth and yield of cucumber. Consequently, these results suggest that it is desirable to choose rye as a fallow catch crop for sustainable cucumber production in greenhouse.

Effect of Soil Respiration on Light Fraction-C and N Availability in Soil Applied with Organic Matter

  • Ko, Byong-Gu;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Park, Seong-Jin;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.510-516
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    • 2016
  • Soil respiration has been recognized as a key factor of the change of organic matter and fertility due to the carbon and nitrogen mineralization. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil respiration on the light fraction-C and inorganic N content depending on temperature in soil applied with organic matter. Soil respiration was calculated by using total $CO_2$ flux released from soil applied with $2Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of rice straw compost and rye for 8 weeks incubation at 15, 25, $35^{\circ}C$ under incubation test. After incubation test, light fraction and inorganic N content were investigated. Rye application dramatically increased soil respiration with increasing temperature. $Q_{10}$ value of rye application was 1.69, which was higher 27% than that of rice straw compost application. Light-C and $NO_3-N$ contents were negatively correlated to soil respiration. Light-C in rye application more decreased than that in rice straw compost with temperature levels. These results indicate that temperature sensitivity of soil respiration could affect soil organic mater content and N availability in soil due to carbon availability. Also, light fraction would be useful indicator to evaluate decomposition rate of organic matter in soil under a short-term test.

Understanding of the Sung-Rye-Moon Roof Structure and implementation of the traditional Bracket-set Design Modules for BIM tools

  • Park, Soo-Hoon;Ahn, Eun-Young
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1613-1620
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    • 2011
  • Roof structure of the traditional buildings in the Northeast Asia region including Korea contains the most complicated and crucial components of the building and therefore the issues such as cost down, productivity and the attempt to combine the traditional building methodology with contemporary building technology turn out to be vital to the survival of the old yet disconnected traditional building industry. One of the distinctive modern building technologies is handling life-cycle building information by constructing virtual buildings using BIM, building information modeling tools. In this paper we follow a procedure to implement some of the design modules to be applied in BIM tools which are platforms for constructing virtual building models. We focus on Gong-po components namely the bracket-sets which are the essential part that connects the middle parts to the top parts (the roof structure) which are considered to be the most elaborate parts of the traditional buildings. The target building to work with in this paper is the Sung-Rye-Moon which has special cultural and social meanings nowadays and we tested our understanding and the design modules such as the bracket-sets by constructing a virtual building model of Sung-Rye-Moon.

Influence of Sowing and Harvest Date on Yield and Nutritional Quality of Forage Rye

  • Kwon, Byung-Sun;Shin, Dong-Young
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.206-210
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    • 2004
  • In order to find out the optimum harvest (dipping) date combined with sowing date on yield and nutrient quality of forage rye which is suitable at the Southern part of Korea, Paldanghomil variety was grown Sep. 2001 to May 2002 at Sunchon National University, and yield and nutrient quality of plant were observed. As harvest date and sowing date were delayed, the plant length was longest, number of leaves per plant was increased in the time of May 20 clipping. Fresh yield was the heaviest in the time of May 20 clipping and Oct. l0 sowing, and the most dry matter yield was the heaviest in the time of May 20 clipping and Oct. 10 sowing. Content of crude protein was the highest and that of crude fiber such as NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were the lowest in the late time of clipping and sowing. Further more IVDMD was high and dry matter yield and digestible dry matter yield were the highest in the time of May 20 dipping and Oct. 10 sowing. Judging from the results reported above, at optimum harvest (dipping) date combined with sowing date for yield and nutrient quality of forage rye seemed to be the time of May 20 clipping and Oct. 10 sowing.

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Study on Baled Silage Making of Selected Forage Crop and Pesture Grasses III. Evaluation of chemical components and energy contents of baled silage with selected forage (주요사료작물의 곤포 Silage 조제이용에 관한 연구 III. 작물별 곤포 silage의 일반 성분과 에너지함량 평가)

  • 김정갑;한민수;김건엽;한정대;진현주;신정남
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 1996
  • The quality of silages, made from whole crop barley, rye, spring oat, Italian ryeglass, orchardgrass, alfalfa and grass-legume pasture mixtures, were evaluated under two different conservation techniques in baled silage making (BS) and conventional silages(CS). Crops materials were harvested at the stage of the greatest dry matter accumulation(hard dough for barley, soft dough for rye and oat, late bloom for Italian ryegrass and others pasture species), and baled in a self constructed square baling chamber weighted by 25~30kg in dry matter basis. Each bales were wrapped with 0.05mm thick polyethylen plastic film and stored six months long in stack silos. Barley, rye, oat and Italian ryegrass including of pasture crops produced higher quality silages in the baled silage making, due to better organic acid fermentation and lower nutrient losses during the period of storage than those in the conventional silages. TDN contents of barley silages were 65.3% in BS and 63.7% in CS, NEL value of barley silages was improved hum 6.48MJ(CS) to 6.61MJ/kg(BS) in dry matter basis. Silage quality of rye, oat and pasture crops were also improved markedly in the baled silage utilization.

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Effects of Maturing Stages on Chemical Composition for Feed and in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Triticale (Triticale의 사료성분과 in vitro 건물소화율에 미치는 생육시기의 촬영)

  • ;Kazuo Ataku
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2000
  • Triticale(Moniko, Presto, Tewo), wheat(Kitami 66, Tsukisarnul, chihoku) and rye(Almo, Warko, Mardar) were harvested in heading, milk, dough and ripe stage. Effects of various harvesting stage on the feed chemical composition and in vitro digestibility(IVDMD) was investigated in these species and varieties. 1. Dry matter yield increased with advancing maturity regardless of forage species. Among the species triticale plants showed the highest yield. 2. The chemical composition of triticale plants in view of feed value generally placed between wheat and rye plants. 3. IVDMDs of triticale plants decreased from heading to dough stage and then increased at yellow ripe stage, while thoes of wheat and rye plants decreased with advancing maturity. Among plant species triticale. plants showed the highest IVDMD at heading and yellow ripe stage, while rye plants showed the lowest value throughout the maturity.

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Effects of Wheat Bran Addition on the Quality of Rye Silage (호밀 사일리지에 있어서 밀기울 첨가 효과)

  • 장진호;한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.285-290
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    • 1995
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat bran addition on the fermentative quality and dry matter digestibility(Dh4D) of rye silage. This hexbage was ensiled by the conventional methods in small glass silo of 0.82 liter with addition of wheat bran of 0%, 5%. 01%, and 15%. mpectivery.The samples of rye silage were determined the pH, lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid. The DMD was evaluated by pepsin-cellulase technique method. The energy values (total digestible nutrients. TDN : digestible energy, DE : metabolizable energy, ME) were calculated by DMD. The results obtained were as follows : 1. The pH and butyric acid of rye silage were reduced with increasing of wheat bran addition, but the contents of lactic acid and total acid were increased. 2. TDN, DE and ME were increased with high rate of wheat bran addition. 3. Regression equation and correlation coefficients between Flieg's score(X) and DMD(Y) of silage were Y =48.7+0.157X(r=0.917, p<0.01). 4. Regression equation and correlation coefficients between level of wheat bran(X) and Flieg's score(Y) of silage were Y= 18.3+5.56X(r=0.929, p<0.01).

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Effect of Winter Annual Forage Crops on Growth , Yield and Quality of Silage Corn (추파사료작물이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장 , 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;김원호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted in 1991 and 1992 to determine the effects of winter annual forage corps such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.), rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera L.), oats (Auena satiua L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), vetch (Vicia satiua L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolim multiflorum Lam.) on subsequent growth, yield and quality of silage corn (Zea mays L.). The winter annual forage crops were seeded at the end of August and harvested in the fall and spring before corn planting. Corn-leaf numbers, plant heights and LA1 were generally reduced during early development when corn followed Italian ryegrass(P<0.05) and winter rye, but the silking date of corn was not affected by the winter annual forage crops. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly reduced when corn followed Italian ryegrass and late maturing Kodiak winter rye. The yield reductions for corn following Italian ryegrass and Kodiak winter rye, relative to corn which did not follow the winter annual forage crops, were 49 and 19% respectively. but the corn yield was slightly improved by 2 and 3%, respectively. when corn followed crimson clover and vetch. No quality differences in corn stover were observed among the treatments except for the lowest ADF and NDF contents and the highest IVDMD where corn followed ltaliabn ryegrass.

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