• Title/Summary/Keyword: Relative concentrations of reactants

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Control of Particle Characteristics in the Preparation of TiO2 Nano Particles Assisted by Microwave

  • Lee, Han-Bin;Choi, Min-Sik;Kye, Youn-Hee;An, Myoung-Young;Lee, Ik-Mo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.1699-1702
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    • 2012
  • $TiO_2$ nanostructures with various morphologies like cubes, spheres, hexahedral pillars and spherical tubes were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. Each structure was obtained by changing the relative concentrations of titanium tetraisoproxide (TTIP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and ethanol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electoron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis were used to characterize the synthesized $TiO_2$ nanostructures. From these results, it has been proved that $TiO_2$ structure could be controlled to have specific morphology, size, surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution.

Synthetic Conditions and Rheological Characteristics of Barium Sulfate (황산바륨의 합성조건과 유동학적 특성)

  • Shin, Wha-Woo;Kim, Jun-Hea;Choi, Kwang-Sik;Chang, Young-Soo;Lee, Kwang-Pyo
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.538-547
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    • 1992
  • Optimal synthetic condition of barium sulfate were investigated from the viewpoint of yield and bulkiness according to a randomized complete block design proposed by G.E.P. Box and K.B. Wilson. Barium chloride and magnesium sulfate were utilized as reactants in order to prepare barium sulfate in this study. It was found that optimum temperature range of reactant solutions was $60{\sim}100^{\circ}C$ and the optimum concentration range of the reactant solutions was $10{\sim}17.3%$ and $10{\sim}20%$ respectively, on the viewpoint of yield and bulkiness. The optimum mole ratio of $BaCI_2$ to $BaSO_4$ was in the range of $1.50{\sim}2.0$ and the optimum mole ratio of $BaCI_2$ to $BaSO_4$ was in the range of $1.50{\sim}2.0$ and the optimum reacting time range was $15{\sim}20$ minutes. The optimum drying temperature range was $110{\sim}130^{\circ}C$ from the viewpoint of yield, but it was $90{\sim}110^{\circ}C$ on the basis of bulkiness. Apparent viscosity of barium sulfate suspensions dispersed in various concentrations of Na. CMC was measured by using Brookfield synchrolectric viscometer model LVT, the relative equation, log ${\eta}_{sp}=A+B.{\phi}$ was examined and the equation was found to agree fairly well. 1 w/v% Na. CMC aqueous solution and 0.1 volume fraction of $BaSO_4$ powder were optimum in the preparation of $BaSO_4$ suspension showing highest viscosity at infinite shearing.

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Comparative Study on Photochemical Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor and Outdoor Smog Chambers (실내/외 스모그 챔버에서의 방향족계 탄화수소의 광화학 반응 비교 연구)

  • Dong Jong-In;Ahn Heung-Soon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2005
  • The number of cases exceeding environmental standards of atmospheric ozone in the major cities in Korea has steadily increased during the past decades. In order to understand and analyze the atmospheric reactions in the atmosphere, especially the secondary photochemical reactions, smog chambers studies have been performed very actively by many research groups worldwide. However, these studies have focused on the mechanism of photochemical reactions in high concentration conditions, not at the ambient levels. Therefore, in-depth studies in these conditions are essentially needed to realize exact mechanism in the atmosphere near the earth surface, especially at Korean atmospheric conditions. In this experiment, the mechanism of photochemical smog was examined through a comparative experiment of smog chambers under sun light and black light conditions. The results of our study indicated that concentrations of ozone, aldehyde, and PAN increased as the radiation of light source increases. Photochemical reaction patterns can be considered quite similar for both black light and sun light experiments. Based on our experiments using toluene as a reactant which is present at significant high levels in ambient air relative to other VOCs, it was found that toluene could contribute notably to oxidize NO to $NO_2$, this reaction can eventually generate some other photochemical oxidants such as ozone, aldehyde, and PAN. The results of simulation and experiments generally showed a good agreement quite well except for the case of $O_3$. The restriction of oxidization of NO to $NO_2$ seems to cause this difference, which is mainly from the reaction of peroxy radical itself and other reactants in the real gas.