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A Study on Nutritive Values and Salt Contents of Commercially Prepared Take-Out Boxed-Lunch In Korea (한국형 시판 도시락의 영양가 및 식염함량)

  • Kim, Bok-Hee;Lee, Eun-Wha;Kim, Won-Kyung;Lee, Yoon-Na;Kwak, Chung-Shil;Mo, Sumi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.230-242
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    • 1991
  • This research was conducted on the 10 take-out boxed-lunches commercially prepared in the department stores. chain stores. and the public railroad trains in Korea. Sampling was conducted from February 1990 to March 1990. Nutritive values and sodium contents of the 10 boxed-lunch samples are summarized as follows : 1) The average weight(percentage) of the cooked rice and the side dishes were 304.6g(49.4) and 312.4(506%), respectively. The weight of these samples were significantly heavier than that of Japanese style boxed-lunches. 2) The average number of the side dishes was 12. The average numbers of food items classified by the five food groups were 6.1 in protein food group, 0.3 in calcium food group. 6.0 in vitamin and mineral food group. 1.5 in carbohydrate food group, and 1.5 in oil and fat food group. 3) They contained on the average 840.7kcal of energy, 38.9g of protein, 22.7g of fat, 120.4g of carbohydrate. 300.8mg of calcium. 410.8mg of phosphours, 6.61 mg of iron. 219.8 R.E. of vitamin A, 0.46mg of thiamin, 0.67mg of riboflavin, 10.5mg of niacin, 27.5mg of ascorbic acid. Thus. except vitamin t the content of all the nutrients were higher than the value of 1/3 of the RDA for adults. 4) The high priced group(group 2) had more protein, calcuim. iron and niacin contents than the cheaper group(group 1). Probably, it's because the group 2 had more animal foods than the group 1. 5) The average energy content per unit price(100 won) was 37.3kcal and the average protein content per unit price(100 won) was 1.64g. Korena style boxed-lunches had higher energy and protein contents per unit price than Japanese style, and the group 1 higher than the group 2. 6) The average energy Proportions of Protein, carbohydrate. and fat were 18.3%, 57.4%, and 24.3%, respectively. These proportions are good enough. 7) Frequency of cooking methods for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : pan-frying, frying, braising, seasoning, kimchi, grilling, pickling, stir-frying, steaming and fermenting. Generally simple cooking methods were used, thus the menus were lack or varieties. 8) Frequency of colors for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : red, brown. yellow, green, black, white. Too much red pepper was used. 9) The average capacity of the containers for the staples and the side dishes were 468.1ml and 590.6ml, respectively. And the containers could not keep the food items well seperated. 10) The average contensts of sodium and salt were 2.287mg and 5.76g, in the range of 1, 398mg to 3, 489mg and 3.53g to 8.80g, respectively. These are much higher values than the recommended amount of salt.

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2007-2011 Characteristics of Plant Virus Infections on Crop Samples Submitted from Agricultural Places (2007-2011 우리나라 농업현장 임상진단 요청 작물의 바이러스 감염 특성)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Lee, Su-Heon;Choi, Hong-Soo;Kim, Mi-Kyeong;Kwak, Hae-Ryun;Kim, Jeong-Sun;Nam, Moon;Cho, Jeom-Deog;Cho, In-Sook;Choi, Gug-Seoun
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.277-289
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    • 2012
  • The total number of requests and associated specimens for the diagnosis of virus infection were 573 and 2,992, respectively, on crops from agricultural places of farmers, Agricultural extension services and so forth for 5 years from 2007. The total number of virus tests was 13,325. The number of species of viruses infected on the submitted crops was 21 in 2007, 15 in 2008, 23 in 2009, 21 in 2010 and 17 in 2011. The newly recorded viruses were Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) in 2007, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in 2008, Impatience necrotic spot virus (INSV) and Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) in 2009, and Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) in 2010. Forty virus species including Alfalfa mosaic virus were detected over 5 years. The ten most frequently detected virus species were Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV). The types of crops submitted from agricultural places were 51 in total and the ten most frequently submitted crops were red pepper, tomato, paprika, watermelon, melon, rice, cucumber, corn, radish and gourd. The total request rate for the top 10 crops and top 20 crops was 81.6% and 94.2%, respectively. Eight pepper infecting virus species included CMV, and the average infection rate was 24.6% for CMV, 18.9% for PMMoV and 14.7% for TSWV. Seven kinds of double infection were detected in pepper including BBWV2+CMV at 14.7% on average, and four types of triple infection including BBWV2+CMV+PepMoV at 0.9% on average. Six virus species detected on tomato including TYLCV, and the average infection rate was 50.6% for TYLCV, 14.5% for TSWV and 10.9% for Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV). The mixed infection of CMV+TSWV on tomato was 3.9% on average and of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)+TYLCV was 0.4% on average. Five viruses detected on watermelon included MNSV and the average infection rate was 37.0% for MNSV, 20.4% for CGMMV, 18.1% for ZYMV and 17.8% for WMV. The mixed infection rate on watermelon was CMV+MNSV and WMV+ZYMV having an average infection rate of 0.7% and 5.0%, respectively. The average infection rates on melon were 77.6% for MNSV, 5.6% for CMV and 3.3% for WMV. Mixed infections of CMV+MNSV occurred on melon with an average infection rate of 13.5%.

Rapid Rural-Urban Migration and the Rural Economy in Korea (한국(韓國)의 급격(急激)한 이촌향도형(離村向都型) 인구이동(人口移動)과 농촌경제(農村經濟))

  • Lee, Bun-song
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.27-45
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    • 1990
  • Two opposing views prevail regarding the economic impact of rural out-migration on the rural areas of origin. The optimistic neoclassical view argues that rapid rural out-migration is not detrimental to the income and welfare of the rural areas of origin, whereas Lipton (1980) argues the opposite. We developed our own alternative model for rural to urban migration, appropriate for rapidly developing economies such as Korea's. This model, which adopts international trade theories of nontraded goods and Dutch Disease to rural to urban migration issues, argues that rural to urban migration is caused mainly by two factors: first, the unprofitability of farming, and second, the decrease in demand for rural nontraded goods and the increase in demand for urban nontraded goods. The unprofitability of farming is caused by the increase in rural wages, which is induced by increasing urban wages in booming urban manufacturing sectors, and by the fact that the cost increases in farming cannot be shifted to consumers, because farm prices are fixed worldwide and because the income demand elasticity for farm products is very low. The demand for nontraded goods decreases in rural and increases in urban areas because population density and income in urban areas increase sharply, while those in rural areas decrease sharply, due to rapid rural to urban migration. Given that the market structure for nontraded goods-namely, service sectors including educational and health facilities-is mostly in monopolistically competitive, and that the demand for nontraded goods comes only from local sources, the urban service sector enjoys economies of scale, and can thus offer services at cheaper prices and in greater variety, whereas the rural service sector cannot enjoy the advantages offered by scale economies. Our view concerning the economic impact of rural to urban migration on rural areas of origin agrees with Lipton's pessimistic view that rural out-migration is detrimental to the income and welfare of rural areas. However, our reasons for the reduction of rural income are different from those in Lipton's model. Lipton argued that rural income and welfare deteriorate mainly because of a shortage of human capital, younger workers and talent resulting from selective rural out-migration. Instead, we believe that rural income declines, first, because a rapid rural-urban migration creates a further shortage of farm labor supplies and increases rural wages, and thus reduces further the profitability of farming and, second, because a rapid rural-urban migration causes a further decline of the rural service sectors. Empirical tests of our major hypotheses using Korean census data from 1966, 1970, 1975, 1980 and 1985 support our own model much more than the neoclassical or Lipton's models. A kun (county) with a large out-migration had a smaller proportion of younger working aged people in the population, and a smaller proportion of highly educated workers. But the productivity of farm workers, measured in terms of fall crops (rice) purchased by the government per farmer or per hectare of irrigated land, did not decline despite the loss of these youths and of human capital. The kun having had a large out-migration had a larger proportion of the population in the farm sector and a smaller proportion in the service sector. The kun having had a large out-migration also had a lower income measured in terms of the proportion of households receiving welfare payments or the amount of provincial taxes paid per household. The lower incomes of these kuns might explain why the kuns that experienced a large out-migration had difficulty in mechanizing farming. Our policy suggestions based on the tests of the currently prevailing hypotheses are as follows: 1) The main cause of farming difficulties is not a lack of human capital, but the in­crease in production costs due to rural wage increases combined with depressed farm output prices. Therefore, a more effective way of helping farm economies is by increasing farm output prices. However, we are not sure whether an increase in farm output prices is desirable in terms of efficiency. 2) It might be worthwhile to attempt to increase the size of farmland holdings per farm household so that the mechanization of farming can be achieved more easily. 3) A kun with large out-migration suffers a deterioration in income and welfare. Therefore, the government should provide a form of subsidization similar to the adjustment assistance provided for international trade. This assistance should not be related to the level of farm output. Otherwise, there is a possibility that we might encourage farm production which would not be profitable in the absence of subsidies. 4) Government intervention in agricultural research and its dissemination, and large-scale social overhead projects in rural areas, carried out by the Korean government, might be desirable from both efficiency and equity points of view. Government interventions in research are justified because of the problems associated with the appropriation of knowledge, and government actions on large-scale projects are justified because they required collective action.

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A Study on Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Renal Indices of Inhabitant in an Abandoned Mine Area (폐광지성(廢鑛地城) 주민(住民)의 요중(尿中) 카드뮴 농도(濃度)와 현기능평가(賢機能評價))

  • Park, Jung-Duck;Park, Chan-Byung;Choi, Byung-Sun;Kang, Eun-Yong;Hong, Yeon-Pyo;Chang, Im-Won;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Yeh, Min-Hae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.3 s.62
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    • pp.424-439
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    • 1998
  • Urinary cadmium is used as a sensitive indicator for internal Cd dose, and increased excretion of $N-acetyl-\beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG)$, $\beta_2-microglobulin(MG)$ and total protein are useful indices for renal dysfunction by chronic exposure to Cd. The target group was 184 inhabitant(82 men and 102 women) in an abandoned mine area known as exposure to low level Cd. The control group was took 160 individuals(64 men and 96 women) in Cd not-exposed area. Urinary Cd concentration was significantly higher in the target group than the control. The geometric mean of urinary Cd for male was $2.56{\mu}g/\ell,\;2.80{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $2.50{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the target group and $1.19{\mu}g/\ell,\;1.36{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $1.17{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the control. For female $2.69{\mu}g/\ell,\;3.94{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $2.63{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the target group and $1.27{\mu}g/\ell,\;1.97{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $1.25{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the control, respectively. In addition, urinary Cd of the target group had affected by the period of residence and dietary habit for the rice and the vegetables from the target area. These findings suggest the chronic exposure to Cd of the target population. Mean excretion of urinary NAG, $\beta_2-MG$ and total protein were not significant between two groups. In the target group, urinary NAG activity and total protein were significantly correlated with urinary Cd, but $\beta_2-MG$ was not related. Urinary excretion of NAG, $\beta_2-MG$ and total protein were significantly increased in $10\leqq$ than in <2 of urinary Cd level. In $2\sim10$ group of urinary Cd level, the excretion of NAG significantly increased while not showed for $\beta_2-MG$. In present study, urinary excretion of NAG was relatively sensitive than $\beta_2-MG$ in chronic exposure population to low level Cd.

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A Study on the Observation of Soil Moisture Conditions and its Applied Possibility in Agriculture Using Land Surface Temperature and NDVI from Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS Satellite Image (Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS 위성영상의 지표온도와 식생지수를 이용한 토양의 수분 상태 관측 및 농업분야에의 응용 가능성 연구)

  • Chae, Sung-Ho;Park, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Moung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.33 no.6_1
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    • pp.931-946
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to observe and analyze soil moisture conditions with high resolution and to evaluate its application feasibility to agriculture. For this purpose, we used three Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager)/TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) optical and thermal infrared satellite images taken from May to June 2015, 2016, and 2017, including the rural areas of Jeollabuk-do, where 46% of agricultural areas are located. The soil moisture conditions at each date in the study area can be effectively obtained through the SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index)3 drought index, and each image has near normal, moderately wet, and moderately dry soil moisture conditions. The temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) was calculated to observe the soil moisture status from the Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS images with different soil moisture conditions and to compare and analyze the soil moisture conditions obtained from the SPI3 drought index. TVDI is estimated from the relationship between LST (Land Surface Temperature) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) calculated from Landsat-8 OLI/TIRS satellite images. The maximum/minimum values of LST according to NDVI are extracted from the distribution of pixels in the feature space of LST-NDVI, and the Dry/Wet edges of LST according to NDVI can be determined by linear regression analysis. The TVDI value is obtained by calculating the ratio of the LST value between the two edges. We classified the relative soil moisture conditions from the TVDI values into five stages: very wet, wet, normal, dry, and very dry and compared to the soil moisture conditions obtained from SPI3. Due to the rice-planing season from May to June, 62% of the whole images were classified as wet and very wet due to paddy field areas which are the largest proportions in the image. Also, the pixels classified as normal were analyzed because of the influence of the field area in the image. The TVDI classification results for the whole image roughly corresponded to the SPI3 soil moisture condition, but they did not correspond to the subdivision results which are very dry, wet, and very wet. In addition, after extracting and classifying agricultural areas of paddy field and field, the paddy field area did not correspond to the SPI3 drought index in the very dry, normal and very wet classification results, and the field area did not correspond to the SPI3 drought index in the normal classification. This is considered to be a problem in Dry/Wet edge estimation due to outlier such as extremely dry bare soil and very wet paddy field area, water, cloud and mountain topography effects (shadow). However, in the agricultural area, especially the field area, in May to June, it was possible to effectively observe the soil moisture conditions as a subdivision. It is expected that the application of this method will be possible by observing the temporal and spatial changes of the soil moisture status in the agricultural area using the optical satellite with high spatial resolution and forecasting the agricultural production.

Studies on Control of the Mixture of Annual and Perennial Weeds Emerged from Paddy Field - On the Pre-Emergence Treatment of Herbicides in the Paddy Field Dominated by Sagittaria pygmaea MIQ - (다년생잡초(多年生雜草) 혼생답(混生畓)에 있어서 제초제(除草劑)에 의한 잡초방제(雜草防除) - 특(特)히 올미 우점답(優點畓)에서 초기처리제(初期處理劑)를 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Ryang, H.S.;Han, S.S.;Kim, J.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 1982
  • For the effective control of weeds in mechanically transplanted paddy field weeding effects of naproanide ${\alpha}$-(${\beta}$-naphthoxy) propion anilide], pyrazolate [4-2, 4-dichlorobenzoyl)-1, 3-dimethyl pyrazol-5-yl-p-tolune sulphanate], chlormethoxynil (2, 4-dichloro-phenyl-4-nitro-3-methoxy phenyl ether), SL-49 [1-3dimethyl-4(2, 4dichlorobenzoyl)-5-phenacyloxy pyrazole], ACN (3-chloro-2-amino-l, 4-naphthoquinone) either alone or in combination with butachlor (2-chlor-2, 6-diethyl-N-buthoxymethyl acetanilide) were compared. Pyrazolate and SL-49 were most effective for the control of Sagittaria pygmaea MIQ. and Potomogeton distinctus A. BENN. including most annual weeds. Weeding effect of butachlor alone was very high for annuals, good for Cyperus serotinus ROTTB. and poor for S. pygmaea and P. distinctus. But the weeding effect of the combination of butachlor and pyrazolate was stronger than that of butachlor alone and therefore this mixture was effective for S. pygmaea, P. distinctus and C. serotinus including all the annual weeds. The combination of butachlor and SL-49 showed the same tendency as the combination of butachlor and pyrazolate. Naproanilide was not effective for the control of Echinochlor crusgalli P. BEAUV and less effective for Monochoria vaginalis PRESL, but excellent for S. pygmaea. By mixing butachlor with naproanilide weeding, spectrum for annuals and S. pygmaea was much increased by that for P. distinctus and C. serotinus was not satisfactory. ACN was not satisfactory for the control of all the tested weeds but the weeding effect was increased in general by mixing with butachlor. Chlormethoxynil was excellent for the control of annual weeds but it has no effect on C. serotinus, S. pygmaea and P. distinctus showing some initial controling effect but these weeds regrew afterwards. The weeding activity of ACN increased in combination with butachlor and the residual activity was stronger than that of ACN alone. A light crop injury was found at the initial period after treatments in all treated plots. The yield from all treated plots except those from plots treated with ACN, butachlor and naproanilide were not significantly different from the band weeded plot.

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Ecological Characteristics of Local Collections of Cyperus serotinus Rottb. and Their Geographical Differentiation (너도방동산이 지방수집종(地方蒐集種)들의 생태적(生態的) 특성(特性) 및 그의 생리적(生理的) 분화(分化)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Seong, Ki-Yeong;Kwon, Yong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 1983
  • To study ecological characteristics of Cyperus serotinus occuring in Korea its propagules were collected from 6 locations from the northern part to the southern part of Korea (Chuncheon, Suweon, Iri, Jeonju, Gwangju, Milyang) in 1981, cultured and replanted 4 times (May 20, June 5, June 20, July 5) in 1982. They flowered from August 10 to August 29 in the plants planted on May 20 and from August 22 to September 4 in the plants planted on July 5. Plant height, number of tillers and top fresh weight were 85-100cm, 375-1,500 tillers/$m^2$ and 500-1,750g/$m^2$, respectively, when they were planted on May 20, and 58-67cm, 300-625 tillers/ $m^2$ and 125-250g/$m^2$, respectively, when they were planted on July S. Weight of seeds and number of rhizomes per plant were 20-50g/$m^2$ and 20.75-61, respectively, whey, they were planted on May 20, and 5-17.5g/$m^2$ and 51.5-80.25 when they were planted on July 5. Local collections showed. the same morphological characteristics at the level of species identification, but there existed variations among the local collections. Cyperus serotinus from Chuncheon and Suweon were longer in the length of inflorescence, than those from Gwangju and Milyang and rhizomes from Chuncheon and Suweon were thicker than the others. Each of local collections may be regarded as different ecotype based on the above mentioned differences in morphology, growth and flowering response to the planting date. The results appear to imply that Cyperus serotinus weeds occuring in various locations of Korea are different one another in competitive ability with rice crop.

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Strain Improvement of the Genus Pleurotus by Protoplast Fusion (원형질체(原形質體) 융합(融合)에 의한 느타리버섯속(屬)의 품종개발(品種開發))

  • Yoo, Young-Bok;You, Chang-Hyun;Cha, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.200-211
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    • 1993
  • Somatic hybrids of Pleurotus florida ASI 2016 and Pleurotus ostreatus ASI 2018 were obtained by protoplast fusion. The 40 fusants($P1{\sim}P40$) was examined for the yield on fermented and pasteurized rice straw in a tray. The carpophore yield of them were showed as the range of $27.0{\sim}155.2$, based on parental values of 100(ASI 2018), The pilei of fusants between orange white colored P. florida and dark grey colored P. ostreatus had mixed colors in the young stage. Other breeding programmes were performed to improve new varieties with high yield and good quality. A new oyster mushroom variety, Wonhyeongneutaribeosus(P72), was developed at the Agricultural Sciences Institute, Rural Development Administration in 1990. This P.florida-ostreatus-ostreatus hybrid P72 was selected from 38 protoplast fusion products($P41{\sim}P78$) between P.florida-ostreatus recombinant P5-M 43-arg rib and P. ostreatus ASI 2-13-0 2001-19-pro orn. The yield indexes of 38 hybrids ranged $40.5{\sim}152.7$ compared with the parental values of 100(ASI 2001). Hybrid P72 was characterized by the large fruiting bundle of semispherical shape with long stipe and by the small and circular pileus, resulting in lower harvesting cost. A significant increase in carpophore production was observed in somatic hybrids of protoplasts due to heterosis. A comparision of hybrid with parents P72 was made using isozyme analysis. The esterase banding patterns could be characterized by new bands in the hybrids. Seven fusion products of four crosses between P.florida ASI 2016 and P. ostreatus ASI 2018 were analysed with respect to the distribution of progenies and segregation of gene markers by random basidiospore analysis. Segregation of alleles should yield progeny of four genotypes in a Mendelian ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 for prototrophs, auxotrophs of one parental type, auxotrophs of the other parental type, and auxotrophic recombinants, respectively. However, five fusants of them did not detect one parental, P.ostreatus, type. Basidiospores could yield progeny of 16 genotypes in the cross of one of the recombinant P5-M43-arg $rib{\times}P. ostreatus$ ASI 2-13-pro orn but the segregants of three fusants were not detected clearly. The allele ratio of loci could be expected 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 for arg, rib, pro and orn. The ratio, however, would be changed to 4 : 1 : 1 : 1 with increasing proportion of argo In almost all the fusants, prototrophic recombinants were recovered in large numbers against auxotrophic markers. Parental genotypes were recovered with the recombinant progeny amounting to $38.68{\sim}99.56%$. The analysis provides proof of heterokaryosis and strong evidence for haploidy of vegetative nuclei, a sexual cycle consisting of nuclear fusion and meiosis.

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Regional Development And Dam Construction in Korea (한국의 지역개발과 댐건설)

  • 안경모
    • Water for future
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.38-42
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    • 1976
  • Because of differences in thoughts and ideology, our country, Korea has been deprived of national unity for some thirty years of time and tide. To achieve peaceful unification, the cultivation of national strength is of paramount importance. This national strength is also essential if Korea is to take rightful place in the international societies and to have the confidence of these societies. However, national strength can never be achieved in a short time. The fundamental elements in economic development that are directly conducive to the cultivation of national strength can be said to lie in -a stable political system, -exertion of powerful leadership, -cultivation of a spirit of diligence, self-help and cooperation, -modernization of human brain power, and -establishment of a scientific and well planned economic policy and strong enforcement of this policy. Our country, Korea, has attained brilliant economic development in the past 15 years under the strong leadership of president Park Chung Hee. However, there are still many problems to be solved. A few of them are: -housing and home problems, -increasing demand for employment, -increasing demand for staple food and -the need to improve international balance of payment. Solution of the above mentioned problems requires step by step scientific development of each sector and region of our contry. As a spearhead project in regional development, the Saemaul Campaign or new village movement can be cited. The campaign is now spreading throughout the country like a grass fire. However, such campaigns need considerable encouragement and support and the means for the desired development must be provided if the regional and sectoral development program is to sucdceed. The construction of large multipurpose dams in major river basin plays significant role in all aspects of national, regional and sectoral development. It ensures that the water resource, for which there is no substitute, is retained and utilized for irrigation of agricultural areas, production of power for industry, provision of water for domestic and industrial uses and control of river water. Water is the very essence of life and we must conserve and utilize what we have for the betterment of our peoples and their heir. The regional and social impact of construction of a large dam is enormous. It is intended to, and does, dras tically improve the "without-project" socio-economic conditions. A good example of this is the Soyanggang multipurpose dam. This project will significantly contribute to our national strength by utilizing the stored water for the benefit of human life and relief of flood and drought damages. Annual average precipitation in Korea is 1160mm, a comparatively abundant amount. The catchment areas of the Han River, Keum River, and Youngsan River are $62,755\textrm{km}^2$, accounting for 64% of the national total. Approximately 62% of the national population inhabits in this area, and 67% of the national gross product comes from the area. The annual population growth rate of the country is currently estimated at 1.7%, and every year the population growth in urban area increases at a rising rate. The population of Seoul, Pusan, and Taegu, the three major cities in Korea, is equal to one third of our national total. According to the census conducted on October 1, 1975, the population in the urban areas has increased by 384,000, whereas that in rural areas has decreased by 59,000,000 in the past five years. The composition of population between urban and rural areas varied from 41%~59% in 1959 to 48%~52% in 1975. To mitigate this treand towards concentration of population in urban areas, employment opportunities must be provided in regional and rural areas. However, heavy and chemical industries, which mitigate production and employment problems at the same time, must have abundant water and energy. Also increase in staple food production cannot be attained without water. At this point in time, when water demand is rapidly growing, it is essential for the country to provide as much a reservoir capacity as possible to capture the monsoon rainfall, which concentarated in the rainy seaon from June to Septesmber, and conserve the water for year round use. The floods, which at one time we called "the devil" have now become a source of immense benefit to Korea. Let me explain the topographic condition in Korea. In northern and eastern areas we have high mountains and rugged country. Our rivers originate in these mountains and flow in a general southerly or westerly direction throught ancient plains. These plains were formed by progressive deposition of sediments from the mountains and provide our country with large areas of fertile land, emminently suited to settlement and irrigated agricultural development. It is, therefore, quite natural that these areas should become the polar point for our regional development program. Hower, we are fortunate in that we have an additional area or areas, which can be used for agricultural production and settlement of our peoples, particularly those peoples who may be displaced by the formation of our reservoirs. I am speaking of the tidelands along the western and southern coasts. The other day the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery informed the public of a tideland reclamation of which 400,000 hectares will be used for growing rice as part of our national food self-sufficiency programme. Now, again, we arrive at the need for water, as without it we cannot realize this ambitious programme. And again we need those dams to provide it. As I mentioned before, dams not only provide us with essential water for agriculture, domestic and industrial use, but provide us with electrical energy, as it is generally extremely economical to use the water being release for the former purposes to drive turbines and generators. At the present time we have 13 hydro-electric power plants with an installed capacity of 711,000 kilowatts equal to 16% of our national total. There are about 110 potential dams ites in the country, which could yield about 2,300,000 kilowatts of hydro-electric power. There are about 54 sites suitable for pumped storage which could produce a further 38,600,000 kilowatts of power. All available if we carefully develop our water resources. To summarize, water resource development is essential to the regional development program and the welfare of our people, it must proceed hand-in-hand with other aspects of regional development such as land impovement, high way extension, development of our forests, erosion control, and develop ment of heavy and chemical industries. Through the successful implementation of such an integrated regional development program, we can look forward to a period of national strength, and due recognition of our country by the worlds societies.

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Effect of the Level of Concentrates and Pasture Grazing on Growth, Reproductive Performance and Feed Efficiency in Spring born Hanwoo Heifers (농후사료 급여수준 및 방목이 춘계분만 한우 암송아지의 성장발육, 번식능력 및 사료이용성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kang, S. W.;Im, S. K.;Jeong, J. W.;Woo, J. S.;Jeon, K. J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the level of concentrates and pasture grazing in 60 head of spring born Hanwoo heifers(initial body weight; 125.3kg) for 450days from six to 21 months in age. Feeding trial was conducted with 5 treatment(twelve heads/ treatment) which were T1(1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates and indoor feeding for over-all period), T2(0.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T3(1.0% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T4(1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T5(2.0% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing). During the total experimental period, average daily gains by treatments ranged from 0.322 to 0.465kg(average 0.405kg) and higher in the order of T5, T4, T1, T3 and T2, and increased with the level of concentrates feeding for pre-pasture grazing. TDN intakes required per unit of kilogram gain were 9.13 to 9.79kg(average 9.49kg) higher in the order of T1, T3, T5, T4 and T2, For the grazing period, they were ranged from 12.39 to 12.98kg(average 12.68kg), and were not significantly different. But TDN requirements of grazing groups was higher about 15.6% than the indoor feeding group’s. The rate of roughage to concentrates by treatments were 57.8 to 73.6%(average 63.7%). The body weight of 15 and 21 month in ages, that is, the ages at puberty and first conception by treatments were 201.2 to 230.7kg(average 223.8kg) and 270.2 to 331.4kg (average 307.6kg), respectively, and the latter were high per unit of 20.4kg by increasing the level of concentrates feeding for pre-pasture grazing every 0.5% addition of apparent body weight. The age of 225 and 275kg in body weight, that is, the body weight at puberty and first conception by treatments were 14.0 to 17.6 month (average 15.3 month) and 17.9 to 21.7 month(average 19.4), respectively, and the latter were shorter about 1.3 month by increasing the level of concentrates feeding every 0.5% addition of apparent body weight. According to the above results, it may be concluded that spring born Hanwoo heifers are raised at indoor have to feed with 1.8% of body weight in concentrates under full feeding of rice straws for all period from six to 21 months in age, but with 1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for grazing period.