• Title, Summary, Keyword: Q-methodology

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Effects of Customers' Relationship Networks on Organizational Performance: Focusing on Facebook Fan Page (고객 간 관계 네트워크가 조직성과에 미치는 영향: 페이스북 기업 팬페이지를 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Su-Hyeon;Kwahk, Kee-Young
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-79
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    • 2016
  • It is a rising trend that the number of users using one of the social media channels, the Social Network Service, so called the SNS, is getting increased. As per to this social trend, more companies have interest in this networking platform and start to invest their funds in it. It has received much attention as a tool spreading and expanding the message that a company wants to deliver to its customers and has been recognized as an important channel in terms of the relationship marketing with them. The environment of media that is radically changing these days makes possible for companies to approach their customers in various ways. Particularly, the social network service, which has been developed rapidly, provides the environment that customers can freely talk about products. For companies, it also works as a channel that gives customized information to customers. To succeed in the online environment, companies need to not only build the relationship between companies and customers but focus on the relationship between customers as well. In response to the online environment with the continuous development of technology, companies have tirelessly made the novel marketing strategy. Especially, as the one-to-one marketing to customers become available, it is more important for companies to maintain the relationship marketing with their customers. Among many SNS, Facebook, which many companies use as a communication channel, provides a fan page service for each company that supports its business. Facebook fan page is the platform that the event, information and announcement can be shared with customers using texts, videos, and pictures. Companies open their own fan pages in order to inform their companies and businesses. Such page functions as the websites of companies and has a characteristic of their brand communities such as blogs as well. As Facebook has become the major communication medium with customers, companies recognize its importance as the effective marketing channel, but they still need to investigate their business performances by using Facebook. Although there are infinite potentials in Facebook fan page that even has a function as a community between users, which other platforms do not, it is incomplete to regard companies' Facebook fan pages as communities and analyze them. In this study, it explores the relationship among customers through the network of the Facebook fan page users. The previous studies on a company's Facebook fan page were focused on finding out the effective operational direction by analyzing the use state of the company. However, in this study, it draws out the structural variable of the network, which customer committment can be measured by applying the social network analysis methodology and investigates the influence of the structural characteristics of network on the business performance of companies in an empirical way. Through each company's Facebook fan page, the network of users who engaged in the communication with each company is exploited and it is the one-mode undirected binary network that respectively regards users and the relationship of them in terms of their marketing activities as the node and link. In this network, it draws out the structural variable of network that can explain the customer commitment, who pressed "like," made comments and shared the Facebook marketing message, of each company by calculating density, global clustering coefficient, mean geodesic distance, diameter. By exploiting companies' historical performance such as net income and Tobin's Q indicator as the result variables, this study investigates influence on companies' business performances. For this purpose, it collects the network data on the subjects of 54 companies among KOSPI-listed companies, which have posted more than 100 articles on their Facebook fan pages during the data collection period. Then it draws out the network indicator of each company. The indicator related to companies' performances is calculated, based on the posted value on DART website of the Financial Supervisory Service. From the academic perspective, this study suggests a new approach through the social network analysis methodology to researchers who attempt to study the business-purpose utilization of the social media channel. From the practical perspective, this study proposes the more substantive marketing performance measurements to companies performing marketing activities through the social media and it is expected that it will bring a foundation of establishing smart business strategies by using the network indicators.

Donation Expenses and Corporate Value: A Focus on the Corporate Governance Structure (기부금 지출과 기업 가치: 기업지배구조를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Soo-Jung;Kang, Shin-Ae
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - Recently, the number of corporations that practice environmental and social responsibility, besides engaging in traditional profit-seeking activities, has been growing steadily, as interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is increasing. Recent research on CSR practices has identified the relationship between CSR activities and corporate value as one of the main issues in this respect. Considering that donations constitute a large proportion of a company's charitable activities, we considered the extent of donation expenses as a charitable activity in order to mitigate sample selection bias. Specifically, we analyzed the impact of donation expenses on firm value, while investigating if this impact varied in response to the level of corporate governance of firms. Research design, data, and methodology - We used non-financial firms listed on the Korean Stock Exchange, having their fiscal year end in December, and the sample period was 2006-2013. For the dependent variable, Tobin's q was used as the corporate value, and for the independent variable, donations were measured as the donation-expense-to-sales ratio. Corporate governance scores, as rated by the Korea Corporate Governance Service, were used to measure corporate governance levels because they consider the overall aspects of governance, including ownership structure, the board of directors, and the audit mechanism of individual companies. To examine the impact of donations on a company in relation to the level of corporate governance, we estimated regression models using the interaction terms of the governance dummy and donation variables. Then, we further estimated the regression models of two sub-samples that were classified according to the level of corporate governance. Similar to previous studies, the study uses variables that affect firm value, such as R&D expenditure, advertising expenses, EBITDA, debt-to-equity ratio, sales growth, company age, and company size as control variables. Results - The empirical results show that firm value significantly increased in response to an increase in donation expenses. Upon including the interaction terms of governance level dummy variables and donations, the coefficients of the interaction terms show significant positive values, while those of donation variables show significant negative values. In the strong governance sub-sample, the relationship between the donation expenses and corporate value was statistically positive (+) and significant. However, in the weak governance sub-sample, the relationship between the donation expenses and corporate value was statistically insignificant and negative (-). Conclusions - The empirical results suggest that donation expenses are significantly linked to an enhanced corporate value if firms have a good corporate governance structure. However, if the corporate governance structure is weak, the same relationship is not necessarily observed. The results of this study show that if a firm has high corporate governance, CSR practices enhance the company's reputation such that it has a positive (+) relationship with corporate value. If a firm has weak corporate governance, on the other hand, CSR practices are recognized as an agency cost and do not increase corporate value.

Optimization of Ammonia Percolation Process for Ethanol Production from Miscanthus Sinensis (억새를 이용한 바이오 에탄올 생산을 위한 암모니아 침출 공정 최적화)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Seob;Kim, Jun Seok
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.704-711
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    • 2010
  • Lignocellulose ($2^{nd}$ generation) is difficult to hydrolyze due to the presence of lignin and the technology developed for cellulose fermentation to ethanol is not yet economically viable. However, recent advances in the extremely new field of biotechnology for the ethanol production are making it possible to use of agriculture residuals and nonedible crops biomass, e.q., rice straw and miscanthus sinensis, because of their several superior aspects as agriculture residual and nonedible crops biomass; low lignin, high contents of carbohydrates. In this article, as the basic study of AP(Ammonia Percolation), the properties and the optium conditions of process were established, and then the overall efficiency of AP was investigated. The important independent variables for AP process were selected as ammonia concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The percolation condition for maximizing the content of cellulose, the enzymatic digestibility, and the lignin removal was optimized using RSM(Response Surface Methodology). The determined optimum condition is ammonia concentration; 11.27%, reaction temperature; $157.75^{\circ}C$, and reaction time; 10.01 min. The satisfying results were obtained under this optimized condition, that is, the results are as follows: cellulose content(relative); 39.98%, lignin content(relative); 8.01%, and enzymatic digestibility; 85.89%.

Factors that Impact on Safety Activities of Personnels in Oriental Medicine Hospital of University (대학부속 한방병원 교직원의 안전활동에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Lee, Jung-Woo
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2017
  • Purposes : The purpose of this study is to identify factors that have effects on safety activities of hospital personnels by investigating causality between patient safety culture, job stress, safety system and safety activities of faculty and staff member who are working for oriental medicine hospital of university. Methodology : The subjects were 246 employees working in 4 oriental medicine hospitals of university in Daejeon and Chungcheongnam-do. The data were collected from January 16 to January 25, 2017 using a structured questionnaire. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and Duncan test with SPSS 22.0 were used. Findings : The activity score for patient safety of faculty and staff member, who were experienced at job training program after joining a company and regular training course for qualification or license, was meaningfully higher than that of group who had no job training experience. The result indicated that the higher there is level of safety culture and safety system and the lower there is work stress, the more the activity has positive effect on patient safety. The level score of awareness for safety culture of faculty and staff member in C hospital, which is facing financial crisis in business circumstances recently, showed average value of 3.29. It was significantly lower than that of the other three hospital. Also, The activity score for patient safety was markedly lower than that of the other three hospital. This result become interested in the process of linking non-financial performance and financial performance. The level score of safety activity in A hospital which obtained healthcare accreditation was remarkably higher than that of the other three hospital which didn't certify healthcare accreditation. Pratical Implications : Subjects about Q.I or patient's experience management must be included in curriculum of Oriental medicine. It is necessary to get the effect of job training program for faculty and staff member through the process of preparation for obtaining healthcare accreditation. When the hospital director is appointed, it must be considered that he/she has the ability to attach importance to analysis and management of the factors creating safety accident, and has business mindset for healthcare delivery of customer- centricity. This research showed that financial performance of hospital, which of business environment is favorable; located in metropolitan city and having large scale of hospital and quality of residence rating but low-level of safety culture and safety activity, was lower than that of general hospital situated in small and medium-sized cities. More research needs to be done for answering this result.

An Estimation of Flood Quantiles at Ungauged Locations by Index Flood Frequency Curves (지표홍수 빈도곡선의 개발에 의한 미 계측지점의 확률 홍수량 추정)

  • Yoon, Yong-Nam;Shin, Chang-Kun;Jang, Su-Hyung
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2005
  • The study shows the possible use of the index flood frequency curves for an estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged locations. Flood frequency analysis were made for the annual maximum flood data series at 9 available stations in the Han river basin. From the flood frquency curve at each station the mean annual flood of 2.33-year return period was determined and the ratios of the flood magnitude of various return period to the mean annual flood at each station were averaged throughout the Han river basin, resulting mean flood ratios of different return periods. A correlation analysis was made between the mean annual flood and physiographic parameters of the watersheds i.e, the watershed area and mean river channel slope, resulting an empirical multiple linear regression equation over the whole Han river basin. For unguaged watershed the flood of a specified return period could be estimated by multiplying the mead flood ratio corresponding the return period with the mean annual flood computed by the empirical formula developed in terms of the watershed area and river channel slope. To verify the applicability of the methodology developed in the present study the floods of various return periods determined for the watershed in the river channel improvement plan formulation by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation(MOCT) were compared with those estimated by the present method. The result proved a resonable agreement up to the watershed area of approximately 2,000k $m^2$. It is suggested that the practice of design flood estimation based on the rainfall-runoff analysis might have to be reevaluated because it involves too much uncertainties in the hydrologic data and rainfall-runoff model calibration.

Interdependence of Corporate Control Mechanisms and Firm Performance in Korea (기업지배구조의 상호관계 및 기업성과에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Sungbin
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.131-177
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    • 2006
  • This paper examines a simultaneous determination of corporate control mechanisms, and its effects on firm performance. The corporate control mechanisms considered include the following; insider shareholding, institutional shareholding, the board of directors, dividend policy, and capital structure. This paper applies a simultaneous equation methodology and investigates the interdependence among the corporate control mechanisms. In the first part, the paper finds that firm-level variations of control mechanisms are large across time although average variations are relatively small. These variations are related to one another, which is confirmed by Granger causality test based on dynamic panel autoregression model. More specifically insider shareholding, institutional shareholding and outside director ratio cause each other. With regard to interdependence among the control mechanisms, 2SLS(two stage least squares) regression results show that insider shareholding and institutional shareholding are substitutes while institutional shareholding acts as complements to the ratio of outside members in the board of directors. Then in the second part, the paper examines the relationship between firm performance and corporate governance. Firm performance, measured by Tobin's Q, has a positive association with leverage ratio while that has a negative relation to outside director ratio. This suggests that there may be a room for reforming corporate governance in Korea. Specifically it is necessary to enhance the independence of the outside directors.

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Comparative Molecular Field Analyses on the Fungicidal Activities of N-phenylthionocarbamate Derivatives based on Different Alignment Approaches (상이한 정렬에 따른 N-phenylthionocarbamate 유도체들의 살균활성에 관한 비교 분자장 분석)

  • Sung, Nack-Do;Soung, Min-Gyu;You, Jae-Won;Jang, Seok-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2006
  • Three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSARs) for the fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani (RS) and Phytophthora capsici (PC) by N-phenyl substituents(X) of N-phenylthionocarbamate derivatives were studied quantitatively using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methodology based on different alignment approaches. Statistical quality of CoMFA models with field fit alignment were slightly higher than that of atom based fit alignment. The optimized CoMFA models (RS: RF2 & PC: PF2) were derived from field fit alignment and combination of CoMFA fields. And the statistical results of the two models showed the best predictability of the fungicidal activities based on the cross-validated value $q^2$ ($r^2_{cv.}$ =RS: 0.557 & PC: 0.676) and non-cross-validated value ($r^2_{ncv.}$ =RS: 0.954 & PC: 0.968), respectively. The selective fungicidal activities between two fungi were dependence upon the electrostatic field of substrate molecule. Therefore, the fungicidal activities from CoMFA contour maps showed that the fungicidal activity will be able to increased according to the modification of X-substituents on the substrate molecules.

An Integrative Review of Oncology Nursing Research : 1980-1998 (국내의 암관련 간호연구논문 분석)

  • 최선혜;남영화;류은정;백명화;서동희;서순림;최귀윤;최경숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.786-800
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    • 1998
  • The purposes of this study were to describe systemically 18 years of oncology nursing research in Korea and suggest it's direction in future. 149 nursing studies published from 1980 to 1998 were selected for the present study. There were examined the source and the design of study, type of subjects, measurement variables, the intervention outcome of experimental research, and theme of qualitative research. The results were as follows : 1. 121 of 149 studies were composed of master thesis and dissertation of graduate school. There were 55 correlations, 30 descriptions, 19 comparisons, 19 qualitative studies and 2 Q-methods as the type of research design. 2. Cancer patients without describing specified diagnosis as subjects' characteristic were 44 of total studies. The others had various diagnoses such as gastric cancer, uterine cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. According to treatment type, patients receiving chemotherapy were the highest number distribution as 53 of all researches. 3. Most measurement instruments used for research were translated it into Korean that developed by foreigners, such as Zung's depression, Spielberg's anxiety, and Wallston's locus of control. 4. Quality of life was shown the most frequently among correlational researches. the next one was depression, the third was hope, and so on. 5. There was the most frequent comparison between cancer and non-cancer patients in comparative researches. It was surveyed those variables as diet habits, risk factors, stressful life events, anxiety and depression, and self-care capacity between two groups. 6. The subjects were mostly chemotherapy patients as 15 of 24 experimental studies. Oral care and education were respectively the highest experimental interventions. 7. Qualitative researches about cancer were reported since 1991. Their themes were illness experience, adaptation process, dying experience, family experience, hope, caring, experience of health behavior, meaning of chemotherapy and experience of cancer survivor. Phenomenologic methodology was designed above 50% of qualitative researches. According to the above findings, cancer research had increased since 1990 and done mostly by descriptive design but a few experimental studies. As recommendations for the future, It is necessary to study the comparison of oncology nursing research internationally, the replication to establish the effect of nursing intervention, and the family care of cancer patient.

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Syntaxonomy of the Forest Vegetation and Surrounding Taegu, Korea (대구 인접지역에 대한 삼림식생의 군락분류)

  • Choung, Heung-Lak;Lee, Ho-Joon;Lee, Jae-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.407-421
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    • 2000
  • The forest vegetation surrounding Taegu area was investigated by the methodology of the ZM school of phytosociology, from September, 1994 to August, 1997. The forest vegetation was classified into 7 communities, 8 subcommunities and 5 afforestations as follows : Quercus mongolica community (Typical subcommunity, Carex siderosticta subcommunity), Quercus variabilis community, Quercus acutissima community, Quercus dentate community, Carpinus cordata-Acer mono community (Typical subcommunity, Quercus serrata subcommunity, Cornus controversa subcommunity), Pinus densiflora community (Typical subcommunity, Sanguisorba officinalis subcommunity, Rhododendron schlippenbachii subcommunity), Lespedeza maximowiczii-Rhododendron mucronulatum community , Robinia pseudo-acacia afforestation, Pinus rigida afforestation, Larix leptolepis afforestation, Pinus thunbergii afforestation, Pinus koraiensis afforestation. The differential species of the Quercus mongolica community were Quercus mongolica, Athyrium yokoscense, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, Symplocos chinensis for. pilosa, Astilbe chinensis var. davidii, Weigela subsessilis, and Melampyrum roseum, those of the Carpinus cordata-Acer mono community were Acer mono, Carpinus cordata, Carpinus laxiflora, and Staphylea bumalda, those of the Pinus densiflora community were Pinus densiflora, Quercus serrata, Cocculus trilobus, and Juniperus rigida. Constance degree of the Quercus serrate was especially high in shrub and herb layers of the Pinus densiflora community. The results of factor analysis by DCA showed that distribution pattern of the communities were similar to that by Z-M method and that communities were arranged according to soil moisture gradient. Rhododendron schlippenbachii subcommunity of the P. densiflora community and the Typical subcommunity of the Q. mongolica community were distributed in similar environments.

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The Posttraumatic Stress Research Trends of Korean and Foreign Firefighters (국내외 소방대원의 외상 후 스트레스 연구경향)

  • Baek, Mi-Lye
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : This study aimed to analyze the posttraumatic stress research trends in Korean and foreign firefighters. Method : Total 63 published international articles were searched by Pub Med internet site and total 17 published Korean articles were searched by Korean Medical Database internet site using 'PTSD in firefighters'. These articles were analyzed by published time, domains of journal, research designs, key words and research subjects. Result : 1) By the published time, there were 29 disaster-related researches(46.0%) and 34 job-related researches(54.0%) among 63 international articles. However, there were 16 disaster-related researches(94.1%) and 1 job-related research (5.9%) of Korean 17 articles. 2) By the international research domain, 9 researches(14.3%) were published in The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Among domestic research domain, there were 9 researches(52.9%) consisting of 6 master's degrees and 3 doctor degrees. In major analysis of Korean domain, the highest portion is 4 psychology researches. (23.5%) 3) In the term of the international research design, quantitative research methods were highly used in both 23 disaster-related researches (36.5%) and 30 job-related researches(47.5%). In domestic research, quantitative research methods were mostly used in 14 job-related researches(82.3%) and Q methodology was only used in 1 disaster-related research(5.9%). 4) Looking on the research content trends according to the key words, 9 researches (31.0%) done on posttraumatic stress and coping had the most research and was followed up by posttraumatic stress symptom. Among these researches, key words for PTSD(Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) and PTS(Posttraumatic Stress) were mostly used. Moreover, there was 1 domestic study done on verifying the trends of Posttraumatic Stress in disaster-related research with PTS as the key word. In job-related research, the relationship between the Posttraumatic Stress and other factors had the most with ten studies (62.5%). Among these researches, key words for 5 PTSD(31.3%) were mostly used. 5) According to the international research subjects, the Posttrau consist the most subjects with 16 cases each for disaster and job related stress ; however, domestic research had 16 studies(94.1%) only using firefighters and 1 (5.9%) with their families as subjects. Conclusion : Although the studies of Posttraumatic Stress on Korean firefighters had started later than those on Foreign firefighters, first used for crucial topics show research development in various fields of study and should be tested for studies like those done in abroad regarding multiple topics and methods.

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