• Title/Summary/Keyword: RCP scenarios

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Analysis of drought characteristics depending on RCP scenarios at Korea (RCP 시나리오별 한반도 가뭄특성 분석)

  • Kim, Jungho;Kim, Sangdan;Joo, Jingul
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2016
  • This study implemented a comparison of SPI characteristics in terms of quantitative and spatial analysis depending on four RCP scenarios. For this purpose, we compared quantitative characteristics of drought using standard precipitation index resulted from daily precipitation data reflecting future green gas concentration scenarios, and spatial distribution field of seasonal drought occurrence frequency and its duration, was analyzed to compare drought trends depending on the RCP scenarios. As a result, we found that SPI time series was quite different from each other and correlation coefficients were lower than 0.08. Depending on the RCP scenarios, spatial distribution results showed different trends in drought severity, frequency, and duration. The biggest reason of the difference is daily precipitation data based on the different greenhouse gas concentrations, but we could not find the effect of the concentration extent on drought occurrence projection. In addition, according to the results from this study, drought analysis results using single RCP scenario may have considerable uncertainty.

Near Future Projection of Extreme Temperature over CORDEX-East Asia Phase 2 Region Using the WRF Model Based on RCP Scenarios (RCP 시나리오 기반 WRF를 이용한 CORDEX-동아시아 2단계 지역의 가까운 미래 극한기온 변화 전망)

  • Seo, Ga-Yeong;Choi, Yeon-Woo;Ahn, Joong-Bae
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.585-597
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    • 2019
  • This study evaluates the performance of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating temperature over the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment-East Asia (CORDEX-EA) Phase 2 domain for the reference period (1981~2005), and assesses the changes in temperature and its extremes in the mid-21st century (2026~2050) under global warming based on Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. MPI-ESM-LR forced by two RCP scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) is used as initial and lateral boundary conditions. Overall, WRF can capture the observed features of temperature distribution reflecting local topographic characteristic, despite some disagreement between the observed and simulated patterns. Basically, WRF shows a systematic cold bias in daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature over the entire domain. According to the future projections, summer and winter mean temperatures over East Asia will significantly increase in the mid-21st century. The mean temperature rise is expected to be greater in winter than in summer. In accordance with these results, summer (winter) is projected to begin earlier (later) in the future compared to the historical period. Furthermore, a rise in extreme temperatures shows a tendency to be greater in the future. The averages of daily minimum and maximum temperatures above 90 percentiles are likely to be intensified in the high-latitude, while hot days and hot nights tend to be more frequent in the low-latitude in the mid-21st century. Especially, East Asia would be suffered from strong increases in nocturnal temperature under future global warming.

An Analysis on the Climate Change Exposure of Fisheries and Fish Species in the Southern Sea under the RCP Scenarios: Focused on Sea Temperature Variation (RCP 시나리오에 따른 남해안 어업 및 어종의 기후변화 노출 분석 : 수온 변동을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Bong-Tae;Lee, Joon-Soo;Suh, Young-Sang
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the climate change exposure of fisheries and fish species in the southern sea of Korea under the RCP climate change scenarios. The extent of exposure was calculated through weighted sum of the sea temperature forecasted by National Institute of Fisheries Science, and the weight were obtained from the time-space distribution of each fisheries or species, based on the micro-data for the fishing information reported by each fisherman. Results show that all the exposed sea temperature of RCP8.5 is higher than that of RCP4.5 in year 2100 as well as in near 2030, therefore it is thought to be very important to reduce the GHG emission even in the short term. The extent of exposure was analyzed to be comparatively high especially in the fisheries such as anchovy drag nets and species like cod, anchovy and squid. Meanwhile the method of this study is considered to be excellent to obtain the accurate extent of exposure under RCP scenarios, and therefore it is applicable on assessing the vulnerability of climate change in fisheries.

Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change in Coastal and Offshore Fisheries of Korea under the RCP Scenarios: for the South Coast Region (RCP 시나리오를 적용한 한국 연근해어업의 기후변화 취약성 평가: 남해안 지역을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Bong-Tae;Lee, Joon-Soo;Suh, Young-Sang
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the climate change vulnerability of coastal and offshore fisheries in the South Sea of Korea using the RCP scenarios. Based on the vulnerability defined by IPCC, the indicator-based method was applied. Exposure indicator was calculated through weighted sum of the sea temperature and salinity forecasted by National Institute of Fisheries Science, and the weights were obtained from the time-space distribution of each fisheries. Sensitivity indicator was determined by applying the catch proportion of fisheries to the sensitivity of fish species. The adaptive capacity was measured by survey of fisheries which represent the ability of the fishermen well. As a result of summarizing the above indicators, vulnerability of coastal fisheries is higher than offshore fisheries. This shows that measures against coastal fisheries are needed. In addition, the results of each scenario are somewhat different, so it is considered that accurate prediction of climate change is important for adaptation measures.

Estimating Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis) Habitat Distribution Considering Climate Change Uncertainty - Using Species Distribution Models and RCP Scenarios - (불확실성을 고려한 미래 잣나무의 서식 적지 분포 예측 - 종 분포 모형과 RCP시나리오를 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Yoonjung;Lee, Dong-Kun;Kim, Ho Gul;Park, Chan;Kim, Jiyeon;Kim, Jae-uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 2015
  • Climate change will make significant impact on species distribution in forest. Pinus koraiensis which is commonly called as Korean Pine is normally distributed in frigid zones. Climate change which causes severe heat could affect distribution of Korean pine. Therefore, this study predicted the distribution of Korean Pine and the suitable habitat area with consideration on uncertainty by applying climate change scenarios on an ensemble model. First of all, a site index was considered when selecting present and absent points and a stratified method was used to select the points. Secondly, environmental and climate variables were chosen by literature review and then confirmed with experts. Those variables were used as input data of BIOMOD2. Thirdly, the present distribution model was made. The result was validated with ROC. Lastly, RCP scenarios were applied on the models to create the future distribution model. As a results, each individual model shows quite big differences in the results but generally most models and ensemble models estimated that the suitable habitat area would be decreased in midterm future(40s) as well as long term future(90s).

Study on the Effects of Future Urban Growth on Surface Ozone Concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Region (수도권 미래 도시성장이 오존농도 변화에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Seok, Hyeon-Bae;Jeong, Ju-Hee;Kang, Yoon-Hee;Kim, Hyunsu;Kim, Yoo-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.31-46
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the regional climate (WRF) and air quality (CMAQ) models were used to simulate the effects of future urban growth on surface ozone concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). These analyses were performed based on changes in ozone concentrations during ozone seasons (May-June) for the year 2050 (future) relative to 2012 (present) by urban growth. The results were compared with the impacts of RCP scenarios on ozone concentrations in the SMR. The fractions of urban in the SMR (25.8 %) for the 2050 were much higher than those (13.9 %) for the 2012 and the future emissions (e.g., CO, NO, $NO_2$, $SO_2$, VOC) were increased from 121 % (NO) to 161.3 % ($NO_2$) depending on emission material. The mean and daily maximum 1-h ozone in the SMR increased about 3 - 7 ppb by the effect the RCP scenarios. However, the effect of urban growth reduced the mean ozone by 3 ppb in the SMR and increased the daily maximum 1-h ozone by 2 - 5 ppb over the northeastern SMR and around the coastline. In particular, the ozone pollution days exceeding the 1-h regulatory standard (100 ppb) were far more affected by urban growth than mean values. As a result, the average number of days exceeding the 1-h regulatory standard increased up to 10 times.

Analysis of Water Supply Probability for Agricultural Reservoirs Considering Non-irrigation Period Precipitation using RCP Scenarios (RCP 시나리오 기반 비관개기 강수량을 고려한 농업용 저수지의 용수공급 확률 분석)

  • Bang, Jehong;Choi, Jin-Yong;Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2018
  • The main function of an agricultural reservoir is to supply irrigation water to paddy rice fields in South Korea. Therefore, the operation of a reservoir is significantly affected by the phenology of paddy rice. For example, the early stage of irrigation season, a lot of irrigation water is required for transplanting rice. Therefore, water storage in the reservoir before irrigation season can be a key factor for sustainable irrigation, and it becomes more important under climate change situation. In this study, we analyzed the climate change impacts on reservoir storage rate at the beginning of irrigation period and simulated the reservoir storage, runoff, and irrigation water requirement under RCP scenarios. Frequency analysis was conducted with simulation results to analyze water supply probabilities of reservoirs. Water supply probability was lower in RCP 8.5 scenario than in RCP 4.5 scenario because of low precipitation in the non-irrigation period. Study reservoirs are classified into 5 groups by water supply probability. Reservoirs in group 5 showed more than 85 percentage probabilities to be filled up from half-filled condition during the non-irrigation period, whereas group 1 showed less than 5 percentages. In conclusion, reservoir capacity to catchment area ratio mainly affected water supply probability. If the ratio was high, reservoirs tended to have a low possibility to supply enough irrigation water amount.

Flood Risk Assessment Based on Bias-Corrected RCP Scenarios with Quantile Mapping at a Si-Gun Level (분위사상법을 적용한 RCP 시나리오 기반 시군별 홍수 위험도 평가)

  • Park, Jihoon;Kang, Moon Seong;Song, Inhong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2013
  • The main objective of this study was to evaluate Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios-based flood risk at a Si-Gun level. A bias correction using a quantile mapping method with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution was performed to correct future precipitation data provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). A series of proxy variables including CN80 (Number of days over 80 mm) and CX3h (Maximum precipitation during 3-hr) etc. were used to carry out flood risk assessment. Indicators were normalized by a Z-score method and weighted by factors estimated by principal component analysis (PCA). Flood risk evaluation was conducted for the four different time periods, i.e. 1990s, 2025s, 2055s, and 2085s, which correspond to 1976~2005, 2011~2040, 2041~2070, and 2071~2100. The average flood risk indices based on RCP4.5 scenario were 0.08, 0.16, 0.22, and 0.13 for the corresponding periods in the order of time, which increased steadily up to 2055s period and decreased. The average indices based on RCP8.5 scenario were 0.08, 0.23, 0.11, and 0.21, which decreased in the 2055s period and then increased again. Considering the average index during entire period of the future, RCP8.5 scenario resulted in greater risk than RCP4.5 scenario.

Prediction of potential habitats and distribution of the marine invasive sea squirt, Herdmania momus

  • Park, Ju-Un;Lee, Taekjun;Kim, Dong Gun;Shin, Sook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2020
  • The influx of marine exotic and alien species is disrupting marine ecosystems and aquaculture. Herdmania momus, reported as an invasive species, is distributed all along the coast of Jeju Island and has been confirmed to be distributed and spread to Busan. The potential habitats and distribution of H. momus were estimated using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, quantum geographic information system (QGIS), and Bio-ocean rasters for analysis of climate and environment(Bio-ORACLE), which can predict the distribution and spread based only on species occurrence data using species distribution model (SDM). Temperature and salinity were selected as environmental variables based on previous literature. Additionally, two different representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were set up to estimate future and potential habitats owing to climate change. The prediction of potential habitats and distribution for H. momus using MaxEnt confirmed maximum temperature as the highest contributor(77.1%), and mean salinity, the lowest (0%). And the potential habitats and distribution of H. momus were the highest on Jeju Island, and no potential habitat or distribution was seen in the Yellow Sea. Different RCP scenarios showed that at RCP 4.5, H. momus would be distributed along the coast of Jeju Island in the year 2050 and that the distribution would expand to parts of the Korea Strait by the year 2100. RCP 8.5, the distribution in 2050 is predicted to be similar to that at RCP 4.5; however, by 2100, the distribution is predicted to expand to parts of the Korea Strait and the East Sea. This study can be utilized as basic data to effectively control the ecological injuries by H. momus by predicting its spread and distribution both at present and in the future.

Economic Analysis of Rural Green-Village Planning with Solar Energy considering Climate Change (기후변화를 고려한 농촌지역 그린빌리지의 태양에너지 활용에 관한 경제성 분석)

  • Kim, Dae-Sik;Wang, Young-Doo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.25-36
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to perform the economic analysis to the use of solar power facilities in rural villages considering the climate change scenario. IPCC climate change scenarios in the recently adopted the RCP scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP6.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) was used. By RCP scenarios, solar radiation, depending on the scenario in 2100, respectively, 3.6%, 2.5%, 1.9%, 1.1% was assumed to increase. From the economic analysis(payback period is 25 year) on 8 points of each province, in all cases of normal data and four RCP scenarios, at all points analyzed were NPV indicate a negative, BC ratio less than 1.0, respectively. In the case of Mokpo, Chunnam RCP8.5, BC ratio were found to be up to a 0.92, followed by 0.89 in the case of RCP8.5 in Jinju, Kyungnam shows, while the minimum was in Jeju. BC ratio is 1.0 or bigger, in order for the normal solar radiation data in Mokpo, Chonnam was the minimum that it takes 37 years. Similarly, in the case of RCP scenarios, 30 years in Mokpo, Chonnam RCP8.5 and 31 years in the cases of Jinju, Kyungnam and Jeonju, Cheonbuk RCP8.5 were analyzed. It was analyzed that RCP8.5 has the highest value. BC analysis models for each of the factors, the results of the sensitivity analysis, the initial installation costs, electricity sales price, discount rate in the order of economy showed higher sensitivity, and the rest factors showed lower changes. Although there are some differences of solar radiation by region, but in Korea most facilities in rural areas, the use of solar power was considered to be economical enough, considering change of several factors with high sensitivity, such as increasing of government subsidies for the solar power installation of the facility, rising oil prices due to a rise in electricity sales price, and a change in discount rate. In particular, when considering climate change scenarios, the use of solar energy for rural areas of the judgment that there was more economical.