The author made rice cookies using 100% rice and measured their density, spreadability, color, hardness, and fatty acid contents. The density was not significantly different between wheat cookies and the rice cookies made here; however, the density of dough tended to be higher in the rice cookies. Spreadability tended to be lower in rice cookies than wheat cookies. Regarding the color of rice cookies, L, indicating brightness, was found to be higher in rice cookies than in wheat cookies, and a, indicating redness, was found to be lower in rice cookies than in wheat cookies. B, indicating yellowness, was not significantly different between wheat cookies and rice cookies, and hardness tended to be lower in rice cookies. Regarding fatty acid contents, saturated fatty acids such as myristic acids, palmitic acids, and stearic acids were found in rice cookies; However, the contents of saturated fatty acids tended to be lower in rice cookies than in wheat cookies. The monounsaturated fatty acids found in rice cookies were mainly oleic acids, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in them were linoleic acid, and these were found more in rice cookies than in wheat cookies. Concerning essential fatty acids such as linoleic acids, linolenic acids, or arachidonic acids, they were found more in cookies made of rice powder than in those made of wheat powder.
To improve the milling condition of brown rice a continuous type conditioning equipment was developed. To validate the performance of this machine the experimental operation was done at Sa-cheon RPC(Rice Processing Complex) using short grain rough. The initial moisture contents of brown rice were 15.0∼16.5%(w.b) and the flow rate of brown rice passing through the conditioner were 4,370kg per hour. The moisture content differences of brown rice between conditioned and non-conditioned were showed within 0.5%(w.b) This results means that the water injected to brown rice were absorbed to the surface of brown rice evenly. The moisture contents of conditioned treated milled rice were showed slightly higher than that of non-conditioned ones but it was considered that the conditioning process did not affected the weight increasing of milled rice by water supply. For initial moisture contents of 15.0∼16.5%(wb) brown rice it was found that the proper water supply rate was 0.115(cc-water)/(kg·%-brown rice) and the increments of whole rice were 2.2% compared to the non-conditioned ones. it was considered that the conditioning process did not influenced the whiteness of milled rice because the whiteness differences between conditioned and non-conditioned milled rice were negligible. About 18% of electric power which drives the abrasive type rice milling machine was saved at 0.115(cc-water)/(kg·%-brown rice) of water supply rate.
Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
Aflatoxin is a secondary fungal metabolite and is a public health hazard because it is a human carcinogenic and has many deleterious effects in men and animals. Rice is one of the better substrates for the fungus which can produce aflatoxins. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin reduction during the cooking and processing of rice. Aflatoxin was produced by Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 on well-milled rice(Japonica type) at the level of 13.2 ppb. Cooked rice, rice cakes (baek-sol-gi, plain steamed rice bread), fermented rice (sik-hye, sweet rice beverage), and popped rice were prepared from the aflatoxin-contaminated rice. Aflatoxin content in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The total aflatoxin level was decreased to 46.9％ in the cooked rice, 85.6％ in the rice cakes, 11.4％ in the fermented rice, and 7.6％ in the popped rice, respectively (p＜0.05). This reduction brought the level of aflatoxins down to below the Standard and Specification of Korea (10 ppb), except for the rice cakes. These results indicate that washing, steaming, fermentation, and popping of rice was helpful in reducing the aflatoxin level in the rice and the most helpful factors were high temperature & high pressure. More research is needed to understand why the preparation of rice cakes did not reduce the level of aflatoxin as much as the other cooking methods.
This research investigated the consumption of various rice-based processed foods of 279 housewives in Daegu. 70% of the housewives that responded to the question graduated from a high school or college, was 30∼40 years old and full-time housewives. The main places for purchasing the rice-based processed foods were large size discount store and supermarkets, as other industrial products and the family′s preference was the most critical factors in choosing the products. The fact that the main reason of purchasing the rice breads and cookies, instead of wheat, was "They may be good for health” indicated many housewives have a positive perception of rice-based foods. Among the rice-based processed foods, the using frequency of rice cake (dduk) was the highest, with rice cookies and rice drinks being the next most frequent. However, the frequencies of cooked rice (bob) and rice flour were very low. An analysis of the correlation for the using frequency of 15 rice-based processed foods showed that the use of rice cookies and breads, instead of wheat, was highly correlated to another 13 foods. The critical reasons why they do not consume cooked rice and rice flour were uncertainty of the purity of the rice and the addition of preservatives, and that with rice bread and noodles there was no information available about the products, and hey have a poor taste. The most common reasons of using cooked rice were no time to cook and simple curiosity about the products. However, the consumers were suspicious of containers, which were a potential cause of environmental hormones, and the high price of the products. Packed rice flour was mainly used as an ingredient to give the viscosity to a product. The advantages of using rice flour were that it was available to control the amount of buying and the convenience to buy. However, it was pointed out that the taste of products containing packed rice flour were poorer than that of rice flour ground at a mill.
Dongchunghacho rice, produced by cultivating Dongchunghacho fungus on rice, could be an effective functional food because it offers added value to rice and thus increases rice consumption. However, the physiological effect of Dongchunghacho rice has not been reported yet although there is increasing consumers demand. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Dongchunghacho rice (unpolished rice cultivated with Cordyceps militaris) on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Forty of 8 wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups after a 1 week of adaptation period and fed either a normal diet (66% polished rice diet, NC), high fat (12 g/100 g)-high cholesterol (1 g/100 g) diet with 53% polished rice (HC), or high fat-high cholesterol diets supplemented with 30% of the total rice as either unpolished rice (DR) or Dongchunghacho rice (DR). After 4 weeks, rats fed the Dongchunghacho rice diet with high fat and cholesterol had dramatically lower plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations and atherogenic indexes and higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels compared with the rats consuming polished rice or unpolished rice with high fat and cholesterol diet. Dongchunghacho rice led to less total lipid and total cholesterol accumulation in liver. However, these significant reductions in plasma or hepatic lipid profiles were not closely correlated with fecal total lipid or total cholesterol excretion. The plasma concentration of total cholesterol and triglycerides were not affected by Dongchunghacho rice. This hypolipidemic effect of Dongchunghacho rice seemed to be unrelated to unpolished rice itself, because the plasma and hepatic lipid profiles of DR group were not different from that of the HC group. These results suggest that unpolished rice containing cultivated Cordyceps militaris can improve plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed with high fat-high cholesterol diet.
Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
This study was conducted to know the influence of air temperature and sunshine duration on yield, chemical component, pigment color difference and starch characteristics of two colored rice cultivars in the plain area of Yeongnam province in Korea. The $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ value of brown rice in Hongjinju and Josaengheugchal rice cultivars was significantly different at continuous cultivated years, 2015 and 2016. The $L^*$, $b^*$ value of two colored rice was significantly increased in 2016 compared to 2015. The $a^*$ value of Josengheugchal rice cultivar was also significantly higher at 2016 than at 2015. It can be noticed the $a^*$, $b^*$, $L^*$ values in Josaengheugchal varied more than those in Hongjinju. Air temperature during ripening period in 2016 was higher than 2015, especially minimum temperature was too high to proper maturation for rice quality. In Josaengheugchal rice cultivar, sunshine duration after heading was longer in 2016 than in 2015. On the contrary, Hongjinju rice cultivar was ripened under condition of insufficient sunshine duration in 2016. The short growing duration by high temperature and long shiny duration made the lack of pigment for Josaengheugchal brown rice. In Hongjinju rice cultivar, shorten sunshine duration and higher night temperature were the source of the pigment deficiency. The grain size of rice which produced in 2016 was bigger than that of 2015 in both rice cultivars. The 1,000 grain weight of rice from 2016 was also bigger than that of 2015. Head rice ratio was high in the rice cultivars produced in 2015. Protein of milled rice in 2016 was more decreased than that of 2015 in Josaengheugchal rice cultivar, it showed reverse result in Hongjinju rice cultivar. Amylose contents of milled rice in 2016 were more decreased than that of 2015 in Hongjinju rice cultivar. Branch chain length distribution of amylopectin was shown a distinct difference between Josaengheugchal and Hongjinju rice flours by each produced year. Josaengheugchal rice cultivar produced in 2015 had a higher amount of short chains than that of 2016 rice starches. In Josaengheugchal rice cultivar, the pasting temperature and peak, trough, breakdown, final viscosity increased in rice flour which produced at 2016, whereas the setback viscosity and peak time showed lower value than those of rice from 2015. The most pasting properties (except of setback viscosity) of rice starch in Hongjinju rice cultivar grown in 2015 were higher than those of rice cultivar produced in 2016.
Rice is staple grain of our people and at the same time it is major source of income for Korean farmers. But recently various problems in connection with rice arose such as declining consumption etc. for this reason not only government but also related agencies are discussing about expanding vice consumption. This study is an attempt to provide basic data required for developing rice food and method of cooking it as a measure for increasing rice consumption and far this purpose survey has been conducted on primary school students in connection with their level of recognition, preference far rice food as well as their understanding and their consciousness on issues related to this topic. In terms of level of recognition of rice food majority of students which were subjected to this study stated that either they knew names of about 39 types of rice foods shown or had experience of eating them. They also stated in answers to question related to dietary habit that they prefer rice foods. Their reply on taste of rice food was plain and neat. But it was found their level of recognition on our traditional rice foods such as Ssal Dasik (rice cookies), Ssal Jinbyung (rice cakes) and Buggumi (fried rice cakes) etc. was very low. In connection with questions on their understanding of rice and consciousness of problems related to rice it was revealed that more than majority of primary school students in this research had erroneous idea on reason for the need of our effort for expanding rice consumption. Accordingly in order to expand rice consumption it is necessary to develop educational program addressing subjects of cultural and nutritional effect value of rice, effect of rice consumption upon rural economy and its application to school education concurrently with persistent study in order to diversify rice food restaurants and to improve method of cooking.
This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics of Baiksulgis made of imported rice(Thai and Chinese rice, harvested in 1998) and domestic rice(Chuchung byeo, harvested in 1998 and 1997). Moisture content, color value, yields of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction, texture and sensory properties of Baiksulgis were measured. Moisture contents of rice flour and Baiksulgi made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 were highest and those of Thai rice were lowest among the samples. This tends were also seen during storage. Lightness and redness of Baiksulgi made of Thai rice were lowest and yellowness of Baiksulgis made of Korean rice harvested in 1997 and Chinese rice were higher than those made of other rices. Yield of reducing sugar by $\beta$-amylase reaction was highest in Baiksulgi made of Korean rice harvested in 1998 and lowest in Baiksulgi made of Thai rice. And the value decreased less than half of initial value after 24 hour storage. Adhesiveness of Baiksulgi made of Thai rice was zero and cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess of that were very low. This results showed that Baiksulgi made of Thai rice was lack of chewy texture and this trend was more apparent as the storage time increased. In sensory tests, Baiksulgi made of Chinese rice had most yellowish color and that made of imported rice such as Chinese and Thai rice had more coarse texture than that made of domestic rices. off odor was lowest in Baiksulgi made or Korean rice harvested in 1997 and sweet taste was lowest in that made or Thai rice. Hardness adhesiveness, moistness and chewiness of Baiksulgi made of domestic rices were much higher than those made of impoted rices, and these results showed that Baiksulgi made of domestic rices had acceptable texture. Baiksulgi made of Thai rice showed the lowest acceptability due to lack of above textural characteristics and it was needed to add the material to modify the texture of that.
Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
The self-sufficiency of rice production was attained in 1975 through development of Tongil-type high-yielding rices and rapid dissemination to farmers and innovation of cultivation technologies, so-called "green revolution" in Korea. It can be continued during the last twenty seven years except some years with meterological disasters. The national average of milled rice yield per ha was only 3.1 ton at the first half of 1960′s, but it drastically increased to 5.0 ton at the 2nd half of 1990′s. Also, the rice quality was highly improved through the continuous varietal improvement of high-yielding japonica rice cultivars. The amounts of rice stock will go beyond about 1.9 million tons in 2002 due to the recent continuos bumper rice crop and relatively rapid reducing in rice consumption. There are so many rice brands over 1,200 in Korea, but most of rice commodities are not enough controlled in terms of marketing quality and palatability of cooked rice. Although the most rice brands are not properly controlled in quality management, its average level of grain quality is largely improved through the continuously increased diffusion of newly-developed high-quality rice cultivars since 1991. The rapid construction of rice processing complex(RPC) since 1992 also accelerates the production and distribution of brand rices. Especially, about half of distribution amounts are covered by brand rice commodities of the agricultural cooperative associations. The rice is mainly consumed by the type of cooked rice. The amounts of rice consumption for food processing is only below 4% of total rice consumption. The processed rice foods is mainly consumed as various processed cooked rices, rice cakes, and rice wines.
Kim, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Soo-Min;Paik, Jin-Kyoung;Hong, Wan-Soo
Korean journal of food and cookery science
The purpose of this study was to develop a rice education program and rice cooking practice for university students majoring in foodservice and nutrition. To achieve this purpose, 2 rounds of delphi survey was used by convenience sampling including total of 27 experts in the food and nutrition industry. Below are the findings. First, both the importance and suitability for macro-theme of theory education were in the following order: 'nutrition and health of rice', 'characteristics of rice in food science', 'history and culture of rice' and 'the consumption of rice. Second, the history and culture of rice(traditional culture related to rice, and the origin & history of rice), nutrition and health of rice(main nutritive components and efficacy of rice and prevention of disease), characteristics of rice as food(processed-products of rice and storage, the structure of rice), and the consumption of rice(current status of rice production and consumption) were found to be suitable for the micro-theme of theory education. Third, the education theme for rice cooking practice was determined. Barley sprout song-pyeon and beet song-pyeon were chosen for rice cake. For bread, coconut & walnut muffin, tofu & bean muffin, citron bread, red bean & sweet persimmon pound cake, and sweet potato bread were selected. Dong-rae-pa-jeon, Kimch-jeon-byeong, fried sweet potato fried shrimp were developed for the main dishes.
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