• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rice

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Structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties of rice starch on main and ratoon rice

  • Shin, Jong Hee;Kim, Sang Kuk;Kim, Se Jong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.332-332
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    • 2017
  • Rice ratooning is the cultural practices to produce easily second rice from the stubble left behind after the main-crop harvest. The main advantage of rice ratooning is that in areas where rice is the main crop, double crop of rice can be grown for additional returns. Three early ripened rice cultivars were tested for estimation their milled rice quality and starch characteristics from main and ratoon rice. The main crop was harvested at mass maturity, after which the tillers were mowed to stubbles of about 10 cm tall. And then it left without any further input until the ratooned plant was ready for harvest. Highly significant variations were detected in the milled rice quality between main and ratoon rice. Protein and amylose contents of ratoon rice were more increased than those of main rice. The Toyo value (gloss) of cooked rice of ratoon crop was measured also higher than that of main crop. It resulted from higher air temperature during grain ripening compared with that of ratoon crop. The mean temperature during ripened period of ratoon rice was favorable for optimal maturation for early ripened rice cultivars. Normalized chromatograms of branch chain length distribution of amylopectin are demonstrated a distinct difference between main and ratoon rice flour. Ratoon rice had higher amount of short chains than that of main crop rice starches. Microscopic examination of rice flours with scanning electron microscopy shows starch granule shapes affected by the cropping types, main and ratoon rice. It showed significant differences among rice starch granule shapes and in granule size between main and ratoon rice. Starch of ratoon rice had more neat and smaller granules than that of main rice.

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Varietal Difference in Retrogradation of Cooked Rice and Its Association with Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain

  • Choi, Hae Chune;Hong, Ha Cheal;Cho, Soo Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 1999
  • The experiments were carried out to elucidate the varietal variation of retrogradation in aged cooked rice and its association with some physicochemical properties of milled rice. The fifteen rice materials were selected from forty-three low-amylose japonica and Tongil-type rice cultivars based on palatability and retrogradation of cooked rice stratified by preliminary sensory evaluation of warm and cooled cooked rice. One japonica glutinous rice variety was included for comparison of retrogradation of cooked rice. The $\alpha$-amylase-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The desirable checking time for evaluating the varietal difference in deterioration of aged cooked rice was four hours after storing in room temperature and two hours after preserving in refrigerator based on the largest coefficients of variations in degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. The retrogadation index represented by the percentage of retrogradation difference between warm and cooled cooked rice to original estimates of warm cooked rice was significantly affected by the degree of retrogradation of cooled cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked nce. The varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice can be effectively classified by scatter diagram on the plane of upper two principal components based on some retrogradation properties of cooked rice. The deteriorated structural change in cooled cooked rice by observing through the scanning electron microscope was more conspicuous in the fastly retrograded cooked rice than in the slower one.

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The Quality Characteristics of Rice-cinnamon cakes (Rice-cinnamon cakes의 품질특성)

  • 김영인
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out in order to investigate milling methods of rice flours on characteristics of rice-cinnamon cakes. The expansion ratio and cake volume of hydrated rice flour was the better than the non-hydrated rice flours. The rice-cinnamon cake of the hydrated riceflour was generally alike in texture and taste to the cake of wheat flour as the result of Instron and sensory evaluation. The rice - cinnamon cake of the non - hydrated rice flour was generally lower in aircell and texture to the cake of the hydrated rile flour.

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Quality Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Dduk Made from Different Rice as a Meal Substitute (쌀의 종류에 따른 식사대용 찰떡의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ok-Hee;Shin, Myung-Eun;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.684-691
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    • 2012
  • Glutinous rice dduk, traditional Korean rice cake, was prepared using rice(white glutinous rice, brown glutinous rice, black glutinous rice, gaba glutinous rice) as a meal alternative, and each of their quality characteristics were compared. This study had checked sensory tests, color differences, moisture contents, texture characteristics, and storage lives of dduk during storage at room temperature for 6 days. The moisture contents of black glutinous rice dduk scored the highest. For color properties, gaba glutinous rice dduk was darker with a decreased yellow value, whereas its red value was higher comparing with that of brown glutinous rice dduk. The results of the preference test showed that appearance, flavor, texture, and overall preference were the highest in white glutinous rice dduk, whereas black glutinous rice dduk showed the lowest score. The results of the color difference test showed that softness, viscoelasticity, and fineness were the highest in white glutinous rice dduk, whereas black glutinous rice dduk showed the highest difference in color. For individual textural characteristics, black glutinous rice dduk showed the highest score, whereas white glutinous rice dduk showed the lowest scores in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess. In the results of the textural characteristics of dduk during storage, white glutinous rice dduk showed the highest increase in hardness after 48 hours, whereas black glutinous rice dduk showed the lowest increase. White glutinous rice dduk showed the highest increases in chewiness and gumminess. Cohesiveness decreased in all glutinous rice dduk. In the results of fungal occurrence in dduk during storage, black and gaba glutinous rice dduk showed increased fungi occurrence compared with white and brown glutinous rice dduk after 6 days. In conclusion, the overall preference for glutinous rice dduk made from different rice is more affected by appearance or texture than flavor.

The Physical Properties of Rice and Color Rice-Added Cakes (백미, 흑미 첨가 케이크의 물리적 특성)

  • 장정옥;류화정
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 1998
  • In this research, we added 10%, 20% and 30% of white rice powder and colored rice powder to wheat flour, then baked cakes to appraise the quality of each cake by physical and sensory evaluation The resultsare as follows: 1) The specific gravity was increased in order of rice powder-added batters and colored rice powder-added batters. No remarkable difference was found in expansion ratio of cakes except some reduction in 30% rice powder-added cake. 2) Gumminess of cake was higher in the 30% colored rice-added cake Hardness of rice-added cakes was higher than colored rice-added ones. More adding rate of rice, higher hardness of cake. No remarkable difference was found in chewiness, springiness and cohesiveness of cakes 3) In case of color, rice-added cakes showed more L value and less b value than colored rice-added ones. Colored rice-added cakes showed less L value more a value and less b value as adding rate became higher 4) According to the results of sensory evaluation, no remarkable difference was found in the size of a cell and distribution of cells. Crumb and tenderness tended to be lower in rice added cakes than in colored rice added ones. Color was prefered in 30% colored rice added cakes over rice-added cakes and less added colored rice added cakes.

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Studies of Cooking Quality with Various Functional Rice (특수미의 혼합취반 적성 검정)

  • Yoo, Kyung-A;Kang, Mi-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2005
  • This study was investigated to examine the physicochemical properties of functional rice and the adaptable food processing of the added functional rice. The functional rice are Sanghwang rice, Agaricus rice(fermented with basidiomycota), Tochukaso rice, fermented with Monascus rubber rice. Fermented with Monascus rubber rice contains more crude protein, curde lipid, moisture, and total dietary fiber. The cross sectional shapes of the functional rice show polygon shapes, the starch granules of those rice are transformed. In sensory evaluation, fermented with Monascus rubber rice was showed the lowest values for glossness, color, flavor, sweetness, harshness, overall acceptability. The textural properties for those ratios were also affected by the period of storage. After 48 hours, the lowest hardness level was 30% Tochukaso rice addition, and the highest hardness level was 10% Sangwhang rice addition case. In 30% Sangwhang rice, and 30% tochukaso rice case gumminess values were decreased after 48 hours. But in 30% Sangwhang rice, and 30% Tochukaso rice case, the chewiness values decreased. This result suggest that the most suitable addition ratio for the rice cooking condition is 10% functional rice addition.

Comparative Study on the Rice Food Culture in the Rice Grown Area -Rice Cakes and Rice Cookies- (벼농사 지역의 쌀음식 비교연구 -병과류를 중심으로-)

  • Yoon, Seo-Seok;Lee, Hyo-Gee;Ahn, Myung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 1990
  • In this study, the types and characteristics of rice cake, cookies were investicated in the rice grown area-Korea, Japan (Tokyo, Osaka), China (Hongkong), Thai (Bangkok, ChiengMai), Indonesia (Bali, Jakarta), and Philippine (Manila). 1. Rice cakes and cookies were made from rice powder and rice granule. Specially, there were two kinds of basic rice powder one was rice powder in dry and the other was rice juice grinded with water on the millstone. Rice juices were named in China, MeeChang, in Manila, Galapong, in Bangkok, rice powder. 2. The kinds and numbers of steamed rice cakes were the most available in all investicated area. In Hongkong, Bangkok, ChiengMai, and Manila, beatened or kneaded rice cakes could not be seen almost. Only in Hongkong and Bangkok, fried rice cakes were available, while in Japan, boiled rice cakes were not seen almost, and also baked rice cakes were not seen in Korea, Hongkong, Bali, Jakarta. 3. In the east-south Asian area, except rice and glutinous rice, coconut and palm fruits and banana were using in recipies of rice cakes and cookies. They gave soft and tender mouth feeling, white color, and good emulsifying status. 4. The kinds and numbers of rice cookies were the most available in Bangkok, but in Bali and Jakarta, the least. The cookies of Japan had similar texture and shape to rice cake while most of cookies in Hongkong were fried in oils. In Korea, the kinds and numbers of rice cookies were less than those of rice cakes.

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Changes of physicochemical characteristics of various rice cooking by using milk and in vitro digestibility (취반과정중 조리수가 우유일 때 이화학적 특성과 in vitro 소화도)

  • 김경자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 1987
  • The changes of various cooking experiment (gelatinization, swelling, texture, water absorbance) and amino acid, fatty acid composition and the effect of digestibility on glucose examination (in vitro) were investigated at various rice during cooking by using milk. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In the effect of various water-to-rice ratios on the degree of absorbance of rice, Rice (using water) always showed higher absorbance than rice. (using milk) optimum water absorbance time were shown to be 40 minute for rice (using water) and 50 minute for rice (using milk). 2) The degree of gelatinization (D.G) by iodine colorimetric method increased proportionally according to the increase of water-to-rice ratio and rice cooking always showed higher D.G than rice milk cooking. When the same D.G rice milk cooking food required 40~50% higher water-to-rice ratios than rice cooking food. 3) Various rice cooking food, the palatability were best food by rice bean milk cooking food. 4) The main Amino acid composition of using milk rice cooked food were Glutenine, Leusine, Asparagine, Valine, Arginin above 42% of the Total Amino acid. The contents of Lysine and Methionine were 476.50mg, 412.16mg in using Milk rice cooking food. 5) Using rice Milk cooking food ana Rice bean Milk cooking food, rice cooking, rice bean cooking in phosphate Buffer, in vitro Enzymatic glucose were carried out in dialysis bag. During 90 minute of incubation at $37^{\circ}C$, reducing sugar were analyzed from dialysate. Starch digestibility measured from human Saliva, Sali a, Pencreatic Amylase treatment was high in Rice Milk cooking food, Rice bean Milk cooking food and rice cooking food and rice bean cooking food but remarkely low.

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Effect of Rice Lipid and Protein on Rheological Characteristics of Gelatinized Rice Flour Solutions (쌀의 지방과 단백질이 쌀가루 호화액의 리올리지 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영순;김인호;김현정;이상효;이현유;박광희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1293-1297
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    • 1999
  • Effect of rice protein and lipid on rheological properties of gelatinized rice flour solutions(4%) with three rice varieties(Dongjin, Jinmi, Tamjin) known for varying taste of cooked rice was investigated with Haake viscometer. The rheological behaviors of all rice flour solutions were illustrated by Herschel Bulkley equation and exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress. When rice flour solutions treated with protease and dithiothreitol, there was decreased in flow behavior index value. Flow behavior index was decreased by dealbumin and deglutelin rice flour solutions among deprotein groups. The Jinmi rice flour solutions exhibited slightly lower consistency index than Dongjin and Tamjin. Defatted rice flour solutions exhibited lower consistency index than rice flour solutions, while dealbumin, deglutelin rice flour solutions exhibited high consistency index. Protease treated rice flour solutions exhibited increase in Dongjin and Tamjin. The yield stress was increased in sequence eating quality. Yield stress of defatted rice flour solutions was decreased, while deglutelin and rice starch flour solutions was increased. The time dependent charac teristics of all rice flour solutions appeared forming hysteresis loop and thixotropic behavior showed. The time dependent characteristics was appeared in sequence eating quality. Rice starch and deglutelin flour solutions appeared greatly time dependent characteristics, but defatted rice flour solutions appeared very little.

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Cooking Characteristics and Firming Rate of Cooked Parboiled Rice (파보일미(Parboiled rice)의 이화학적 특성 -III. 파보일미(추청벼)의 취반 및 노화특성-)

  • 이명선;조은자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.46-53
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    • 1996
  • To investigate physicochemical and cooking properties of parboiled rice, choochung paddy processed to parboiled rice by three methods (PL, PT, PA) milled and examined hydration, cooking qualities and firming rate of cooked parboiled rice. The results were obtained as follows. The longer the steaming time during parboiling the larger EMC of soaked parboiled rice. Water uptake rate constants (k) of all the parboiled rice during soaking except for PT rice were generally increased than those of raw rice. The longer the steaming time during parboiling the greater volume increase rate constants ( $k_{v}$) of parboiled rice samples. The glelatinization temperature of parboiled rice flour by DSC was more increased than that of raw rice flour. Gelatinized entalpy was decreased and gelatinization content (%SG: degree of starch gelatinization) was increased by parboiling process. In cooking tests, parboiled rices were harder than raw rice and softness (reciprocal of hardness) was greater PT30, PA, PL30 in turns the cooking time of the parboiled rice took longer 3-10 min than that of raw rice, PL30 took longer time than anyother rices. Cooking water of parboiled rices could be observed lighter turbidities than that of raw rice. Firming rate constants of cooked rice during storage 24 hours were generally decreased by parboiling-processing. The time constants, reciprocal of firming constants of cooked PL30 rice were 2 times slower than those of cooked raw rice.e.

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