• Title/Summary/Keyword: Radiotherapy

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Surgery Alone and Surgery Plus Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Patients with pT3N0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Invading the Chest Wall (흉벽을 침범한 pT3N0 비소세포폐암 환자에서 수술 단독과 수술 후 방사선치료)

  • 박영제;임도훈;김관민;김진국;심영목;안용찬
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.845-855
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    • 2004
  • Background: No general consensus has been available regarding the necessity of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) and its optimal techniques in the patients with chest wall invasion (pT3cw) and node negative (N0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We did retrospective analyses on the pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients who received PORT because of presumed inadequate resection margin on surgical findings. And we compared them with the pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients who did not received PORT during the same period. Material and Method: From Aug. of 1994 till June of 2002, 22 pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients received PORT-PORT (+) group- and 16 pT3cwN0 NSCLC patients had no PORT-PORT (-) group. The radiation target volume for PORT (+) group was confined to the tumor bed plus the immediate adjacent tissue only, and no regional lymphatics were included. The prognostic factors for all patients were analyzed and survival rates, failure patterns were compared with two groups. Result: Age, tumor size, depth of chest wall invasion, postoperative mobidities were greater in PORT (-) group than PORT (+) group. In PORT (-) group, four patients who were consulted for PORT did not receive the PORT because of self refusal (3 patients) and delay in the wound repair (1 patient). For all patients, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) rates at 5 years were 35.3%, 30.3%, 80.9%, 36.3%. In univariate and multivariate analysis, only PORT significantly affect the survival. The 5 year as rates were 43.3% in the PORT (+) group and 25.0% in PORT (-) group (p=0.03). DFS, LRFS, DMFS rates were 36.9%, 84.9%, 43.1 % in PORT (+) group and 18.8%, 79.4%, 21.9% in PORT(-) group respectively. Three patients in PORT (-) group died of intercurrent disease without the evidence of recurrence. Few suffered from acute and late radiation side effects, all of which were RTOG grade 2 or lower. Conclusion: The strategy of adding PORT to surgery to improve the probability not only of local control but also of survival could be justified, considering that local control was the most important component in the successful treatment of pT3cw NSCLC patients, especially when the resection margin was not adequate. Authors were successful in the marked reduction of the incidence as well as the severity of the acute and late side effects of PORT, without taking too high risk of the regional failures by eliminating the regional lymphatics from the radiation target volume.

Prophylactic cranial irradiation in limited small-cell lung cancer : incidence of brain metastasis and survival and clinical aspects (예방적 두강내 방사선 조사후 소세포 폐암 환자의 뇌전이 빈도와 생존율에 대한 연구)

  • Suh, Jae-Chul;Kim, Myung-Hoon;Park, Hee-Sun;Kang, Dong-Won;Lee, Kyu-Seung;Ko, Dong-Seok;Kim, Geun-Hwa;Jeong, Seong-Su;Cho, Moon-June;Kim, Ju-Ock;Kim, Sun-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: Brain metastases are present in approximately 10-16% of small cell lung cancer patients at diagnosis. Brain metastasis is an important clinical problem associated with increasing the survival rate, with a cumulative incidence of up to 80% in patients surviving 2 years. Prophylactic cranial irradiation(PCI) reduces the incidence of brain matastasis and may prolong survival in patients with limited small-cell lung cancer who achieved complete remission. This study was performed to analyze the incidence of brain metastasis, survival and clinical aspects after PCI in patients with limited small-cell lung cancer who achieved complete remission. Methods : Between 1989 and 1999, forty-two patients with limited small-cell lung cancer who achived achieved complete remission after therapy were enrolled into this study retrospectively. All patients received etoposide and cisplatin(VPP) alternating with cytoxan, adriamycin, and vincristine(CAV) every 3 weeks for at least 6 cycles initially. All patients received thoracic radiotherapy: concurrent(38.1%) and sequential(61.9%). All patients received late PCI. Results : Most patients(88.1%) were men, and the median age was 58 years. The median follow-up duration was 18.1 months. During the follow-up period, 57.1% of the patients developed relapse. The most frequent site of relapse was chest(35.7%), followed by brain(14.3%), liver(11.9%), adrenal gland(44%), and bone(2.2%). With the Kaplan-Meier method, the average disease-free interval was 1,090 days(median 305 days). The average time to development of brain relapse after PCI and other sites relapse(except brain) were 2,548 days and 1,395 days(median 460 days), respectively. The average overall survival was 1,233 days(median 634 days, 21.1 months), and 2-year survival rates was 41.7%. The average overall survival in the relapse group was 642 days(median 489 days) and in the no relapse group was 2,622 days(p<0.001). The average overall survival in the brain relapse group was 928 days(median 822 days) and in the no brain relapse group was 1,308 days(median 634 days)(p=0.772). In most patients(85.7%), relapse(except brain) or systemic disease was the usual cause of death. Brain matastasis was the cause of death in 14.3% of the cases. Conclusions : We may conclude that PCI reduces and delays brain metastasis in patients with limited small cell lung cancer who achieved complete remission. We found decreased survival in relapse group but, no significant survival difference was noted according to brain matastasis. And relapse(except brain) or systemic disease was the usual cause of death. In order to increase survival, new treatment strategies for control methods for relapse and systemic disease are required.

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Multimodality Treatement in Patients with Clinical Stage IIIA NSCLC (임상적 IIIA병기 비소세포폐암의 다각적 치료의 효과)

  • Lee, Yun Seun;Jang, Pil Soon;kang, Hyun Mo;Lee, Jeung Eyun;Kwon, Sun Jung;An, Jin Yong;Jung, Sung Soo;Kim, Ju Ock;Kim, Sun Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 2004
  • Background : To find out effectiveness of multimodality treatments based on induction chemotherapy(CTx) in patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC Methods : From 1997 to 2002, 74 patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC underwent induction CTx at the hospital of Chungnam National University. Induction CTx included above two cycles of cisplatin-based regimens(ectoposide, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, or taxol) followed by tumor evaluation. In 30 complete resection group, additional 4500-5000cGy radiotherapy(RTx) was delivered in 15 patients with pathologic nodal metastasis. 29 out of 44 patients who were unresectable disease, refusal of operation, and incomplete resection were followed by 60-70Gy RTx in local treatment. Additional 1-3 cycle CTx were done in case of induction CTx responders in both local treatment groups. Results : Induction CTx response rate were 44.6%(complete remission 1.4% & partial response 43.2%) and there was no difference of response rate by regimens(p=0.506). After induction chemotherapy, only 33 out of resectable 55 ones(including initial resectable 37 patients) were performed by surgical treatment because of 13 refusal of surgery by themselves and 9 poor predicted reserve lung function. There were 30(40.5%) patients with complete resection, 2(2.6%) persons with incomplete resection, and 1(1.3%) person with open & closure. Response rate in 27 ones with chest RTx out of non-operation group was 4.8% CR and 11.9% PR. In complete resection group, relapse free interval was 13.6 months and 2 year recur rate was 52%. In non-complete resection(incomplete resection or non-operation) group, disease progression free interval was 11.2 months and 2 year disease progression rate was 66.7%. Median survival time of induction CTx 74 patients with IIIA NSCLC was 25.1months. When compared complete resection group with non-complete resection group, the median survival time was 31.7 and 23.4months(p=0.024) and the 2-year overall survival rate was 80% and 41%. In the complete resection group, adjuvant postoperative RTx subgroup significantly improved the 2-year local control rate(0% vs. 40%, p= 0.007) but did not significantly improve overall survival(32.2months vs. 34.9months, p=0.48). Conculusion : Induction CTx is a possible method in the multimodality treatments, especially followed by complete resection, but overall survival by any local treatment(surgical resection or RTx) was low. Additional studies should be needed to analysis data for appropriate patient selection, new chemotherapy regimens and the time when should RTx be initiated.

The Signal Transduction Mechanisms on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rat Following Irradiation (방사선조사후 백서소장점막에서 발생하는 신호전달체계에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo Jeong Hyun;Kim Sung Sook;Lee Kyung Ja;Rhee Chung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.79-95
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : Phospholipase C(PLC) isozymes play significant roles in signal transduction mechanism. $PLC-\gamma$ 1 is one of the key regulatory enzymes in signal transduction for cellular proliferation and differentiation. Ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC are also known to be involved in cell growth. The exact mechanisms of these signal transduction following irradiation, however, were not clearly documented Thus, this study was Planned to determine the biological significance of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC in damage and regeneration of rat intestinal mucosa following irradiation. Material and Method : Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated to entire body with a single dose of 8Gy. The rats were divided into S groups according to the sacrifice days after irradiation. The expression of PLC, ras oncoprotein, EGFR and PKC in each group were examined by the immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The histopathologic findings were observed using H&I stain, and the mitoses for the evidence of regeneration were counted using the light microscopy & PCNA kit. The Phosphoinositide(PI) hydrolyzing activity assay was also done for the indirect evaluation of $PLC-\gamma$ 1 activity. Results: In the immunohistochemistry , the expression of $PLC-{\beta}$ was negative for all grøups. The expression of $PLC-{\gamma}1$ was highest in the group III followed by group II in the proliferative zone of mucosa. The expression of $PKC-{\delta}1$ was strongly positive in group 1 followed by group II in the damaged surface epithelium. The above findings were also confirttled in the immunoblotting study. In the immunoblotting study, the expressions of $PLC-{\beta}$, $PLC-{\gamma}1$, and $PKC-{\delta}1$ were the same as the results of immunohis-tochemistry. The expression of ras oncoprctein was weakly positive in groups II, III and IV. The of EGFR was the highest in the group II, III, follwed by group IV and the expression of PKC was weakly positive in the group II and III. Conclusion: $PLC-{\gamma}1$ mediated signal transduction including ras oncoprotein, EGFR, and PKC play a significant role in mucosal regeneration after irradiation. $PLC-{\delta}1$ mediated signal transduction might have an important role in mucosal damage after irradiation. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the signal transduction mediating the $PKC-{\delta}1$.

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Experimental investigation of the photoneutron production out of the high-energy photon fields at linear accelerator (고에너지 방사선치료 시 치료변수에 따른 광중성자 선량 변화 연구)

  • Kim, Yeon Su;Yoon, In Ha;Bae, Sun Myeong;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun;Kim, Sung Hwan;Nam, Uk Won;Lee, Jae Jin;Park, Yeong Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : Photoneutron dose in high-energy photon radiotherapy at linear accelerator increase the risk for secondary cancer. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the dose variation of photoneutron with different treatment method, flattening filter, dose rate and gantry angle in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beam ($E{\geq}8MeV$). Materials and Methods : TrueBeam $ST{\time}TM$(Ver1.5, Varian, USA) and Korea Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (KTEPC) were used to detect the photoneutron dose out of the high-energy photon field. Complex Patient plans using Eclipse planning system (Version 10.0, Varian, USA) was used to experiment with different treatment technique(IMRT, VMAT), condition of flattening filter and three different dose rate. Scattered photoneutron dose was measured at eight different gantry angles with open field (Field size : $5{\time}5cm$). Results : The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose from IMRT and VMAT were $449.7{\mu}Sv$, $2940.7{\mu}Sv$. The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose with Flattening Filter(FF) and Flattening Filter Free(FFF) were measured as $2940.7{\mu}Sv$, $232.0{\mu}Sv$. The mean values of the photoneutron dose for each test plan (case 1, case 2 and case 3) with FFF at the three different dose rate (400, 1200, 2400 MU/min) were $3242.5{\mu}Sv$, $3189.4{\mu}Sv$, $3191.2{\mu}Sv$ with case 1, $3493.2{\mu}Sv$, $3482.6{\mu}Sv$, $3477.2{\mu}Sv$ with case 2 and $4592.2{\mu}Sv$, $4580.0{\mu}Sv$, $4542.3{\mu}Sv$ with case 3, respectively. The mean values of the photoneutron dose at eight different gantry angles ($0^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}$, $135^{\circ}$, $180^{\circ}$, $225^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$, $315^{\circ}$) were measured as $3.2{\mu}Sv$, $4.3{\mu}Sv$, $5.3{\mu}Sv$, $11.3{\mu}Sv$, $14.7{\mu}Sv$, $11.2{\mu}Sv$, $3.7{\mu}Sv$, $3.0{\mu}Sv$ at 10MV and as $373.7{\mu}Sv$, $369.6{\mu}Sv$, $384.4{\mu}Sv$, $423.6{\mu}Sv$, $447.1{\mu}Sv$, $448.0{\mu}Sv$, $384.5{\mu}Sv$, $377.3{\mu}Sv$ at 15MV. Conclusion : As a result, it is possible to reduce photoneutron dose using FFF mode and VMAT method with TrueBeam $ST{\time}TM$. The risk for secondary cancer of the patients will be decreased with continuous evaluation of the photoneutron dose.

Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in Brachytherapy Planning of Uterine Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거한 치료계획의 비교)

  • Cho, Jung-Ken;Han, Tae-Jong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : In spite of recent remarkable improvement of diagnostic imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and PET and radiation therapy planing systems, ICR plan of uterine cervix cancer, based on recommendation of ICRU38(2D film-based) such as Point A, is still used widely. A 3-dimensional ICR plan based on CT image provides dose-volume histogram(DVH) information of the tumor and normal tissue. In this study, we compared tumor-dose, rectal-dose and bladder-dose through an analysis of DVH between CTV plan and ICRU38 plan based on CT image. Method and Material : We analyzed 11 patients with a cervix cancer who received the ICR of Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy of external beam radiation therapy, ICR plan was established using PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. CT scan was done to all the patients using CT-simulator(Ultra Z, Philips). We contoured CTV, rectum and bladder on the CT image and established CTV plan which delivers the 100% dose to CTV and ICRU plan which delivers the 100% dose to the point A. Result : The volume$(average{\pm}SD)$ of CTV, rectum and bladder in all of 11 patients is $21.8{\pm}6.6cm^3,\;60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3,\;111.6{\pm}40.1cm^3$ respectively. The volume covered by 100% isodose curve is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.0001), respectively. In (On) ICRU planning, $22.0cm^3$ of CTV volume was not covered by 100% isodose curve in one patient whose residual tumor size is greater than 4cm, while more than 100% dose was irradiated unnecessarily to the normal organ of $62.2{\pm}4.8cm^3$ other than the tumor in the remaining 10 patients with a residual tumor less than 4cm in size. Bladder dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $90.1{\pm}21.3%$ and $68.7{\pm}26.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan respectively(p=0.001) while rectal dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $86.4{\pm}18.3%$ and $76.9{\pm}15.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan, respectively(p=0.08). Bladder and rectum maximum dose was $137.2{\pm}50.1%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8%$ in ICRU plan and $107.6{\pm}47.9%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8%$ in CTV plan, respectively. Therefore, the radiation dose to normal organ was lower in CTV plan than in ICRU plan. But the normal tissue dose was remarkably higher than a recommended dose in CTV plan in one patient whose residual tumor size was greater than 4cm. The volume of rectum receiving more than 80% isodose (V80rec) was $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.02). The volume of bladder receiving more than 80% isodose(V80bla) was $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.005). According to these parameters, CTV plan could also save more normal tissue compared to ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : An unnecessary excessive radiation dose is irradiated to normal tissues within 100% isodose area in the traditional ICRU plan in case of a small size of cervix cancer, but if we use CTV plan based on CT image, the normal tissue dose could be reduced remarkably without a compromise of tumor dose. However, in a large tumor case, we need more research on an effective 3D-planing to reduce the normal tissue dose.