• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiation emergency

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RADIATION DAMAGE IN THE HUMAN BODY ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME AND MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE

  • AKASHI, MAKOTO;TAMURA, TAIJI;TOMINAGA, TAKAKO;ABE, KENICHI;HACHIYA, MISAO;NAKAYAMA, FUMIAKI
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2006
  • Whole-body exposure to high-dose radiation causes injury involving multiple organs that depends on their sensitivity to radiation. This acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is caused by a brief exposure of a major part of the body to radiation at a relatively high dose rate. ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage, a latent symptom-free period, a critical or manifestation phase that usually takes one of four forms (three forms): hematologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular and neurological (neurovascular), depending upon the exposure dose, and a recovery phase or death. One of the most important factors in treating victims exposed to radiation is the estimation of the exposure dose. When high-dose exposure is considered, initial dose estimation must be performed in order to make strategy decisions for treatment as soon as possible. Dose estimation can be based on onset and severity of prodromal symptoms, decline in absolute lymphocyte count post exposure, and chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, dose assessment on the basis of calculation from reconstruction of the radiation event may be required. Experience of a criticality accident occurring in 1999 at Tokai-mura, Japan, showed that ARS led to multiple organ failure (MOF). This article will review ARS and discuss the possible mechanisms of MOF developing from ARS.

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVMENTS OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION FOR THE EMERGENCY WORKERS DURING THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

  • Khasawneh, Khalid;Cho, Kun-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2014
  • Following the emergency work in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, more attention was paid for the radiation protection of workers working under severe accident condition. The protection procedure for the emergency workers, including the on-site emergency center, the seismic isolated building and the reestablishment of the radiation protection framework were analyzed to investigate drawbacks and deficiencies which led to adverse effects on the emergency planning and on emergency workers' health and comfort. Those drawbacks were identified and studied, and then suggestions were made to enhance the emergency working condition to avoid any future problems during severe accident emergency work and management.

Factors Affecting Radiation Protection Behaviors among Emergency Room Nurses (응급실 간호사의 방사선 방어행위 영향요인)

  • Lee, Su Jin;Boo, Sunjoo;Ahn, Jeong-Ah;You, Mi-Ae
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2020
  • Purpose : This study aimed to examine factors affecting radiation protective behaviors among emergency room nurses by assessing knowledge, attitude, and environment for radiation protection. Methods : The study employed a cross-sectional design. Subjects were a convenience sample of 129 nurses working in emergency rooms of three general hospitals. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires and analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. Results : The more the nurses received radiation safety education (t=2.26, p=.026), used protective gear (t=4.40, p<.001), and took health screenings (t=2.65, p=.009), the higher their levels of radiation protection behavior. There were significant relations between radiation protective behaviors and attitude (r=.27, p=.002), and radiation protective behaviors and environment for radiation protection (r=.55, p<.001). The factors affecting radiation protective behaviors were protective environment (β=.53, p<.001), protective attitude (β=.32, p<.001), and the use of protective gear (β=.24, p=.002). Conclusions : The government, hospital administrators, and radiation protection-related organization should adopt the following measures to protect emergency room nurses from radiation: research and development of shield instrument, medical examination for emergency room nurses, protocol development of radiation protection behaviors, extension of education chances of radiation protection, and encouraging the use of protective equipment.

Correlation between the Portable X-ray and the Radiation Exposure dose in the Emergency Department: Cohort Study (응급실에서 이동식 단순 X-선 검사와 피폭선량과의 상관관계: 코호트 연구)

  • Kim, Yu Jung;Ahn, Hee Cheol;Sohn, You Dong;Ahn, Ji Yoon;Park, Seung Min;Lee, Won Woong;Lee, Young Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between the number of portable X-rays and the radiation exposure dose for emergency medical service providers working in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A prospective study was conducted from February 15, 2013 to May 15, 2013 in the ED in an urban hospital. Six residents, seven emergency medical technicians (EMT), and 24 nurses were enrolled. They wore a personal radiation dosimeter on their upper chest while working in the ED, and they stayed away from the portable X-ray unit at a distance of at least 1.8 m when the X-ray beam was generated. Results: The total number of portable x-rays was 2089. The average total radiation exposure dose of emergency medical service providers was $0.504{\pm}0.037$ mSv, and it was highest in the EMT group, 0.85(0.58-1.08) mSv. The average of the total number of portable X-rays was highest in the doctor group, 728.5(657.25-809). The relationship between the number of portable X-rays and the radiation exposure dose was not statistically significant(-0.186, p=0.269). Conclusion: Under the condition of staying away from the portable X-ray unit at a distance of least 1.8 m, the relationship between the number of portable X-rays and the radiation exposure dose was not statistically significant.

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Occupational Radiation Exposure of Emergency Medical Technicians in Emergency Medical Centers in Korea (우리나라 응급의료센터 응급구조사의 직업적 방사선 노출)

  • Lee, Hyeongyeong;Park, Jeongim
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.170-179
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate the occupational radiation exposures of emergency medical technicians(EMTs) in emergency medical centers in Korea. The results will provide a basis for developing prevention programs to minimize adverse health effects relating to radiation exposure among emergency medical technicians working in this area. Methods: Radiation exposure doses were measured for twenty-two EMTs working in six emergency medical centers. Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters(TLD) were placed on three representative body parts, including chest, neck, and a finger. Measurements were conducted over the entire working hours of the participants for foor weeks. Dosimeters were analyzed according to a standard method by a KFDA-designated lab. Detection rate, annual radiation exposure dose, and relative levels to dose limit were derived based on the measured doses from the dosimeters. SPSS/Win 18.0 software(IBM, US) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Detection rates were 45.5%, 36.4%, and 45.5% for the dosimeters sampled from chest, neck, and a finger, respectively. The average annual doses were $2.39{\pm}3.44mSv/year$(range 0.38-10.0 mSv/year) for the chest, $2.72{\pm}3.05mSv/year$(2.00-11.34) for the neck, and $20.98{\pm}17.57mSv/year$(1.25-53.50) for the hand dose. The average annual eye dose was estimated to $3.61{\pm}2.37mSv/year$(1.50-8.34). The exposure dose levels of EMTs were comparable to those of radiologists, who showed relatively higher radiation dose among health care workers, as reported in another study. Conclusions: EMTs working in emergency medical centers are considered to be at risk of radiation exposure. Although the radiation exposure dose of EMTs does not exceed the dose limit, it is not negligible comparing to other professionals in health care sectors.

Gross Alpha Analysis of Nasal Smear Samples and Internal Dose Assessment Procedure in Radiation Emergency (방사선비상시 비강스메어 시료의 전알파 분석 및 내부피폭선량평가 절차)

  • Yoon, Seokwon;Ha, Wi-Ho;Kim, Mee-Ryeong;Lee, Seung-Sook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.226-230
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    • 2012
  • The gross alpha analysis of nasal smear samples for the radiation emergency and the additional follow-up steps were established. Cotton swab sticks using in local hospitals for nasal smear in Korea were used for the verification. The measurement results of standard samples spiked with certified reference source were well agreed within ${\pm}20%$ compared with reference values. The clearance ratio of smear samples conducted with wet smear condition showed higher value. To eliminate the quenching effect of liquid scintillation samples, dry of smear samples should be followed up before counting samples. Based on the measurement results, medical decision levels and internal dose assessment were established for the victims in the beginning of radiation emergency.

Improvement Methods in NPP's Radiation Emergency Plan: An Administrative Approach (행정적 대응을 중심으로 본 원전 방사선비상계획 개선방안)

  • Lee, Yoon-Wook;Yang, He-Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.151-154
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    • 2009
  • The Radiation Emergency Plan (REP) can be divided into a technical and an administrative responses. The domestic NPP's REPs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the administrative response and improvement methods are also suggested in this treatise. The fields of the reviews are the composition of the emergency response organizations, the activation criteria of the organizations, the selection of the staffings and the reasonableness of the REP's volume. In addition, the limitations of the current radiation exercises are reviewed and the improvement method of the exercise is presented. It is expected that the suggested recommendations will be helpful in establishing useful REPs and making practical radiation exercises in Korea.

An Off-site Screening Process for the Public in Radiation Emergencies and Disasters

  • Yoon, Seokwon;HA, Wi-Ho;Jin, Young-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.301-309
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    • 2016
  • Background: A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. Materials and Methods: We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. Results and Discussion: We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. Conclusion: This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established.

Optimization of In-vivo Monitoring Program for Radiation Emergency Response

  • Ha, Wi-Ho;Kim, Jong Kyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2016
  • Background: In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. Materials and Methods: In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for $^{134}Cs$, $^{137}Cs$, and $^{131}I$ were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detect-able level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. Results and Discussion: We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for $^{134}Cs$ and $^{137}Cs$, and 100 Bq for $^{131}I$ were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. Conclusion: In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.