• Title, Summary, Keyword: RCP scenarios

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Variance Analysis of RCP4.5 and 8.5 Ensemble Climate Scenarios for Surface Temperature in South Korea (우리나라 상세 기후변화 시나리오의 지역별 기온 전망 범위 - RCP4.5, 8.5를 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Jihyun;Shim, Changsub;Kim, Jaeuk
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.103-115
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    • 2018
  • The uncertainty of climate scenarios, as initial information, is one of the significant factors among uncertainties of climate change impacts and vulnerability assessments. In this sense, the quantification of the uncertainty of climate scenarios is essential to understanding these assessments of impacts and vulnerability for adaptation to climate change. Here we quantified the precision of surface temperature of ensemble scenarios (high resolution (1km) RCP4.5 and 8.5) provided by Korea Meteorological Administration, with spatiotemporal variation of the standard deviation of them. From 2021 to 2050, the annual increase rate of RCP8.5 was higher than that of RCP4.5 while the annual variation of RCP8.5 was lower than that of RCP4.5. The standard deviations of ensemble scenarios are higher in summer and winter, particularly in July and January, when the extreme weather events could occur. In general, the uncertainty of ensemble scenarios in summer were lower than those in winter. In spatial distribution, the standard deviation of ensemble scenarios in Seoul Metropolitan Area is relatively higher than other provinces, while that of Yeongnam area is lower than other provinces. In winter, the standard deviations of ensemble scenarios of RCP4.5 and 8.5 in January are higher than those of December. Especially, the standard deviation of ensemble scenarios is higher in the central regions including Gyeonggi, and Gangwon, where the mean surface temperature is lower than southern regions along with Chungbuk. Such differences in precisions of climate ensemble scenarios imply that those uncertainty information should be taken into account for the implementation of national climate change policy.

Forecasting of Sea-Level Rise using a Semi-Empirical Method (반경험식법을 이용한 미래 해수면 상승 예측)

  • Kim, Tae-Yun;Cho, Kwang-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we predicted sea-level rise for RCP 4scenarios(RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, RCP 8.5). To calculate sea-level rise, a semi-empirical method was used and it needs atmospheric temperature rise for each scenario. According to the results, the sea-level has been rising steadily in all scenarios. By 2050 the maximum difference of sea-level rise between the scenarios was within 0.08 m, but its difference was showed more than 0.5 m in 2100. The values of sea-level rise for RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, RCP 8.5 scenarios are 0.87 m, 1.21 m, 1.02 m, 1.36 m, respectively. In the case of RCP 8.5, the slope of atmospheric temperature rise since 2060 was very steep compared to the other scenarios so that the maximum difference of sea-level rise between the scenarios will be much larger after 2100. Estimated by a simple approximation, the maximum difference of sea-level rise can be more than 1.2 m in 2120.

Analysis of drought characteristics depending on RCP scenarios at Korea (RCP 시나리오별 한반도 가뭄특성 분석)

  • Kim, Jungho;Kim, Sangdan;Joo, Jingul
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2016
  • This study implemented a comparison of SPI characteristics in terms of quantitative and spatial analysis depending on four RCP scenarios. For this purpose, we compared quantitative characteristics of drought using standard precipitation index resulted from daily precipitation data reflecting future green gas concentration scenarios, and spatial distribution field of seasonal drought occurrence frequency and its duration, was analyzed to compare drought trends depending on the RCP scenarios. As a result, we found that SPI time series was quite different from each other and correlation coefficients were lower than 0.08. Depending on the RCP scenarios, spatial distribution results showed different trends in drought severity, frequency, and duration. The biggest reason of the difference is daily precipitation data based on the different greenhouse gas concentrations, but we could not find the effect of the concentration extent on drought occurrence projection. In addition, according to the results from this study, drought analysis results using single RCP scenario may have considerable uncertainty.

Projection of 21st Century Climate over Korean Peninsula: Temperature and Precipitation Simulated by WRFV3.4 Based on RCP4.5 and 8.5 Scenarios (21세기 한반도 기후변화 전망: WRF를 이용한 RCP 4.5와 8.5 시나리오 기온과 강수)

  • Ahn, Joong-Bae;Choi, Yeon-Woo;Jo, Sera;Hong, Ja-Young
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.541-554
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    • 2014
  • Historical, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios from HadGEM2-AO are dynamically downscaled over the northeast East Asia with WRFV3.4. The horizontal resolution of the produced data is 12.5 km and the periods of integration are 1979~2010 for historical and 2019~2100 for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyze the time series, climatology, EOF and extreme climate in terms of 2 m-temperature and precipitation during 30-year for the Historical (1981~2010) and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (2071~2100) scenarios. According to the result, the temperature of the northeast Asia centered at the Korean Peninsula increase 2.9 and $4.6^{\circ}C$ in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, by the end of the 21st century. The temperature increases with latitude and the increase is larger in winter rather than in summer. The annual mean precipitation is expected to increase by about $0.3mm\;day^{-1}$ in RCP4.5 scenario and $0.5mm\;day^{-1}$ in RCP8.5 scenario. The EOF analysis is also performed for both temperature and precipitation. For temperature, the EOF $1^{st}$ modes of all scenarios in summer and winter show that temperature increase with latitude. The $2^{nd}$ mode of EOF of each scenario shows the natural variability, exclusive of the global warming. The summer precipitation over the Korean Peninsula projected increases in EOF $1^{st}$ modes of all scenarios. For extreme climate, the increment of the number of days with daily maximum temperature above $30^{\circ}C$ per year ($DAY_{TX30}$) is 25.3 and 49.7 days in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 respectively over the Korean Peninsula. The number of days with daily precipitation above $20mm\;day^{-1}$ per year ($DAY_{PR20}$) also increases 3.1 and 3.5 days in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 respectively.

Spatiotemporal distribution of downscaled hourly precipitation for RCP scenarios over South Korea and its hydrological responses

  • Lee, Taesam;Park, Taewoong;Park, Jaenyoung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.247-247
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    • 2015
  • Global Climate Model (GCM) is too coarse to apply at a basin scale. The spatial downcsaling is needed to used to permit the assessment of the hydrological changes of a basin. Furthermore, temporal downscaling is required to obtain hourly precipitation to analyze a small or medium basin because only few or several hours are used to determine the peak flows after it rains. In the current study, the spariotemporal distribution of downscaled hourly precipitation for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios over South Korea is presented as well as its implications over hydrologica responses. Mean hourly precipitation significantly increases over the southern part of South Korea, especially during the morning time, and its increase becomes lower at later times of day in the RCP8.5 scenario. However, this increase cannot be propagated to the mainland due to the mountainous areas in the southern part of the country. Furthermore, the hydrological responses employing a distributed rainfall-runoff model show that there is a significant increase in the peak flow for the RCP8.5 scenario with a slight decrease for the RCP4.5 scenario. The current study concludes that the employed temporal downscaling method is suitable for obtaining the hourly precipitation data from daily GCM scenarios. In addition, the rainfall runoff simulation through the downscaled hourly precipitation is useful for investigating variations in the hydrological responses as related to future scenarios.

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An Analysis on the Climate Change Exposure of Fisheries and Fish Species in the Southern Sea under the RCP Scenarios: Focused on Sea Temperature Variation (RCP 시나리오에 따른 남해안 어업 및 어종의 기후변화 노출 분석 : 수온 변동을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Bong-Tae;Lee, Joon-Soo;Suh, Young-Sang
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the climate change exposure of fisheries and fish species in the southern sea of Korea under the RCP climate change scenarios. The extent of exposure was calculated through weighted sum of the sea temperature forecasted by National Institute of Fisheries Science, and the weight were obtained from the time-space distribution of each fisheries or species, based on the micro-data for the fishing information reported by each fisherman. Results show that all the exposed sea temperature of RCP8.5 is higher than that of RCP4.5 in year 2100 as well as in near 2030, therefore it is thought to be very important to reduce the GHG emission even in the short term. The extent of exposure was analyzed to be comparatively high especially in the fisheries such as anchovy drag nets and species like cod, anchovy and squid. Meanwhile the method of this study is considered to be excellent to obtain the accurate extent of exposure under RCP scenarios, and therefore it is applicable on assessing the vulnerability of climate change in fisheries.

Long-term Effects on Forest Biomass under Climate Change Scenarios Using LANDIS-II - A case study on Yoengdong-gun in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea - (산림경관천이모델(LANDIS-II)를 이용한 기후변화 시나리오에 따른 산림의 생물량 장기변화 추정 연구 -충청북도 영동군 학산면 봉소리 일대 산림을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Young-Eun;Choi, Jae-Yong;Kim, Whee-Moon;Kim, Seoung-Yeal;Song, Won-Kyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.27-43
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    • 2019
  • This study applied the LANDIS-II model to the forest vegetation of the study area in Yeongdong-gun, Korea to identify climate effects on ecosystems of forest vegetation. The main purpose of the study is to examine the long-term changes in forest aboveground biomass(AGB) under three different climate change scenarios; The baseline climate scenario is to maintain the current climate condition; the RCP 4.5 scenario is a stabilization scenario to employ of technologies and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; the RCP 8.5 scenario is increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time representative with 936ppm of $CO_2$ concentration by 2100. The vegetation survey and tree-ring analysis were conducted to work out the initial vegetation maps and data for operation of the LANDIS model. Six types of forest vegetation communities were found including Quercus mongolica - Pinus densiflora community, Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis-Quercus acutissima community, Larix leptolepis afforestation and Pinus koraiensis afforestation. As for changes in total AGB under three climate change scenarios, it was found that RCP 4.5 scenario featured the highest rate of increase in AGB whereas RCP 8.5 scenario yielded the lowest rate of increase. These results suggest that moderately elevated temperatures and $CO_2$ concentrations helped the biomass flourish as photosynthesis and water use efficiency increased, but huge increase in temperature ($above+4.0^{\circ}C$) has resulted in the increased respiration with increasing temperature. Consequently, Species productivity(Biomass) of trees decrease as the temperature is elevated drastically. It has been confirmed that the dominant species in all scenarios was Quercus mongolica. Like the trends shown in the changes of total AGB, it revealed the biggest increase in the AGB of Quercus mongolica under the RCP 4.5 scenario. AGB of Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis decreased in the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios after 2050 but have much higher growth rates of the AGB starting from 2050 under the baseline scenario. Under all scenarios, the AGB of coniferous species was eventually perished in 2100. In particular they were extinguished in early stages of the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. This is because of natural selection of communities by successions and the failure to adapt to climate change. The results of the study could be expected to be effectively utilized to predict changes of the forest ecosystems due to climate change and to be used as basic data for establishing strategies for adaptation climate changes and the management plans for forest vegetation restoration in ecological restoration fields.

Economic Analysis of Rural Green-Village Planning with Solar Energy considering Climate Change (기후변화를 고려한 농촌지역 그린빌리지의 태양에너지 활용에 관한 경제성 분석)

  • Kim, Dae-Sik;Wang, Young-Doo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.25-36
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to perform the economic analysis to the use of solar power facilities in rural villages considering the climate change scenario. IPCC climate change scenarios in the recently adopted the RCP scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP6.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) was used. By RCP scenarios, solar radiation, depending on the scenario in 2100, respectively, 3.6%, 2.5%, 1.9%, 1.1% was assumed to increase. From the economic analysis(payback period is 25 year) on 8 points of each province, in all cases of normal data and four RCP scenarios, at all points analyzed were NPV indicate a negative, BC ratio less than 1.0, respectively. In the case of Mokpo, Chunnam RCP8.5, BC ratio were found to be up to a 0.92, followed by 0.89 in the case of RCP8.5 in Jinju, Kyungnam shows, while the minimum was in Jeju. BC ratio is 1.0 or bigger, in order for the normal solar radiation data in Mokpo, Chonnam was the minimum that it takes 37 years. Similarly, in the case of RCP scenarios, 30 years in Mokpo, Chonnam RCP8.5 and 31 years in the cases of Jinju, Kyungnam and Jeonju, Cheonbuk RCP8.5 were analyzed. It was analyzed that RCP8.5 has the highest value. BC analysis models for each of the factors, the results of the sensitivity analysis, the initial installation costs, electricity sales price, discount rate in the order of economy showed higher sensitivity, and the rest factors showed lower changes. Although there are some differences of solar radiation by region, but in Korea most facilities in rural areas, the use of solar power was considered to be economical enough, considering change of several factors with high sensitivity, such as increasing of government subsidies for the solar power installation of the facility, rising oil prices due to a rise in electricity sales price, and a change in discount rate. In particular, when considering climate change scenarios, the use of solar energy for rural areas of the judgment that there was more economical.

Analysis of the Change of Dam Inflow and Evapotranspiration in the Soyanggang Dam Basin According to the AR5 Climate Change Scenarios (AR5 기후변화 시나리오에 따른 소양강댐 유역 댐유입량 및 증발산량의 변화 분석)

  • Do, Yeonsu;Kim, Gwangseob
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the change of the dam inflow and evapotranspiration in the Soyanggang dam basin using the results of 26 CMIP5 GCMs based on AR5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The SWAT model was used to simulate the dam inflow and evapotranspiration in the target watershed. The simulation was performed during 2010~2016 as the reference year and during 2010~2099 as the analysis period. Bias correction of input data such as precipitation and air temperature were conducted for the reference period of 2006~2016. Results were analyzed for 3 different periods, 2025s (2010~2040), 2055s (2041~2070), and 2085s (2071~2099). It demonstrated that the change of dam inflow gradually increases 9.5~15.9 % for RCP 4.5 and 13.3~29.8 % for RCP 8.5. The change of evapotranspiration gradually increases 1.6~8.6 % for RCP 4.5 and 1.5~8.5 % for RCP8.5.

Estimations of flow rate and pollutant loading changes of the Yo-Cheon basin under AR5 climate change scenarios using SWA (SWAT을 이용한 AR5 기후변화 시나리오에 의한 섬진강 요천유역의 유량 및 오염부하량 변화 예측)

  • Jang, Yujin;Park, Jongtae;Seo, Dongil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.221-233
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    • 2018
  • Two climate change scenarios, the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 and the RCP 8.5 in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), were applied in the Yocheon basin area using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to estimate changes in flow rates and pollutant loadings in the future. Field stream flow rate data in Songdong station and water quality data in Yocheon-1 station between 2013~2015 were used for model calibration. While $R^2$ value of flow rate calibration was 0.85 and $R^2$ value of water qualities were in the 0.12~0.43 range. The total study period was divided into 4 sub periods as 2030s (2016~2040), 2050s (2041~2070) and 2080s (2071~2100). The predicted results of flow rates and water quality concentrations were compared with results in calibrated periods, 2015s (2013~2015). In both RCP scenarios, flow rate and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) loadings were estimated to be in increasing trend while TN (Total Nitrogen) and TP (Total Phosphorus) loadings showed decreasing patterns. Also, flow rates and pollutant loadings showed larger differences between the maximum and the minimum values in RCP 4.5 than RCP 8.5 scenarios indicating more severe effect of drought and flood, respectively. Dependent on simulation period and rainfall periods in a year, flow rate, TSS, TN and TP showed different trends in each scenario. This emphasizes importance of considerations on time and space when analyzing climate change impacts of each variable under various scenarios.