• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rice ecotypes

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Differential Competitiveness of Echinochloa colona Ecotypes (ECHINOCHLOA COLONA 생태형(生態型)의 경합력(競合力) 차이(差異))

  • Chun, J.C.;Moody, K.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 1987
  • The ability of three Echinochloa colona (L.) Link ecotypes to compete with rice (Oryza sativa L.) was evaluated. For all the ecotypes, E. colona was shorter and produced less leaf area and dry matter than rice at 15 days after seeding (DAS), whereas the reverse was observed from 30 to 60 DAS. Neither E. colona nor rice tillered during the first 15 DAS, but E. colona had greater accumulative tiller length than rice from 15 DAS. Rice absorbed more nitrogen than E. colona at 15 DAS. E. colona absorbed greater amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium than did rice between 30 and 60 DAS and increase in its density decreased the nutrients uptake of rice. Differences in the competitive ability of the ecotypes were related to the growth characteristics of the ecotypes and the period of competition between the two species. At the early growth stages the Pangasinan ecotype, which increased plant size rapidly and had a shorter life cycle, was more competitive against rice than the Leyte and South Cotabato ecotypes, which had a longer vegetative growth period. However, the reverse was observed at the later growth stages of the ecotypes.

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Methane Emission among Rice Ecotypes in Korean Paddy Soil (논 토양에서 벼 기상생태형별 $CH_4$ 배출양상 및 배출량 추정)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Lee, Deog-Bae;Lee, Sang-Bok;Kim, Jong-Gu;Kim, Yong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate methane emission among rice ecotypes in paddy soil (Jeonbug series). The varieties of rice involved early maturing short-grain variety, Samcheonbyeo, middle maturing variety, Hawsungbyeo and late maturing variety, Dongjinbyeo. The seasonal change of methane flux was high from ear formation stage to heading stage. It was found that the methane flux was tended to be lower in early maturing variety than in the mid-to-late maturing variety. The plots without rice straw reduced methane emission as much as 46% relative to rice straw application. The methane emission rate through rice stem was highly correlated with temperature fluctuation. Methane emission on ecotypes by rice straw application was 0.394 g $m^{-2}day^{-1}$ in early maturing variety (Samcheonbyeo), 0.407 g $m^{-2}day^{-1}$ in mid maturing variety(Hawsungbyeo), 0.411 g $m^{-2}day^{-1}$ in late maturing variety(Dongjinbyeo).

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Geographical Distribution and Characteristics of Kentucky Bluegrass(Poa pratensis L..) Native to Korea (우리 나라 자생 왕포아풀의 수집지 분포 및 특성)

  • Shim, Sang-Ryul;Jeong, Dae-Young;Ahn, Byung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2003
  • This research has been conducted to collect regional ecotypes of Poa pratensis throughout the southern part of korean peninsula during 2000~2002. 227 local ecotypes of Poa pratensis were collected mostly from roadsides, riversides and rice paddies. The $35^{\circ}$ latitude was supposed to be the southern limit of native Poa pratensis habitat. 130 ecotypes of Poa pratensis found from the poor environmental condition such as roadsides showed Poa pratensis naturally grew throughout the country. When surveyed the habitat environment, it was concluded that native Poa pratensis were mostly found on open fields or half shaded areas, on sandy soil or sandy loam soil, and in the individual patch type.

Changes of Seed Viability and Physico-Chemical Properties of Milled Rice with Different Ecotypes and Storage Duration (벼 생태형별 저장기간에 따른 종자 발아율 및 이화학적 특성변화)

  • Kim, Hong-Yeol;Yang, Chang-Ihn;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Won, Yong-Jae;Lee, Young-Tae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.375-379
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to examine the effects of storage duration on physico-chemical properties of milled rice. Rough rice of three rice ecotypes(Japonica, Tongil and F1 hybrids with Tongil back-ground) was stored for 4, 16, 28 and 40 months without artificial environmental control in seed warehouse. And this materials were investigated for seed germination rate, brown rice hardness, alkali digestion value(ADV), contents of protein, amylose, total sugar, and reducing sugar. Seed germination rate was significantly reduced with storage duration increased regardless of rice ecotypes : 66.7% from 16 months storage, 2.5% from 28, and nil from 40 months storage in Japonica rices. And 54.0%, 67.9% in Tongil, and F1 hybrid after 40 months storage, respectively. Brown rice hardness was not significantly affected by storage duration but showed significant genotypic differences. As the storage duration prolonged, sugar content and alkali digestion value increased, protein content declined while amylose content did not show clear tendency. Total and reducing sugar contents showed sharp increase upto 16 months storage and thereafter steady in crease, and the percentage of reducing sugar content out of total sugar content increased with extended storage duration.

Ecotypic Variation in Echinochloa colona - II. Intraspecific Variations in Sensitivity to Herbicides (Echinochloa colona의 생태형(生態型) 변이(變異) - II. 제초제(除草劑)에 대한 종내(種內) 반응성(反應性) 변이(變異))

  • Chun, J.C.;Moody, K.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.338-343
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    • 1990
  • The intraspecific susceptibility of twelve Echinochloa colona(L.) Link ecotypes to herbicides was studied at three different stages of growth. At germination and post-germination stage, the Batangas ecotype was most susceptible to both butachlor (N-butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide) and thiobencarb (S-4-dichlorobenzyldiethylthiocarbamate), whereas the Bukidnon ecotype was the most tolerant. The susceptibility of the ecotypes used was not associated with the seed weight and maturity. When the preemergence herbicides were applied at the 2-leaf stage of the ecotypes, the Nueva Ecija ecotype was least susceptible to butachlor at 1 ppm, but it was most susceptible to thiobencarb. The reverse was exhibited by the Cagayan ecotype. Differential susceptibility of the ecotypes to propanil (3', 4'-dichloropropionanilide) as determined by the necrotic length of the third leaf of 20-day-old seedlings was pronounced in the Camarines Sur, Iloilo, and IRRI (red) ecotypes. However, no necrotic tip appeared in the Cagayan and Batangas ecotypes. The differential responses varied with the type and the concentration of the herbicide studied and the growth stage of the ecotypes.

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Climate Change Impacts on Optimum Ripening Periods of Rice Plant and Its Countermeasure in Rice Cultivation (기후변화에 따른 벼 적정 등숙기간의 변동과 대책)

  • 윤성호;이정택
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 2001
  • It was unusual crop weather for 1998 and 1999 compared with normal in Korea. The consecutive days of the optimum ripening period for rice plant that had daily mean temperature 21~23$^{\circ}C$ for 40 days after flowering, increased with long anomalies in 1998~99. The air temperature during ripening period was much higher than the optimum temperature and lower sunshine hour than norm in the local adaptability tests of newly developed rice lines during those years. In response of rice cultivation to warming and cloudy weather during crop season, the yield shall be decreased. Most scientists agree that the rate of heating is accelerating and temperature change could become increasingly disruptive. Weather patterns should also become more erratic. Agrometeorologists could be analyzed yearly variations of temperature, sunshine hour and rainfall pattern focused on transient agroclimate change for last a decade. Rice agronomists could be established taking advantage of real time agricultural meteorology information system for fertilization, irrigation, pest control and harvest. Also they could be analyzed the characteristics of flowering response of the recommended and newly bred rice cultivars for suitable cropping plan such as cultural patterns and sowing or transplanting date. Rice breeders should be deeply considered introducing the characteristics of basic vegetative type of flowering response like Togil rices as prospective rice cultivars corresponding to global warming because of the rices needed higher temperature at ripening stage than japonica rices, photoperiod-sensitive and thermo-sensitive ecotypes.

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Effect of Temperature Associated with Early Growth Stimulus on Shortening of Heading Dates in Rice

  • Song, Moon-Tae;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Cho, Youn-Sang;Hwang, Hung-Goo
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2002
  • The heading date is known to be controlled by two kinds of genetic constituent, photosensitivity and basic vegetable phase. For the latter, the effect of temperature in early growth period is critical to determine the shortness of vegetative growth periods in plant's life. A phytotron experiment on 55 rice cultivars, consisting of two ecotypes of rices, indica and japonica, was conducted at high and low temperature treatments at early growth stage to investigate the possible role of plant growth stimulus by high temperature to associate with shortening of heading date. The high temperature during the early growth stage stimulated the rice growth as measured by plant height with much difference of the growth response between indica and japonica. The conclusive finding that these growth stimulus in early growth stage was highly correlated with the acceleration of heading is, more or less, correlated with the heading of the late growth stage although we could not conclude the genes for early plant growth stimulus by high temperature is the same genes as the genes for accelerating of heading in the late growth stage of plants.

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Physiological and Biochemical Analyses of Rice Sensitivities to UVB Radiation

  • Hidema, Jun;Kumagai, Tadashi
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2002
  • Rice is widely cultivated in various regions throughout Asia. Over a five-year period, we investigated the effects of supplemental UVB radiation on the growth and yield of Japanese rice cultivars in the field. The findings of that study indicated that supplemental UVB radiation has inhibitory effects on the growth and grain development. Furthermore, we investigated the sensitivity to UVB radiation of rice cultivars of 5 Asian rice ecotypes, and found that rice cultivars vary widely in UVB sensitivity. The aim of our study is improving UVB resistance in plants by bioengineering or breeding programs. In order to make it, there is need to find the molecular origin of the sensitivity to UVB. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is major UV-induced DNA lesions. Plants possess two mechanisms to cope with such DNA damage. The first is the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. Our previous data showed that the steady-state CPD levels in leaves of rice grown under chronic radiation in any culture were not so greatly influenced by the increased UV-absorbing compounds content, although there was a significant positive correlation between the CPD levels induced by challenge UVB exposure and the UV-absorbing compounds content. The other is the repair of DNA damage. Photorepair is the major pathway in plants for repairing CPD. We found that the sensitivity to UVB could seriously correlate with the low ability in CPD photorepair in rice plants. These results suggest that photo lyase might be an excellent candidate for restoration by way of selective breeding or engineering in rice.

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Characteristic Changes in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars of 3 Ecotypes During Different Storage Conditions

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Hwang, Pil-Seong;Lee, Choon-Ki;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Seo, Woo-Duck;Cho, Kye-Man;Choung, Myoung-Gun;Lee, Jin-Hwan
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1091-1095
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study investigated the fluctuations of 3 characters from 3 ecotypes [early ripening (ER), middle ripening (MR), and late ripening (LR)] of 20 Korean brown rice cultivars in different storage systems [time: 12 and 24 weeks, temperature: low ($10^{\circ}C$) and room ($25^{\circ}C$)]. With increase of storage time and temperature, lipoxygenase activity, and fat acidity increased, whereas germination rate was reduced. ER cultivars exhibited the highest lipoxygenase activity of $35.49{\pm}2.46$ unit/mg protein during 24 weeks storage at $25^{\circ}C$, followed by LR ($32.73{\pm}1.33$) and MR ($32.66{\pm}1.62$) cultivars. The amounts of fat acidity also were observed by the same order (ER: $20.40{\pm}2.12$>LR: $19.68{\pm}1.86$>MR: $19.64{\pm}1.35$ mg KOH/100 g). Germination rate slightly decreased with increase of time and temperature (MR>LR>ER), but MR and LR cultivars showed the most significant changes (ER: $60.90{\pm}23.47%$, MR: $32.66{\pm}13.95%$, and LR: $32.53{\pm}5.87%$). On the basis of above results, MR cultivars were evaluated the highest quality, because high lipoxygenase activity, high fat acidity, and low germination rate have deteriorated in quality and generated off-odor. Thus, MR cultivars might be very important sources in food processing and stored dietary supplement aspects.

Gelatinization Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Varieties

  • Kim, Kwang-Ho;Park, Hong-Sook;Kim, Jae-Sung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 1999
  • Gelatinization characteristics of 111 glutinous rice varieties were evaluated by Rapid Visco Analyzer. Gelatinization viscosity of glutinous rice tested varied with ecotypes or varietal groups: indica, japonica, and Tongil type. Indica rice showed the highest average value of initial pasting temperature. The average values for peak, hot, and cool viscosities were highest in Tongil-type rice, and lowest in japonica rice. Japonica showed the lowest breakdown and consistency, but the highest setback value. Indica was lower in alkali digestion value (ADV), and shorter in gel length after gelatinization thanjaponica and Tongil-type. Glutinous rices tested could be divided into six groups by cluster analysis based on their gelatinization characteristics. Group I-A was mostly early maturing japonica varieties while I-B was mostly indica and Tongil-type rices. Groups II-A and II-B were consisted of very early maturingjaponica, and III-A and III-B included medium or medium late maturingjaponica varieties. Group III-A showed the lowest average values of peak, hot, cool, and consistency viscosities, and also in breakdown and setback ratios. Group I-B revealed the highest values in peak, hot, cool, breakdown, and consistency viscosities. ADV was low in groups I-A, I-B, and II-B, and gel consistency was not different among the six varietal groups. Principal component analysis using seven traits related with gelatinization produced four effective components, and the first and second components were highly correlated with all the gelatinization characters evaluated.

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