• Title, Summary, Keyword: Regime survival strategy

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Efficacy of UN's Sanctions on North Korea's Nuclear and North Korea's Regime Survival Strategy (유엔의 북핵 대북제재조치의 실효성과 북한의 체제생존전략)

  • KIM, JOO-SAM
    • Korea and Global Affairs
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.69-92
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    • 2018
  • North Korea conducted a total of six nuclear tests from the 1st test of 2006 to September, 2017. North Korea developed an armed forces security strategy at the level of regime protection and defense to respond to U.S. hostile policy. However, it is certain that strategic goals of North Korea's nuclear test were to overcome a crisis in North Korea's regime through US-North Korea negotiation and complete nuclear armed forces for socialist unification on the Korean Peninsula. North Korea's continuous nuclear test is a direct factor in threatening peace on the Korean Peninsula and an indirect factor in security dynamics of Northeast Asia. The U.N. Security Council has enforced sanctions against North Korea through six resolutions against North Korea's reckless nuclear test for the past 10 years. However, Kim Jong-Un's regime is in a position to stick to simultaneous pursuit of nuclear and economic development in spite of anti-North sanction of international society including U.N. and U.S.A. It is understood that North Korea was stimulated to conduct intense nuclear test as U.N. and U.S.A's anti-North sanction was not effective on North Korea. Full-scale and local wars are expected as military options, one of anti-North sanctions of the Trump administration. The Trump administration has attempted diplomatic pressure strategy as a secondary boycott unlike previous administrations. Nevertheless, North Korea has stood against U.N. and U.S.A's anti-North sanction with brinkmanship tactics, announcing full-scale military confrontation against U.S. It is judged that North Korea will pursue simultaneous nuclear weapons and economic development in terms of regime survival. North Korea will have less strategic choices in that its regime may collapse because of realistic national strategy between U.S.A. and China.

UNSC Resolution against North Korea and ROKN's Reactions (유엔 안보리 대북제재 결의와 우리 해군의 대응)

  • Park, Chang Kwoun
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.82-113
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    • 2016
  • This paper analyzes the contents and the effects of the UNSC 2270, and its implications to South Korea's defense strategy and navy. The UN Security Council passed strong sanctions against North Korea which punish North Korea's 4th nuclear test. The sanctions compared to the previous ones require international society to take practical actions such as comprehensive trade bans as well as diplomatic isolation which will put significant pains on North Korea. Especially, these measures would greatly hamper economic development policy of Kim Joung-un regime. Because Kim Jung-un regime has inherent legitimacy problems which stems from the third family succession of the power, economic difficulties may play an important cause on the regime instability in the long term. In fact, the United States sees this possibility as an option to coerce North Korea in which North Korea choose denuclearization for its regime survival. Nevertheless, the prospects of the UN sanctions are not so optimistic. Considering North Korea's willingness for nuclear development and its level of nuclear technology, North Korea will try to play a gambit with the US and South Korea by exploiting its strategic advantages. North Korea's response will have three following strategies. First, it would actively pursue political and economic survival strategy by using China's support for the regime, strengthening its power grip in the name of countering US hostile policy, and enhancing peace propaganda. Second, North Korea will accelerate efforts to position its status as a nuclear de facto state. For this purpose, it could create nuclear crisis on the peninsula. Third, it would exploit local provocations as an exit strategy to get over the current situation. In order to counter North Korea's actions and punish North Korea's behavior strongly, South Korea needs following strategies and efforts. It should first make all the efforts to implement the UN sanctions. Strong and practical nuclear deterrence strategy and capability with the U.S. should be developed. Effective strategy and capabilities for the prevention and deterrence of North Korea's provocation should be prepared. For this purpose, North Korea's provocation strategy should be thoroughly reviewed. Active international cooperation is needed to punish and coerce North Korea's behavior. Finally, South Korea should prepare for the possible occurrence of North Korea's contingency and make use of the situation as an opportunity to achieve unification. All these strategies and efforts demand the more active roles and missions of South Korea's navy and thus, nullify North Korea's intention militarily.

Plant Extracts and Plant-Derived Compounds: Promising Players in Countermeasure Strategy Against Radiological Exposure: A Review

  • Kma, Lakhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2405-2425
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    • 2014
  • Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when administered before or after irradiation, and against low doses (${\leq}5Gy$) to the whole body or high doses (12-13.5 Gy) to the whole thorax. This is particularly relevant since apart from the possibility of using it in pre-conditioning regime in radiotherapy, it could also be used during nuclear plant leakage/accidents and radiological terrorism, which are not pre-determined scenarios. However, considering the infancy of the field of plant-based radioprotectors, all the above-mentioned plant extracts/plant-derived compounds deserves further stringent study in different models of radiation injury.

Variation of the Germination Responses to Temperature of Plantago asiatica Seed Population along Altitude in Mt. Chiri (지리산에서 고도에 따른 질경이(Plantago asiatica) 개체군의 온도에 대한 발아습성의 변이)

  • Lee, Ho-Joon;Kim, Yong-Ok;Jeon, Jae-Hee;Seong, Mi-Seon;Jang, Il-Do
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.485-499
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    • 1994
  • This study was focused on the effect of the altitude on the geographical variations of germination characteristics in the populations of Plantago asiatica L. distribute in Mt. Chiri. There was a significant difference among the 14 groups in the phenological pattern in relation to altitudes. When the altitude becomes higher, the thermal time which was required for 10 to 80% germination rate showed higher and wider distribution. On the other hand, the germination response of increasing temperature (IT) and secreasing temperature (DT) regime was classified into 3 group. The first group was the spering germination type. This group showed that the IT regime hadhigher germination rate than that of the DT regime, and was distributed in Macheon(300m) and Packmudong (500m). The second was the spring-fall germination type which was distributed in Hadong (900m) and Saemt대 (1100m). This group also showed higher germination rate in the IT regime, but the difference of the germination rate between IT and DT regime was less than that in the first group (the spring type). The third group was the early fall germination type which was found in the Nogodan (1507m), Changetomok (1750m) and Cheonwangbong (1915m). The germination rate of this group showed almost 100% similarity between IT and DT regime. These data suggested that the geographical varations of germination characteristics within species was an important ecological strategy for the survival from severe environmental conditions.

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Effect of Dietary Nutrient Composition on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with Different Feeding Strategy (사료내 영양소가 사료공급전략에 따른 넙치 유어기의 성장과 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Sung-Hwoan
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.56-59
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    • 2007
  • Effect of dietary nutrient composition on growth and body composition of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with different feeding strategy was determined. Twenty-five fish averaging 16 g were randomly distributed into 12, 180 L flow-through tank each. Four treatments in triplicates were prepared: fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the control diet for 8 weeks as the control group (Con) and fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the control and high nutrient diets for 6 weeks after 2-week fasting (2WS-6WFC, 2WS-6WFHN, respectively) and finally, fish were fed to satiation twice daily by the high nutrient diet for the consecutive 3 days after 4-day fasting for 8 weeks (4DS-3DFHN). No significant difference was found in either survival or weight gain of flounder among treatments. Feed efficiency ratio (FER) for fish in the 2WS-6WFHN treatment was significantly higher than that for fish in the Con and 2WS-6WFC treatments. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish in the 2WS-6WFHN and 4DS-3DFHN treatments was significantly higher than that of fish in the 2WS-6WFC treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary nutrient composition and/or feeding strategy can effectively improve growth of juvenile olive flounder without growth retardation at restricted feeding regime.

Speculation on the Identity of Bacteria Named TFOs Occurring in the Inefficient P-Removal Phase of a Biological Phosphorus Removal System

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Ahn, Chang-Hoon;Park, Jae-Kwang
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.3-7
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    • 2010
  • To better understand the ecology of tetrade forming organisms (TFOs) floating in a large amount of dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent (sequencing batch reactor [SBR]) during the inefficient phosphorus (P) removal process of an enhanced biological P removal system, the TFOs from the effluent of a full scale WWTP were separated and attempts made to culture the TFOs in presence/absence of oxygen. The intact TFOs only grew aerobically in the form of unicellular short-rods. Furthermore, to identify the intact TFOs and unicellular short-rods the DNAs of both were extracted, analyzed using their denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-profiles and then sequenced. The TFOs and unicellular short-rods exhibited the same banding pattern in their DGGE-profiles, and those sequencing data resulted in their identification as Acinetobacter sp. The intact TFOs appeared in clumps and packages of tetrade cells, and were identified as Acinetobacter sp., which are known as strict aerobes and efficient P-removers. The thick layer of extracellular polymeric substance surrounding Acinetobacter sp. may inhibit phosphate uptake, and the cell morphology of TFOs might subsequently be connected with their survival strategy under the anaerobic regime of the SBR system.

An Analysis on the Conditions for Successful Economic Sanctions on North Korea : Focusing on the Maritime Aspects of Economic Sanctions (대북경제제재의 효과성과 미래 발전 방향에 대한 고찰: 해상대북제재를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sang-Hoon
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.239-276
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    • 2020
  • The failure of early economic sanctions aimed at hurting the overall economies of targeted states called for a more sophisticated design of economic sanctions. This paved way for the advent of 'smart sanctions,' which target the supporters of the regime instead of the public mass. Despite controversies over the effectiveness of economic sanctions as a coercive tool to change the behavior of a targeted state, the transformation from 'comprehensive sanctions' to 'smart sanctions' is gaining the status of a legitimate method to impose punishment on states that do not conform to international norms, the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction in this particular context of the paper. The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council proved that it can come to an accord on imposing economic sanctions over adopting resolutions on waging military war with targeted states. The North Korean nuclear issue has been the biggest security threat to countries in the region, even for China out of fear that further developments of nuclear weapons in North Korea might lead to a 'domino-effect,' leading to nuclear proliferation in the Northeast Asia region. Economic sanctions had been adopted by the UNSC as early as 2006 after the first North Korean nuclear test and has continually strengthened sanctions measures at each stage of North Korean weapons development. While dubious of the effectiveness of early sanctions on North Korea, recent sanctions that limit North Korea's exports of coal and imports of oil seem to have an impact on the regime, inducing Kim Jong-un to commit to peaceful talks since 2018. The purpose of this paper is to add a variable to the factors determining the success of economic sanctions on North Korea: preventing North Korea's evasion efforts by conducting illegal transshipments at sea. I first analyze the cause of recent success in the economic sanctions that led Kim Jong-un to engage in talks and add the maritime element to the argument. There are three conditions for the success of the sanctions regime, and they are: (1) smart sanctions, targeting commodities and support groups (elites) vital to regime survival., (2) China's faithful participation in the sanctions regime, and finally, (3) preventing North Korea's maritime evasion efforts.

Cultural Landscape of Korea, Its Entity, Changes and Values Evaluation from New Paradigm (한국의 문화경관, 그 실체, 변화와 새로운 패러다임에 의한 가치 평가)

  • Lee, Chang-Seok;Yu, Yeong-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.323-332
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    • 2001
  • A cultural landscape results from a combination of human activities for resource-use and the response of nature to such artificial interference. Nature provides resources necessary for human life on the Earth in terms of his survival as well as living. Humanbeing has developed civilization using the benefits that nature provides. In the past, a harmonious relationship between mankind and nature had ensured sustainability of resource-use for human. We can find such facts from the existence of cultural landscape. However, rapid economic growth and a development-oriented logic caused from such socio-economic change led to the environmental crises and the depletion of various resources at global level. In the perspective of preparation for such problems, we investigated the background for establishment, function, and value of cultural landscapes, in which a dynamic equilibrium exists between a supply of natural resources and human needs. Furthermore, we discussed a new economic model including ecological consideration, a strategy for ecological management of environment, and a framework for transmission of traditional culture to new generations on the basis of a cultural landscape regime.

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