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A Case Study on Characteristics of the Mathematics Gifted Children (수학영재의 특성에 관한 사례연구)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Ryu, Sung-Rim
    • Education of Primary School Mathematics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.41-56
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    • 2007
  • Related with the mathematics gifted children the situation of different case studies is the research which is limited in mathematics problem solving process of the most mathematics gifted children. The research which it sees hereupon observes from the scope which is wider the quality of the mathematics gifted children, before the hazard mathematics gifted children whom it sees enter into the mathematics gifted children education center unit life and life after studying living and dismissal of a class from the general school, namely for their general life it leads compared to attitude it observes the reporter it does a quality. For a what kind of interest in the mathematics gifted children, the research leads the family or general class, from the gifted children education center it has it considers encouragement, map and to give a help to good mathematics gifted children education activation, it does. It will reach and to respect with afterwards it set a same three research problem. First, before entering into the mathematics gifted children education center, are the mathematics gifted children what kind of quality? Second, Are the mathematics gifted children what kind of quality for general school hour? Third, Are the mathematics gifted children what kind of quality after dismissal of a class after hour? Being selected in the hazard gifted children education center which solves an up research problem, simple characteristic and approach ease characteristic, by the condition of the permission possibility back it selected 2 person gifted children school boxes which are coming and going. And, before entering into these mathematics gifted children education center, studying life from the general school, life after dismissal of a class it will extend at 1 years, various recording it will ask and it collected direct observation and interview it led against their quality it analyzed. It shared the result which it analyzes with emotional quality, studying conduct qualities, general qualities of the mathematics gifted children and qualities of mathematics gifted children parents. Studies level of the mathematics gifted children parents high facility when them are young from, the interest and helping out which it has were considerable, to advance with the direction where in order for always with great disaster them are proper the map it did. In general quality of the mathematics gifted children from young age the ability which finds a language and a possibility concept superiorly the ability which expresses the thought of oneself logically was superior, the competitive spirit was high, it liked it came reading, a leader role, to reveal a deepening school with the fact that it comes and goes. Also it will burn with their studying conduct quality and it will roll and it did deeply and it arranged knot eagerly, accomplishing which is superior from the field which is various it showed, the originality was superior, the subject attachment power was high quite, oneself it studies it has a devotion the possibility of knowing it was. And, the social characteristic of the friends and is good with their emotional quality and it does there is own reflection and an encouragement at any time and also a confidence, but just as good as the stress also it receives the possibility of knowing it was to him.

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Increases in Doxorubicin Sensitivity and Radioiodide Uptake by Transfecting shMDR and Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene in Cancer Cells Expressing Multidrug Resistance (다약제내성 암세포에서 shMDR과 Sodium/Iodide Symporter 유전자의 이입에 의한 Doxorubicin 감수성과 방사성옥소 섭취의 증가)

  • Ahn, Sohn-Joo;Lee, Yong-Jin;Lee, You-La;Choi, Chang-Ik;Lee, Sang-Woo;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Lee, In-Kyu;Lee, Jae-Tae
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells related to mdr1 gene expression can be effectively treated by selective short hairpin RNA for mdr1 gene (shMDR). Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene is well known to have both reporter and therapeutic gene characteristics. We have co-transfected both shMDR and NIS gene into colon cancer cells (HCT15 cell) expressing MDR and Tc-99m sestamibi and I-125 uptake were measured. In addition, cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and I-131 therapy were also assessed after transfection. Material and Methods: At first, shMDR was transfected with liposome reagent into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and HCT cells. shMDR transfection was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Adenovirus expressing NIS (Ad-NIS) gene and shMDR (Ad-shMDR) were co-transfected with Ad-NIS into HCT15 cells. Forty-eight hours after infection, inhibition of P-gycoprotein (Pgp) function by shMDR was analyzed by a change of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake and doxorubicin cytotoxicity, and functional activity of induced NIS gene expression was assessed with I-125 uptake assay. Results: In HEK293 cells transfected with shMDR, mdr1 mRNA and Pgp protein expressions were down regulated. HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS was higher NIS protein expression than control cells. After transfection of 300 MOI of Ad-shMDR either with or without 10 MOI of Ad-NIS, uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi increased up to 1.5-fold than control cells. HCT15 cells infected with 10 MOI of Ad-NIS showed approximately 25-fold higher I-125 uptake than control cells. Cotransfection of Ad-shMDR and Ad-NIS resulted in enhanced cytotoxic by doxorubicin in HCT15 cells. I-131 treatment on HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS revealed increased cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: Suppression of mdr1 gene expression, retention of Tc-99m sestamibi, enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity and increases in I-125 uptake were achieved in MDR expressing cancer cell by co-transfection of shMDR and NIS gene. Dual therapy with doxorubicin and radioiodine after cotransfection shMDR and NIS gene can be used to overcome MDR.

Effects of Vegetable Peptones on Promotion of Cell Proliferation and Collagen Production (Vegetable Peptones의 세포증식 및 콜라겐생성 촉진효과)

  • Jung, Eun-Sun;Lee, Jong-Sung;Lee, Jienny;Huh, Sung-Ran;Kim, Young-Soo;Hwang, Wang-Taek;Park, Deok-Hoon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2009
  • Skin aging appears to be principally attributed to a decrease in both levels of Type I collagen and regeneration ability of dermal fibroblasts. It is important to introduce an efficient and safe agent for effective management of skin aging. To this end, we performed screening for anti-ageing agents and then found that vegetable peptones (pea and wheat) promoted cell proliferation of adult stem cells. Vegetable peptones may be considered as useful medium additives because it can supply nutrients, peptides, amino acids or growth factor analogues. This study was designed to investigate effects of vegetable peptones on cell proliferation/collagen production and their possible mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts. In cell proliferation assay, vegetable peptones significantly promoted cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase and type I procollagen synthesis assays showed that vegetable peptones induce type I procollagen production through the activation of COLlA2 promoter. In both TGF-${\beta}1$ luciferase reporter and ELISA assays, vegetable peptones was found to induce TGF-${\beta}1$ production, suggesting that vegetable peptones induce type I procollagen production through the activation of TGF-${\beta}1$. When applied topically in a human skin twice a day for an 4-week period of time, vegetable peptones did not induce any adverse reactions. Theretore, based on these results, we suggest the possibility that vegetable peptones may be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.

Transduction of eGFP Gene to Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Characterization (인간 배아줄기세포로의 eGFP 유전자 도입 및 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Yoon-Young;Ku, Seung-Yup;Park, Yong-Bin;Oh, Sun-Kyung;Moon, Shin-Yong;Choi, Young-Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.283-292
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    • 2009
  • Objective: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into all kinds of cell types in vitro. Therefore, hESCs can be used as a cell source for cell-based therapy. Transduction of foreign genes to hESCs could be useful for tracing differentiation processes of hESCs and elucidation of gene function. Thus, we tried to introduce enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene to hESCs, XX and XY cell lines in this study. Methods: Lentivirus containing eGFP was packaged in 293T cells and applied to hESCs to transduce eGFP. Expression of transduced eGFP was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope and eGFP positive population was analyzed by FACS. Expression of undifferentiation state markers such as Oct4, Nanog, SSEA4 and Tra-1-81 was examined by RT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence in eGFP-hESCs after transduction. In addition, the ability of eGFP-hESCs to form embryoid bodies (EBs) was tested. Results: eGFP was successfully transduced to hESCs by lentivirus. eGFP expression was stably maintained up to more than 40 passages. eGFP-hESCs retained expression patterns of undifferentiation state markers after transduction. Interestingly, disappearance of transduced eGFP was notably observed during spontaneous differentiation of eGFP-hESCs. Conclusion: We established eGFP expressing hESC lines using lentivirus and showed the maintenance of undifferentiation characteristics of these eGFP-hESCs. This reporter-containing hESCs could be useful for tracing the processes of differentiation of hESCs and other studies.

Comparison of Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter (hNIS) Gene Expressions between Lentiviral and Adenoviral Vectors in Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells (렌티바이러스와 아데노바이러스를 통하여 쥐의 중간엽줄기세포에 사람 나트륨/옥소 공동수송체 유전자를 전달하였을 때의 발현성능 비교)

  • Park, So-Yeon;Kim, Sung-Jin;Lee, Won-Woo;Lee, Heui-Ran;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Chung, June-Key;Kim, Sang-Eun
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.394-400
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirus-mediated delivery systems has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Materials and Methods: Lentiviral-mediated hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and transduction efficiency of Rad-hNIS into rMSC evaluated by Rad-GFP was $19.1{\pm}4.7%$, $54.0{\pm}6.4%$, $85.7{\pm}8.7%$, and $98.4{\pm}1.3%$ at MOI 1, 5, 20, and 100, respectively. The hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC were assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and 1-125 uptake. Results: Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC were greater than those in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 20 but lower than at MOI 50. However in vitro 1-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC ($29,704{\pm}6,659\; picomole/10^6\;cells$) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 ($6,168{\pm}2,134\;picomole/10^6\;cells$). Conclusion: Despite lower amount of expressed protein, hNIS function in rMSC was greater by lentivirus than by adenovirus mediated expression. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative vector efficiency for transgene expression.

Efficiency and continuancy of basic CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) education for the higher grade students of elementary schools (초등학교 고학년생의 기본심폐소생술 교육효과 및 지속성)

  • Kim, Hee-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was designed to figure out the necessity of continuing basic CPR education for the higher grade students of elementary school. The assessment contents were knowledge, practice ability, precision level of CPR skills and continuation of the educational efficiency. Methods : Twenty two students of 4th and 5th grade of elementary school in K city in Chungcheongnam-do were recruited for this study. The study method was a control group of non-synchronized design. A preliminary study was done on October 27 in 2006. The main study was performed from February 14 to May 11 in 2007. The researcher adopted the method of Kyung-hui, Kang (1998) such as awareness, attitude and knowledge in control group, emergency medical technician test protocol, Anne/SkillReporter$^{(R)}$ in case of the basic CPR knowledge. Four times of measures were done in shortly after practicing CPR, 4 weeks after the education, 8 weeks after the education, and 12 weeks after the education. By using SPSS/PC+ (version 12.0), the researcher analyzed the collected data based on frequency, percentage, repeated measurement, ANOVA (analysis of variance), and sidak (multiple comparison - sidak). Results : 1) The confidence of people in the control group in terms of practicing CPR showed a statistically meaningful difference (t = 10.230, p = .000) before/after CPR education. Therefore, hypothesis No.1-1 was accepted. 2) The educational necessity of people in the control group showed no statistically meaningful difference (t = -1.695, p = 0.105) before/after CPR education. Therefore, hypothesis No.1-2 was rejected. 3) The knowledge points of people in the control group showed a statistically meaningful difference (t = -7.731, p = .000) before/after CPR education. Therefore, hypothesis No.2 was accepted. 4) The confidence of people in the control group in terms of practicing CRP showed no meaningful difference (F = 2.789, p = 0.072) as time passed. Therefore, hypothesis No.3 was rejected. 5) The knowledge of people in the control group showed a meaningful difference (F = 9.090, p = .000) as time passed. Therefore, hypothesis No.4 was accepted. 6) The capability of people in the control group in terms of practicing CPR showed a statistically meaningful difference (F = 42.795, p = .000) as time passed. Therefore, hypothesis No.5 was accepted. 7) The precision level of CPR skill of people in the control group showed a statistically meaningful difference (F = 25.198, p = .000) as time passed. Therefore, hypothesis No.6-1 was accepted. 8) The precision level of chest compression skill of people in the control group showed a statistically meaningful difference (F = 5.188, p = .003). Therefore, hypothesis No.6-2 was accepted. Conclusion : In a nutshell, CPR education for the 4th and 5th graders of elementary schools had an influence on their confidence in practicing CPR and on their knowledge. This study showed that as time passed. the educational effect declined in terms of knowledge point, capability of practicing CPR, and the precision level of CRP skill. The results of the study could be postulated into the fact that re-education within 8 weeks after the first education was essential to retaining the educational effect. Therefore, we need to vitalize the CPR education for elementary school students repeatedly on a regular basis in order to continue the educational effect after they were grown-ups and to make them play their roles as a first aider.

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Developmental Genetic Analysis of Avian Primordial Germ Cells and the Application to Poultry Biotechnology

  • Kagami, H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2001
  • A novel sterategy has been established to determine the origin of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) in avian embryos directly and the developmental fate of the PGCs for the application to Poultry biotechnology. Cells were removed from 1) the centre of area pellucida, 2) the outer of area pellucida and 3) the area opaca of the stage X blastoderm (Eyal-Giladi & Kochav, 1976). When the cells were removed from the centre of area pellucida, the mean number of circulating PGCs in blood was significantly decreased in the embryo at stage 15 (Hamburger & Hamilton, 1951) as compared to intact embryos. When the cells were replenished with donor cells, no reduction in the PGCs number was observed. The removal of cells at the outer of area pellucida or at the area opaca had no effect on the number of PGCs. In case, another set of the manipulated embryos were cultured ex vivo to the hatching and reared to the sexual maturity, the absence of germ cells and degeneration of seminiferous tubules was observed in resulting chickens derived from the blastoderm in which the cells were removed from the centre of the area pellucida. It was concluded that the avian Primordial Germ cells are originated at the center of area pellucida. Developmental ability of the cells to differentiate into somatic cells and germ cells in chimeras were analyzed. Somatic chimerism was detected as black feather attributed from donor cells. Molecular identification by use of female - specific DNA was performed. It was confirmed that the donor cells could be differentiated into chimeric body and erythrocytes. Donor cells retained the ability to differentiate into germline in chimeric gonads. More than 70% of the generated chimeras transmitted donor derived gametes to their offspring indicating that the cells at the center of area pellucida had the high ability to differentiate into germ cells. A molecular technique to identify germline chimerism has been developed by use of gene scan analysis. Strain specific DNA fragments were amplified by the method. It would be greatly contributed for the detection of germline chimerism. Mixed- sex chimeras which contained both male and female cells were produced to investigate the developmental fate of male and female cells in ovary and testes. The sex combinations of donor and recipient of the resulting chimeras were following 4 pairs; (1) chimeras (ZZ/ZZ) produced by a male donor (ZZ) and a male recipient (ZZ), (2) chimeras (ZW/ZW) produced by a female donor (ZW) and a female recipient (ZW), (3) chimeras (ZZ/ZW) Produce by a male donor (ZZ) and a female recipient (ZW), (4) chimeras (ZW/ZZ) produced by a female donor (ZW) and a male recipient (ZZ). It was found that genetically male avian germ cells could differentiate into functional ova and that genetically female germ cells can differentiate into functional spermatozoa in the gonad of the mixed- sex chimeras. An ability for introduction of exogenous DNA into the PGCs from stage X blastoderms were analyzed. Two reporter genes, SV-$\beta$gal and RSV-GFP, were introduced into the PGCs. Expression of bacterial/gal was improved by complexing DNA with liposome detectedcc in 75% of embryos at 3 days embryos. At the embryos incubated for 1 day, expression of the GFP was observed all the embryos. At day 3 of incubation, GFP was detected in about 70% of the manipulated embryos. In case of GFP, expression of the transgene was detected in 30 %e of the manipulated embryos. These results suggested that the cells is one of the most promising vectors for transgenesis. The established strategy should be very powerfull for application to poultry biotechnology.

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Context Sharing Framework Based on Time Dependent Metadata for Social News Service (소셜 뉴스를 위한 시간 종속적인 메타데이터 기반의 컨텍스트 공유 프레임워크)

  • Ga, Myung-Hyun;Oh, Kyeong-Jin;Hong, Myung-Duk;Jo, Geun-Sik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.39-53
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    • 2013
  • The emergence of the internet technology and SNS has increased the information flow and has changed the way people to communicate from one-way to two-way communication. Users not only consume and share the information, they also can create and share it among their friends across the social network service. It also changes the Social Media behavior to become one of the most important communication tools which also includes Social TV. Social TV is a form which people can watch a TV program and at the same share any information or its content with friends through Social media. Social News is getting popular and also known as a Participatory Social Media. It creates influences on user interest through Internet to represent society issues and creates news credibility based on user's reputation. However, the conventional platforms in news services only focus on the news recommendation domain. Recent development in SNS has changed this landscape to allow user to share and disseminate the news. Conventional platform does not provide any special way for news to be share. Currently, Social News Service only allows user to access the entire news. Nonetheless, they cannot access partial of the contents which related to users interest. For example user only have interested to a partial of the news and share the content, it is still hard for them to do so. In worst cases users might understand the news in different context. To solve this, Social News Service must provide a method to provide additional information. For example, Yovisto known as an academic video searching service provided time dependent metadata from the video. User can search and watch partial of video content according to time dependent metadata. They also can share content with a friend in social media. Yovisto applies a method to divide or synchronize a video based whenever the slides presentation is changed to another page. However, we are not able to employs this method on news video since the news video is not incorporating with any power point slides presentation. Segmentation method is required to separate the news video and to creating time dependent metadata. In this work, In this paper, a time dependent metadata-based framework is proposed to segment news contents and to provide time dependent metadata so that user can use context information to communicate with their friends. The transcript of the news is divided by using the proposed story segmentation method. We provide a tag to represent the entire content of the news. And provide the sub tag to indicate the segmented news which includes the starting time of the news. The time dependent metadata helps user to track the news information. It also allows them to leave a comment on each segment of the news. User also may share the news based on time metadata as segmented news or as a whole. Therefore, it helps the user to understand the shared news. To demonstrate the performance, we evaluate the story segmentation accuracy and also the tag generation. For this purpose, we measured accuracy of the story segmentation through semantic similarity and compared to the benchmark algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms benchmark algorithms in terms of the accuracy of story segmentation. It is important to note that sub tag accuracy is the most important as a part of the proposed framework to share the specific news context with others. To extract a more accurate sub tags, we have created stop word list that is not related to the content of the news such as name of the anchor or reporter. And we applied to framework. We have analyzed the accuracy of tags and sub tags which represent the context of news. From the analysis, it seems that proposed framework is helpful to users for sharing their opinions with context information in Social media and Social news.

A Study on Personal hygiene of Primary School Students (초등학교 아동의 개인위생에 대한 조사)

  • Kim, Jae-Sam;Nam, Cbul-Hyun;Kang, Hae-Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.109-123
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    • 1996
  • The study was designed to gain necessary basic data, in order to grasp the actual condition on personal hygiene of primary school students and to help school health education and child health education data development of parents of students, the survery was carried out through this reporter's interview for mothers who have primary school pupil in KyungBug area during the period of a month from 14 the April to 30 the April 1994. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. As for general characteristics, the percent of answer mothers with 30~34 years 44.9%, and the percent of answer mothers with 35~39 years was 37.6%, 14.6% of answer mother was 40 years and over. The most house types was apartment house, that is 64.8% and independence house was 18.9%, 13.7% of answer mothers was multivalent house residents. As for level of school career, the percent of high school was 64.2% and the percent of university was 20.5%, 10.1% of answer mothers was finishment of middle school. As for religion a lack of religion was 38.4% and a Buddhist was 36.8%, a christian was 13.4%, 10.4% of answer mothers was a catholic. As for jobs, the percent of office was 33.9%, specialist and expert skiller was 17.3%, self-management was 16.0%, fishing and agrarian villiages was 11.6%, public service personnel and shool personnel was 9.1%. As for the number of sons and daughters, the percent of two was 70.5%, the percent of one was 16.0%, and the percent of male students was 54.1%. As for level of economic life middle level was 59.9%. 2. The percentage of washing hand after school hours was 66.8% and not washing hand after school hours was 33.2%. In washing hand after school hours family of independence house, mothers that have schoolcareer of university, female students, three and over of sons and daughters was high individually (p<0.05). 3. As for paring one's nails, once a ten days was 52.9% once a five days was 22.5% once a fifteen days was 19.0%, once a twenty and over was 5.6%. 4. 54.7% of primary school students of answer mother's take a bath once a few days and 31.6% take a bath once a week, 10.1% take a bath once a tendays. 5. The percentage of changing of underwear once a day was 60.9%, once a few days was 37.1%, once a week was 2.0%, as for changing of underwear, sons and daughters that has mothers with 29 years and downward, one number of sons and daughters, females students was high individually (p<0.01). 6. The percentage of haircut once a 20~30 days was 59.9%, once a 31~40 days was 17.9%, once a 40 days and over was 16.6%. As for the percentage of haircut once a 20~30 days apartment house residents, male students was high (p<0.01). 7. The percentage of experience in taking nutrition was 79.8% and the percentage of experience in taking restorative was 72.3%. As for taking nutrition, apartment house residents, one number of sons and daughters, male students was high individually (p<0.01). As for taking restorative apartment house residents, on number of sons and daughters, male students was high individually (p<0.05). 8. The percentage of habit of unbalanced diet was 44.0%, sons and daughters that have mother with 40 years and over apartment house residents, male students, one number of sons and daughters was high indivdually (p<0.05). 9. As for hygiene condition of sons and daughters, the percentage of good state of health was 65.2%, middle state of health was 3.5% bad state of health was 11.4%. In good state of health sons and daughters that have mothers with 29 years and downward, multivalent house residents, three numbers of sons and daughters, female students, high birth was high individually. 10. As for fattness of sons and daughters, existence was 18.2%. No existence was 81.8%. in existence sons and daughters who have mothers with 40 years and downward, independence house resident, special job and expert skill job, three and over number of sons and daughters, female students, low birth was high individually. 11. As for use aspect of medical facilities of sons and daughters, hospital doctors was 53.1%, drugstore was 42.3%, chinese medicine hospitals or health organization was 4.6%. In usage of drugstore, sons and daughters of mothers with 29 years, 40 years and over was 55.6%, 61.4% individully, inusage of hospital doctors 30~34 years, 34~39 tears was 64.5%, 49.1% individully (p<0.01), apartment house residents, one or two numbers of sons and daughters, male students was high individually. In the percentage of using drugstore, school career of middle school and downward, in occupation, three and over numbers of sons and daughters, low birth was high individually (p<0.05). According to the results mentioned above. An actual condition and a related matters on personal hygiene of primary school students must be used as the basis data of a health education program and a health data of a health education program and a health data related, a teaching materials development and must be helped to the health life education of parents of students and childs.

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Radioiodine Therapy of Liver Cancer Cell Following Tissue Specific Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Transfer and Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy with Optical Imaging (조직 특이 발현 Sodium Iodide Symporter 유전자 이입에 의한 방사성옥소 간암세포 치료와 광학영상을 이용한 치료효과 평가)

  • Jang, Byoung-Kuk;Lee, You-La;Lee, Yong-Jin;Ahn, Sohn-Joo;Ryu, Min-Jung;Yoon, Sun-Mi;Lee, Sang-Woo;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Cho, Je-Yeol;Lee, Jae-Tae;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.383-393
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Cancer specific killing can be achieved by therapeutic gene activated by cancer specific promotor. Expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene causes transportation and concentration of iodide into the cell, therefore radioiodine treatment after NIS gene transfer to cancer cell could be a form of radionuclide gene therapy. luciferase (Luc) gene transfected cancer cell can be monitored by in vivo optical imaging after D-luciferin injection. Aims of the study are to make vector with both therapeutic NIS gene driven by AFP promoter and reporter Luc gene driven by CMV promoter, to perform hepatocellular carcinoma specific radiodiodine gene therapy by the vector, and assessment of the therapy effect by optical imaging using luciferase expression. Materials and Methods: A Vector with AFP promoter driven NIS gene and CMV promoter driven Luc gene (AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc) was constructed. Liver cancer cell (HepG2, Huh-7) and non liver cancer cell (HCT-15) were transfected with the vector using liposome. Expression of the NIS gene at mRNA level was elucidated by RT-PCR. Radioiodide uptake, perchlorate blockade, and washout tests were performed and bioluminescence also measured by luminometer in these cells. In vitro clonogenic assay with 1-131 was performed. In vivo nuclear imaging was obtained with gamma camera after 1-131 intraperitoneal injection. Results: A Vector with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc was constructed and successfully transfected into HepG2, Huh-7 and HCT-15 cells. HepG2 and Huh-7 cells with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc gene showed higher iodide uptake than non transfected cells and the higher iodide uptake was totally blocked by addition of perchlorate. HCT-15 cell did not showed any change of iodide uptake by the gene transfection. Transfected cells had higher light output than control cells. In vitro clonogenic assay, transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells showed lower colony count than non transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, but transfected HCT-15 cell did not showed any difference than non transfected HCT-15 cell. Number of Huh-7 cells with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc gene transfection was positively correlated with radioidine accumulation and luciferase activity. In vivo nuclear imaging with 1-131 was successful in AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc gene transfected Huh-7 cell xenograft on nude mouse. Conclusion: A Vector with AFP promoter driven NIS and CMV promoter driven Luc gene was constructed. Transfection of the vector showed liver cancer cell specific enhancement of 1-131 cytotoxicity by AFP promoter, and the effect of the radioiodine therapy can be successfully assessed by non-invasive luminescence measurement.