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Literary Investigation of Food-Therapy(食治方) Using Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) - Korean Medicine Literature in 1300's-1600's - (조(속미(粟米)·출미(秫米))를 이용한 식치방(食治方)의 문헌(文獻) 조사 -1300년대에서 1600년대 한국 의서(醫書)를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Soon-Ae;Choi, Mi-Ae;Kim, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.791-805
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    • 2015
  • Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) is a native Korean herbal medical food and a native millet, and Koreans have eaten it as a substitute for rice since ancient times. Foods using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) have been recorded not only in cookbooks but also in Korean traditional medical books several times. Therefore, the purposes of this study was to investigate Food-Therapy (食治) using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) recorded in the literature from 1300 to 1600 from early to mid-Joseon (朝鮮) and provide data required to develop menus for Yaksun (藥膳, herbal food). This study examined Food-Therapy using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) in 10 types of literatures from the 1300s to the 1600s. and is described in the literature a total of 63 times. According to classification by cooking method, porridge (粥) was most frequently mentioned in the literature at 27 times. The cooking method of Soup (湯) is described 11 times. Cooking methods such as porridge juice and soup are frequently used since those methods are digestive and absorptive. Other food ingredients described using foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beaur) are white leek (Allii Fistulosi Bulbus) ginger (Zingiber officinale), chicken egg, Allium chinense, sparrow (Passer montanus), rooster liver, Du-si, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L), and white broiler. Other medicinal herbs described with Setaria italica are Panax ginseng (人蔘), Poria cocos (茯笭), Angelica acutiloba (當歸), Ziziphus jujuba (大棗), Liriopeplatyphylla (麥門冬), and cinnamon (肉桂). Food-Therapy using Setaria italica L. Beauv was described as a prescription for stomach and spleen (脾胃), stomach reflux (反胃), defecation and urinary disorder (大小便難), cholera, deficiency syndrome (虛症), and tonification (補益). This focus on promoting health and preventing diseases by strengthening the stomach and spleen and improving defecation and urination using Food-Therapy when herbal medicine was rare.

Suggestions for improving data quality assurance and spatial representativeness of Cheorwon AAOS data (철원 자동농업기상관측자료의 품질보증 및 대표성 향상을 위한 제언)

  • Park, Juhan;Lee, Seung-Jae;Kang, Minseok;Kim, Joon;Yang, Ilkyu;Kim, Byeong-Guk;You, Keun-Gi
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2018
  • Providing high-quality meteorological observation data at sites that represent actual farming environments is essential for useful agrometeorological services. The Automated Agricultural Observing System (AAOS) of the Korean Meteorological Administration, however, has been deployed on lawns rather than actual farm land. In this study, we show the inaccuracies that arise in AAOS data by analyzing temporal and vertical variation and by comparing them with data recorded by the National Center for AgroMeteorology (NCAM) tower that is located at an actual farming site near the AAOS tower. The analyzed data were gathered in August and October (before and after harvest time, respectively). Observed air temperature and water vapor pressure were lower at AAOS than at NCAM tower before and after harvest time. Observed reflected shortwave radiation tended to be higher at AAOS than at NCAM tower. Soil variables showed bigger differences than meteorological observation variables. In August, observed soil temperature was lower at NCAM tower than at AAOS with smaller diurnal changes due to irrigation. The soil moisture observed at NCAM tower continuously maintained its saturation state, while the one at AAOS showed a decreasing trend, following an increase after rainfall. The trend changed in October. Observed soil temperature at NCAM showed similar daily means with higher diurnal changes than at AAOS. The soil moisture observed at NCAM was continuously higher, but both AAOS and NCAM showed similar trends. The above results indicate that the data gathered at the AAOS are inaccurate, and that ground surface cover and farming activities evoke considerable differences within the respective meteorological and soil environments. We propose to shift the equipment from lawn areas to actual farming sites such as rice paddies, farms and orchards, so that the gathered data are representative of the actual agrometeorological observations.

Growth and Yield Components Responses to Delayed Planting of Soybean in Southern Region of Korea (남부지역 콩 만파에 따른 품종별 생육 및 수량반응)

  • Park, Hyeon-Jin;Han, Won-Young;Oh, Ki-Won;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Lee, Byong-Won;Ko, Jong-Min;Baek, In Youl
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.483-491
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    • 2014
  • Double cropping system including paddy field soybean is widely adopted nationwide, due to rise in market price and its higher income than paddy field rice. Sowing date of soybean as a second crop is being delayed depending on first crop's growth period and harvesting time. Due to the increased temperature in October and delayed first frost date, soybean could be harvested without frost damage even in late-plating. Therefore, selection of soybean cultivar which is appropriate for this environment is very important. The effect of sowing date and genotype of soybean on growth and yield was investigated for three planting dates (June 20, July 5, and July 20) with ten cultivars developed for soy-pate production, to figure out plant development and yield pattern in delayed planting. As planting date is delayed, plant height and pod number was decreased and this pattern was more clearly detected in mid-late maturity cultivars. Hundred-seed weight did not show significant changes even in late planting, due to compensations between yield components. Yield reduction of July 20 in contrast to that of June 20 showed that Nampung (9.6%) showed the least yield decline. Maximum yield was achieved from Daepung, Taekwang, and Uram among other soybean cultivars in late planting. Shortening of growth period was strongly detected in reproductive stage while length of vegetative stage was regularly maintained in both early and mid-late maturity cultivars.

The Growth Phase and Yield Difference of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) on Soil Salinity in Reclaimed Land (간척지에서 토양 염농도별 케나프의 생육반응 및 수량성)

  • Kang, Chan-Ho;Choi, Weon-Young;Yoo, Young-Jin;Choi, Kyu-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Song, Young-Ju;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2014
  • Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) was recognized as a potential source of forage. To reduce the production cost, we should insure large cultivation area. The one of the best candidate places to expand the useful kenaf production was 'Saemangeum' reclaimed land. To confirm the possibility of kenaf growth in reclaimed land, we seeding and cultivated the kenaf in 'Saemangeum'. The germination percentage of kenaf on 5.0 dS/m soil salinity was 18%. It is less 66% than that of 4.0 dS/m soil salinity and at 6.0 dS/m, the germination percentage of kenaf was under 10%. The growth and development of kenaf in reclaimed land grew worse with increasing soil salinity. The stem diameter which the most important factor that decide the value and yield of product was upper 2.6 cm when soil salinity maintained under 4.0 dS/m, but if soil salinity marked over 4.0 dS/m, the stem diameter of kenaf was drop under 2.0 cm and it deteriorate the number of leaves per plant by 20~46%. The necrosis on older tip and marginal leaves were noted approximately first month after seeding which was correlated directly with the salinity levels of reclaimed soil. Reduction of total yield was coincide with increasing levels of EC. If soil salinity over 5.0 dS/m, the amount of decreased by soil salinity was 51% than that of non-reclaimed region. The allowable soil salinity level of which could be maintained within 20% reduction rate was 4.2 dS/m. Consequently kenaf can be grown successfully with moderately saline soil condition. However, salt levels in excess of 4.2 dS/m severely have restricted plant growth and development and will result in significant yield reduction.

Influence of Fly Ash Application on Content of Heavy Metal in the Soil I. Content Change by the Application Rate (석탄회(石炭灰) 시용(施用)이 토양중(土壤中) 중금속함량(重金屬含量)에 미치는 영향(影響) I. 시용량(施用量)에 따른 함량변화(含量變化))

  • Kim, Bok-Young;Lim, Sun-Uk;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of treatment of fly ash on heavy metal contents in the arable soils. Rice was cultivated on the two types of paddy field(clay loam and sandy loam soil) with 0, 4, 8, 12t/10a of anthracite fly ash and bituminous coal fly ash, respectively. And soybean was cultivated on the same types of upland field with those of 0, 3, 6, 9t/10a, respectively. At the harvest time, the heavy metal contents in surface and subsoil were investigated. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Anthracite fly ash. 1) In the paddy field of clay loam, the contents of Cu and Zn in the surface soil and Cd and Ni in the subsoil were increased with the increase of the amount of fly ash applied, but the others didn't show that tendency. 2) In the paddy field of sandy loam, only the content of Fe was increased in the surface and subsoils. 3) In the case of upland soil, the concentration of Ni and Cr in the surface soil and Cd in the subsoil were increased in the clay loam soil, and those of Cr in the surface soil and Pb in the subsoil were increased in the sandy loam soil. 2. Bituminous coal fly ash 1) In the paddy field of clay loam, the contents of Cu and Zn in the subsoil were increased with increase of the amount of fly ash applied, but in the case of sandy loam, those of Pb and Ni in the surface soil were increased. 2) In the upland soil of clay loam, the concentration of Ni in the surface soil and Pb in the subsoil were increased. 3) In case of upland soil of sandy loam, the contents of Cr and Fe were increased in the surface and subsoil, respectively, but those of Cu and Mn were increased in the both of the surface and subsoil.

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Physiological Respone of Rice Plant Enviromental Stress II Effect of low temperature on the contents of chlorophyll, nitrogen and potassium m leading local and IR667 (환경장애(環境障碍)에 대(對)한 수도(水稻)의 생리반응(生理反應) II IR667계통(系統)과 장려품종(奬勵品種)의 엽녹소질소(葉綠素窒素) 및 가리함량(加里含量)에 대(對)한 저온(低溫)의 영향(影響))

  • Park, Hoon;Kim, Young Woo;Kim, Yung Sup
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1973
  • Eeffect of temperature (3-day or 7-day treatment under $15^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$) on chlorophyll, nitrogen and potassium content in the second leaf blade from top of IR667 line (Suwon 213 and 214) and leading local varieties (Jinheung and Paldal) was investigated at the end of nursery, maximum tillering and flowering stage using phytotron. 1. Chlorophyll content was higher in IR667 line than in the local at $25^{\circ}C$ but reversed at $20^{\circ}C$ or $15^{\circ}C$ and chlorophyll a/b value was always high in the local. 2. Chlorophyll content per fresh weight decreased with growth and low temperature effect was greater at the end of nursery and on chlorophyll a than on chlorophyll b. 3. Chlorophyll a/b value increases with the increase of chlorophyll content and the increasing rate of chl. a/b value per chlorophyll increment tends to decrease under unfavorable condition. This decrease is greater in low temperature sensitive IR667 than local varieties. 4. According to chlorophyll retention value IR667 line was weaker at low temperature. 5. The content of total nitrogen or soluble nitrogen (methanol soluble) was decreased by low temperature. 6. Chl. (a+b)/S-N value decreased with growth and seemed not to be greatly affected by temperature and always higher in the local. 7. Potassium content (total or methanol soluble) tends to decrease at low temperature and soluble K increased with chlorophyll content. 8. High yielding ability of IR667 seems to be attributable to its high chlorophyll content at high temperature and easy leaf discoloration by low temperature or by nitrogen depression of IR667 seems to be attributable to the low Chl./S-N value.

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Expression Analysis of Oryza sativa Ascorbate Peroxidase 1 (OsAPx1) in Response to Different Phytohormones and Pathogens (벼 ascobate peroxidase 단백질의 병원균 및 식물호르몬에 대한 발현 분석)

  • Wang, Yiming;Wu, Jingni;Choi, Young Whan;Jun, Tae Hwan;Kwon, Soon Wook;Choi, In Soo;Kim, Yong Chul;Gupta, Ravi;Kim, Sun Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1091-1097
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    • 2015
  • We have isolated and characterized an ascorbate peroxidase (APx) gene, OsAPx1 from rice. Northern and Western blot analyses indicated that at young seedling stage, OsAPx1 mRNA was expressed highly in root, shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaf sheath than leaf. In mature plant, OsAPx1 gene expressed highly in root, stem and flower but weakly in leaf. OsAPx1 gene and protein expression level was induced in leaves inoculated with Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Phytohormones treatment showed that OsAPx1 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), but was down regulated by ABA and SA co-treatments with JA, resulting that they have antagonistic effect on pathogen responsive OsAPx1 expression. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that Arabidopsis AtAPx1 has a close relationship with OsAPx1. In AtAPx1 knock out lines, the accumulation of O2- and H2O2 are all highly detected than wild type, revealing that the high concentration of exogenous H2O2 cause the intercellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in AtAPx1 knockout plant. These results suggested that OsAPx1 gene may be associated with the pathogen defense cascades as the mediator for balancing redox state by acting ROS scavenger and is associated with response to the pathogen defense via Jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

Changes of Dry Matter Productivity and Feed Value of Forage Barley and Italian Ryegrass According to Cultivation Conditions in Mid-west Plain of Korea (중서부 평야지에서 재배조건에 따른 청보리와 이탈리안 라이그라스의 건물생산성 및 사료가치 변화)

  • Seo, Jong Ho;Kwon, Young Up;Cho, Ga Ok;Han, Ouk Kyu;Gu, Ja Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2018
  • Cultivation of high-quality forage crop by using fallow field during winter is required for national high feed self-sufficiency and establishment of self-supply system of high-quality forage crop. Field experiments for cultivation of high-quality winter forage crop were conducted at the paddy and upland fields in Cheonan and Anseong city with treatments of single Italian ryegrass(IRG) and IRG mixed with forage barley at the paddy field and of single forage barley and forage barley mixed with IRG at the upland field in the Mid-west plain. Several cultivation conditions such as broadcasting IRG seed under standing rice, sowing time, tillage method, drainage condition, mixed sowing with forage barley were compared to know the change of growth, yield and quality of winter forage crop. In particular, over-wintering rate and dry matter yield were decreased significantly in late-sown IRG and moisture-stressed forage barley. Yield and quality of forage crops were increased by sowing after tillage, mixed sowing of IRG with barley at the paddy field with good drainage. High yield as much as dry matter $10MT\;ha^{-1}$ with high feed value could be obtained by early sowing of feed barley mixed with IRG at the upland field. Cultivation conditions such as early sowing, sowing after tillage, drainage management are required for higher dry matter yield, quality and stable cultivation of winter forage crops in the mid-west plain of Korea.

Field Survey on Liquid Manure Utilization in the Agricultural Farms (경종농가에서의 액비이용 실태조사)

  • Choi D. Y.;Kwag J. H.;Park C. H.;Jeong K. H.;Jeon B. S.;Choi H. C.;Kang H. S.;Yang C. B.;Choi H. L.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2004
  • The livestock liquid manure is one of important source for production of friendly environmental crops and have been used widespreadly in recent years. This survey is to eventually investigate the actual conditions of liquid manure utilization for cultivation of crops in the agricultural farm, based on the survey for 61 selected farms in 8 provinces(except Jeju province) included 22 counties in Korea. The results obtained in this survey were summarized as follow; $72.1\%$ of liquid manure storage tank(44) was located in the farmland and $27.9\%$(17) was in the fm. Most of liquid manure tank volume and material were 200 M/T($67.2\%$) and Polyethylene Double Frame panel($44.3\%$). The pro-portions of liquid manure application land were $45.9\%$ for rice paddy, $36.1\%$ for dry field, $16.4\%$ for orchard and $1.6\%$ for other, respectively. The controversial points of liquid manure utilization were malodor($60.7\%$), equipment possession($22.9\%$), no problem($13.1\%$) and farmland possession ($2.3\%$), respectively.

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Consideration on coexistence strategy of GM with non-GM, environmentally friend crops in South Korea (GM과 non-GM, 친환경작물의 공존을 위한 제도 보완의 필요성)

  • Lee, Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.245-256
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    • 2008
  • The current legislation in South Korea clearly states that the tolerance threshold on the adventitious presence of GMO in environment-friendly agricultural products is 3.0% and no GM seed should be detected in their planting seed batches. To date, in Korea, there is no approved GM crop for commercial cultivation in field. However, several GM crops including rice, Chinese cabbage, potato and wild turf grass are currently under risk assessment for their environmental release. Also Korean government (Rural Development Administration, RDA) announced that 11 institutes including universities have been currently certified to carry out a risk assessment of GM crops. Meanwhile, the cultivated area and certified quantities of environment-friendly crops (organic, pesticide-free and low-pesticide) are sharply increasing every year according to the report of National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service (NAQS). In detail, in 2007, the certified quantities of environment-friendly agricultural products were elevated up to 100-fold for organic, 171-fold for pesticide-free and 2,324-fold for low-pesticide crops when compared with those in 1999. The total certified quantity of environment-friendly cereal crops in 2007 was equivalent to 6.4% of total production of cereal crops. Moreover, 24% of total production of root and tuber crops such as potato and sweet potato were certified for environment-friendly agricultural products. In these circumstances, I strongly suggest that current legislations on GM crop's safety management should be revised to include strategies for the coexistence of GM with non-GM crops, especially environment-friendly crops before GM crop is approved to be cultivated for commercialization. Since all types of crops are grown in an open environment, the adventitious presence of GM crops among non-GM crops is inevitable if appropriate measures for coexistence are not established for species by species such as isolation distance, workable management measures to minimize admixture.