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Clinical Features of Acute Nonspecific Mesenteric Lymphadenitis and Factors for Differential Diagnosis with Acute Appendicitis (급성 비특이성 장간막 림프절염의 임상 소견과 급성 충수돌기염과의 감별 인자)

  • Shin, Kyung Hwa;Kim, Gab Cheol;Lee, Jung Kwon;Lee, Young Hwan;Kam, Sin;Hwang, Jin Bok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Although acute nonspecific mesenteric lymphadenitis (ANML) is probably common cause of abdominal pain in children, which can be severe enough to be an abdominal emergency, the clinical features of mesenteric lymphadenitis are not clear. Also, a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis (APPE) is indispensable to avoid serious complications. The clinical features of ANML were determined, and the risk factors for differential diagnosis with APPE were analyzed. Methods: Between November 2000 and May 2001, data from 26 patients (aged 1 to 11 years) with ANML and 21 patients (aged 2 to 13 years) with APPE were reviewed. ANML was defined as a cluster of five or more lymph nodes measuring 10 mm or greater in their longitudinal diameter in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) without an identifiable specific inflammatory process on the ultrasonographic examination. There were risk factors on patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory examination; the location of abdominal pain, abdominal rigidity, rebound tenderness, fever, nocturnal pain, the vomiting intensity, the diarrhea intensity, the symptom duration, and the peripheral blood leukocytes count. Results: Of the 26 ANML patients and 21 APPE patients, abdominal pain was noted on periumbilical (76.9% vs 14.2%), on RLQ (11.5% vs 71.4%), with abdomen rigidity (7.6% vs 80.9%), with rebound tenderness (0.0% vs 76.1%)(p<0.05), in the lower abdomen (11.5% vs 14.2%), and at night (80.8% vs 100.0%) (p>0.05). The clinical symptoms were vomiting (38.4% vs 90.4%), the vomiting intensity ($1.5{\pm}0.7$ [1~3]/day vs $4.5{\pm}2.9$ [1~10]/day), diarrhea (65.3% vs 28.5%) (p<0.05), and fever (61.5% vs 76.2%)(p>0.05). The period to the subsidence of abdominal pain in the ANMA patients was $2.5{\pm}0.5$ (2~3) days. The laboratory data showed a significant difference in the peripheral blood leukocytes count ($8,403{\pm}1,737[5,900{\sim}12,300]/mm^3\;vs\;15,471{\pm}3,749[5,400{\sim}20,800]/mm^3$)(p<0.05). Discriminant analysis between ANML and APPE showed that the independent discriminant factors were a vomiting intensity and the peripheral blood leukocytes count and the discriminant power was 95.7%. Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of ANML were abrupt onset of periumbilical pain without rigidity or rebound tenderness, a mild vomiting intensity, normal peripheral leukocytes count, and relatively short clinical course. If the abdominal pain persist for more than 3 days, and/or the vomiting intensity is more than 3 times/day, and/or the peripheral leukocytes count is over $13,500/mm^3$, abdominal ultrasonography is recommended to rule out APPE.

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In the Treatment I-131, the Significance of the Research that the Patient's Discharge Dose and Treatment Ward can Affect a Patient's Kidney Function on the Significance of Various Factors (I-131 치료시 환자의 신장기능과 다양한 요인으로 의한 퇴원선량 및 치료병실 오염도의 유의성에 관한 연구)

  • Im, Kwang Seok;Choi, Hak Gi;Lee, Gi Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: I-131 is a radioisotope widely used for thyroid gland treatments. The physical half life is 8.01 and characterized by emitting beta and gamma rays which is used in clinical practice for the purpose of acquiring treatment and images. In order to reduce the recurrence rate after surgery in high-risk thyroid cancer patients, the remaining thyroid tissue is either removed or the I-131 is used for treatment during relapse. In cases of using a high dosage of radioactive iodine requiring hospitalization, the patient is administered dosage in the hospital isolation ward over a certain period of time preventing I-131 exposure to others. By checking the radiation amount emitted from patients before discharge, the patients are discharged after checking whether they meet the legal standards (50 uSv/h). After patients are discharged from the hospital, the contamination level is checked in many parts of the ward before the next patients are hospitalized and when necessary, decontamination operations are performed. It is expected that there is exposure to radiation when measuring the ward contamination level and dose check emitted from patients at the time of discharge whereby the radiation exposure by health workers that come from the patients in this process is the main factor. This study analyzed the correlation between discharge dose of patients and ward contamination level through a variety of factors such as renal functions, gender, age, dosage, etc.). Materials and Method: The study was conducted on 151 patients who received high-dosage radioactive iodine treatment at Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital during the period between 8/1/2011~5/31/2012 (Male: Female: 31:120, $47.5{\pm}11.9$, average dosage of $138{\pm}22.4$ mCi). As various factors expected to influence the patient discharge dose & ward contamination such as the beds, floors, bathroom floors, and washbasins, the patient renal function (GFR), age, gender, dosage, and the correlation between the expected Tg & Tg-Tb expected to reflect the remaining tissue in patients were analyzed. Results: In terms of the discharge dose and GFR, a low correlation was shown in the patient discharge dose as the GFR was higher (p < 0.0001). When comparing the group with a dosage of over 150mCi and the group with a lower dosage, the lower dosage group showed a significantly lower discharge dose ($24{\pm}10.4uSv/h$ vs $28.7{\pm}11.8uSv/h$, p<0.05). Age, gender, Tg, Tg-Tb did not show a significant relationship with discharge dose (p> 0.05). The contamination level in each spot of the treatment ward showed no significant relationship with GFR, Tg, Tg-Tb, age, gender, and dosage (p>0.05 ). Conclusion: This study says that discharge of the dose in the patient's body is low in GFR higher and Dosage 150mCi under lower. There was no case of contamination of the treatment ward, depending on the dose and renal association. This suggests that patients' lifestyles or be affected by a variety of other factors.

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Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native Goats Fed Fermented Domestic Agricultural By-Products (국내산 농산부산물 발효사료를 급여한 재래산양의 사료섭취량 및 소화율)

  • 안종호;유황종;김현진;조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2000
  • In this study, by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste were fermented with different ratios of 26, 26, 34 and 14% respectively and the experimental diets were prepared mixing it with various ratios of commercial diets (fermented feed commercial feed : A 80 : 20, B 70 : 30, C 60 : 40, D 50:50). In Experiment I, feed intake, nutrients digestibilities and nitrogen retention were investigated and body weight gain in Experiment 1. For chemical composition of experimental diets, crude protein contents were 13.73, 13.78, 14.45 and 15.14% in A, B, C and D respectively and the contents of crude fat and crude fiber were highest in A as 8.66 and 27.82% respectively. 2. Dry hurler intakes were significantly higher (P<0.05) in A(362.06g/d) and C(358.49g/d) than B and D. Intakes of crude protein and crude fat were not significantly different (P>0.05) among treatments however those of crude fiber and crude ash were significantly higher (P>0.05) in A(101.47g/d). 3. Dry matter digestibilities in the range of 53.38∼68.81% in all treatments have shown the highest value in C of 60% fermented feed plus 40% commercial diet but the lowest in A of 80% of fermented feed plus 20% commercial diet (P<0.05). 59.85% of digestibility of crude protein in A was also lowest among all treatments (p<0.05), 4. 8.47g/d of nitrogen intake in C was recorded highest (P<0.05) however the highest nitrogen retention was marked in B of 50% fermented feed plus 50% of commercial diet due mainly to lower excretion of nitrogen through feces. 5. The data of live weight gain in Experiment II has not been shown as a result since the proper daily gain of body weight was achieved only in D as 88.89g/d and the goats in other treatments have shown frequent diarrhea. However, neglecting the animals with diarrhea, higher amounts of concentrates in the diets (C and D) showed the tendency of higher weight gain. 6. In this study, feeding 60% fermented feed manufactured with domestic agricultural by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste to Korean native goats have shown satisfactory results of intake and digestibility and it indicates that utilization of domestic agricultural by-products in goats could be improved by the process of fermentation. However it's effects on body weight gain and nitrogen retention were below than expected. Different sources of feedstuff for fermentation may result in different performances of animals. However, to draw overall conclusion from this study, 50∼60% of fermented feed can be recommended in the case of mixing with concentrates.

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A Rheological Study on Creep Behavior of Clays (점토(粘土)의 Creep 거동(擧動)에 관한 유변학적(流變學的) 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Chong Kue;Chung, In Joon
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.53-68
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    • 1981
  • Most clays under sustained load exhibit time-dependent deformation because of creep movement of soil particles and many investigators have attempted to relate their findings to the creep behavior of natural ground and to the long-term stability of slopes. Since the creep behavior of clays may assume a variety of forms depending on such factors as soil plasticity, activity and water content, it is difficult and complicated to analyse the creep behavior of clays. Rheological models composed of linear springs in combination with linear or nonlinear dashpots and sliders, are generally used for the mathematical description of the time-dependent behavior of soils. Most rheological models, however, have been proposed to simulate the behavior of secondary compression for saturated clays and few definitive data exist that can evaluate the behavior of non-saturated clays under the action of sustained stress. The clays change gradually from a solid state through plastic state to a liquid state with increasing water content, therefore, the rheological models also change. On the other hand, creep is time-dependent, and also the effect of thixotropy is time-function. Consequently, there may be certain correlations between creep behavior and the effects of thixotropy in compacted clays. In addition, the states of clay depend on water content and hence the height of the specimen under drained conditions. Futhermore, based on present and past studies, because immediate elastic deformation occurs instantly after the pressure increment without time-delayed behavior, the factor representing immediate elastic deformations in the rheological model is necessary. The investigation described in this paper, based on rheological model, is designed to identify the immediate elastic deformations and the effects of thixotropy and height of clay specimens with varing water content and stress level on creep deformations. For these purposes, the uniaxial drain-type creep tests were performed. Test results and data for three compacted clays have shown that a linear top spring is needed to account for immediate elastic deformations in the rheological model, and at lower water content below the visco-plastic limit, the effects of thixotropy and height of clay specimens can be represented by the proposed rheological model not considering the effects. Therefore, the rheological model does not necessitate the other factors representing these effects. On the other hand, at water content higher than the visco-plastic limit, although the state behavior of clays is visco-plastic or viscous flow at the beginning of the test, the state behavior, in the case of the lower height sample, does not represent the same behavior during the process of the test, because of rapid drainage. In these cases, the rheological model does not coincide with the model in the case of the higher specimens.

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Effects of Joining Coalition Loyalty Program : How the Brand affects Brand Loyalty Based on Brand Preference (브랜드 선호에 따라 제휴 로열티 프로그램 가입이 가맹점 브랜드 충성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhee, Jin-Hwa
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.87-115
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: In these days, a loyalty program is one of the most common marketing mechanisms (Lacey & Sneath, 2006; Nues & Dreze, 2006; Uncles et al., 20003). In recent years, Coalition Loyalty Program is more noticeable as one of progressed forms. In the past, loyalty program was operating independently by single product brand or single retail channel brand. Now, companies using Coalition Loyalty Program share their programs as one single service and companies to participate to this program continue to have benefits from their existing program as well as positive spillover effect from the other participating network companies. Instead of consumers to earn or spend points from single retail channel or brand, consumers will have more opportunities to utilize their points and be able to purchase other participating companies products. Issues that are related to form of loyalty programs are essentially connected with consumers' perceived view on convenience of using its program. This can be a problem for distribution companies' strategic marketing plan. Although Coalition Loyalty Program is popular corporate marketing strategy to most companies, only few researches have been published. However, compared to independent loyalty program, coalition loyalty program operated by third parties of partnership has following conditions: Companies cannot autonomously modify structures of program for individual companies' benefits, and there is no guarantee to operate and to participate its program continuously by signing a contract. Thus, it is important to conduct the study on how coalition loyalty program affects companies' success and its process as much as conducting the study on effects of independent program. This study will complement the lack of coalition loyalty program study. The purpose of this study is to find out how consumer loyalty affects affiliated brands, its cause and mechanism. The past study about loyalty program only provided the variation of performance analysis, but this study will specifically focus on causes of results. In order to do these, this study is designed and to verify three primary objects as following; First, based on opinions of Switching Barriers (Fornell, 1992; Ping, 1993; Jones, et at., 2000) about causes of loyalty of coalition brand, 'brand attractiveness' and 'brand switching cost' are antecedents and causes of change in 'brand loyalty' will be investigated. Second, influence of consumers' perception and attitude prior to joining coalition loyalty program, influence of program in retail brands, brand attractiveness and spillover effect of switching cost after joining coalition program will be verified. Finally, the study will apply 'prior brand preference' as a variable and will provide a relationship between effects of coalition loyalty program and prior preference level. Hypothesis Hypothesis 1. After joining coalition loyalty program, more preferred brand (compared to less preferred brand) will increase influence on brand attractiveness to brand loyalty. Hypothesis 2. After joining coalition loyalty program, less preferred brand (compared to more preferred brand) will increase influence on brand switching cost to brand loyalty. Hypothesis 3. (1)Brand attractiveness and (2)brand switching cost of more preferred brand (before joining the coalition loyalty program) will influence more positive effects from (1)program attractiveness and (2)program switching cost of coalition loyalty program (after joining) than less preferred brand. Hypothesis 4. After joining coalition loyalty program, (1)brand attractiveness and (2)brand switching cost of more preferred brand will receive more positive impacts from (1)program attractiveness and (2)program switching cost of coalition loyalty program than less preferred brand. Hypothesis 5. After joining coalition loyalty program, (1)brand attractiveness and (2)brand switching cost of more preferred brand will receive less impacts from (1)brand attractiveness and (2)brand switching cost of different brands (having different preference level), which joined simultaneously, than less preferred brand. Method : In order to validate hypotheses, this study will apply experimental method throughout virtual scenario of coalition loyalty program if consumers have used or available for the actual brands. The experiment is conducted twice to participants. In a first experiment, the study will provide six coalition brands which are already selected based on prior research. The survey asked each brand attractiveness, switching cost, and loyalty after they choose high preference brand and low preference brand. One hour break was provided prior to the second experiment. In a second experiment, virtual coalition loyalty program "SaveBag" was introduced to participants. Participants were informed that "SaveBag" will be new alliance with six coalition brands from the first experiment. Brand attractiveness and switching cost about coalition program were measured and brand attractiveness and switching cost of high preference brand and low preference brand were measured as same method of first experiment. Limitation and future research This study shows limitations of effects of coalition loyalty program by using virtual scenario instead of actual research. Thus, future study should compare and analyze CLP panel data to provide more in-depth information. In addition, this study only proved the effectiveness of coalition loyalty program. However, there are two types of loyalty program, which are Single and Coalition, and success of coalition loyalty program will be dependent on market brand power and prior customer attitude. Therefore, it will be interesting to compare effects of two programs in the future.

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The Roles of Service Failure and Recovery Satisfaction in Customer-Firm Relationship Restoration : Focusing on Carry-over effect and Dynamics among Customer Affection, Customer Trust and Loyalty Intention Before and After the Events (서비스실패의 심각성과 복구만족이 고객-기업 관계회복에 미치는 영향 : 실패이전과 복구이후 고객애정, 고객신뢰, 충성의도의 이월효과 및 역학관계 비교를 중심으로)

  • La, Sun-A
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-36
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    • 2012
  • Service failure is one of the major reasons for customer defection. As the business environment gets tougher and more competitive, a single service failure might bring about fatal consequences to a service provider or a firm. Sometimes a failure won't end up with an unsatisfied customer's simple complaining but with a wide-spread animosity against the service provider or the firm, leading to a threat to the firm's survival itself in the society. Therefore, we are in need of comprehensive understandings of complainants' attitudes and behaviors toward service failures and firm's recovery efforts. Even though a failure itself couldn't be fixed completely, marketers should repair the mind and heart of unsatisfied customers, which can be regarded as an successful recovery strategy in the end. As the outcome of recovery efforts exerted by service providers or firms, recovery of the relationship between customer and service provider need to put on the top in the recovery goal list. With these motivations, the study investigates how service failure and recovery makes the changes in dynamics of fundamental elements of customer-firm relationship, such as customer affection, customer trust and loyalty intention by comparing two time points, before the service failure and after the recovery, focusing on the effects of recovery satisfaction and the failure severity. We adopted La & Choi (2012)'s framework for development of the research model that was based on the previous research stream like Yim et al. (2008) and Thomson et al. (2005). The pivotal background theories of the model are mainly from relationship marketing and social relationships of social psychology. For example, Love, Emotional attachment, Intimacy, and Equity theories regarding human relationships were reviewed. As the results, when recovery satisfaction is high, customer affection and customer trust that were established before the service failure are carried over to the future after the recovery. However, when recovery satisfaction is low, customer-firm relationship that had already established in the past are not carried over but broken up. Regardless of the degree of recovery satisfaction, once a failure occurs loyalty intention is not carried over to the future and the impact of customer trust on loyalty intention becomes stronger. Such changes imply that customers become more prudent and more risk-aversive than the time prior to service failure. The impact of severity of failure on customer affection and customer trust matters only when recovery satisfaction is low. When recovery satisfaction is high, customer affection and customer trust become severity-proof. Interestingly, regardless of the degree of recovery satisfaction, failure severity has a significant negative influence on loyalty intention. Loyalty intention is the most fragile target when a service failure occurs no matter how severe the failure criticality is. Consequently, the ultimate goal of service recovery should be the restoration of customer-firm relationship and recovery of customer trust should be the primary objective to accomplish for a successful recovery performance. Especially when failure severity is high, service recovery should be perceived highly satisfied by the complainants because failure severity matters more when recovery satisfaction is low. Marketers can implement recovery strategies to enhance emotional appeals as well as fair treatments since the both impacts of affection and trust on loyalty intention are significant. In the case of high severity of failure, recovery efforts should be exerted to overreach customer expectation, designed to directly repair customer trust and elaborately designed in the focus of customer-firm communications during the interactional recovery process to affect customer trust rebuilding indirectly. Because it is a longer and harder way to rebuild customer-firm relationship for high severity cases, low recovery satisfaction cannot guarantee customer retention. To prevent customer defection due to service failure of high severity, unexpected rewards as a recovery will be likely to be useful since those will lead to customer delight or customer gratitude toward the service firm. Based on the results of analyses, theoretical and managerial implications are presented. Limitations and future research ideas are also discussed.

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Studies on the Nutritional Effects of Locally Produced Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk -1. Comparative Studies on the Nutrients Content of Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk- (국산(國産) 조제분유(調製粉乳)와 발효유(醱酵乳)의 영양효과(營養效果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 1. 유제품(乳製品)의 영양소(營養素) 함량비교(含量比較)를 위한 연구(硏究) -)

  • Paik, Jeong-J.;Han, In-K.
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 1976
  • Chemical determination were made to analyze the concentration of nutrients including proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids in three kinds of locally produced infantile formula milk(DFM) and one fermented milk(FM). An attempt was also made to compare the analytical values of nutrients against guaranteed values. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The analyzed value of protein and fat content in DFM-A.B.C was slightly lower than that of guaranteed values and a reverse trend was observed in the case of total carbohydrate. There were no differences in proximate composition among the three kinds of DFM. It was found that the FM contained less protein and fat than the fresh milk, but it seemed that a considerable amount of sugar was added to FM. 2. The analyzed values of vitamin $A(2{\sim}3\;times)$ and $E(4{\sim}6\;times)$ contents in DFMS were higher than those of the guaranteed values except niacin. There were a little differences in vitamin contents among DFMS analyzed. 3. In the case of minerals, the analyzed values were similar to the guaranteed values except the calcium concentration that analyzed value was much higher than guaranted value. When the DFMS were diluted to 15% by adding water to compare with the human and fresh cow milk, it was found that the diluted DFMS resembled the human milk rather than cow milk in the content of energy, carbohydrates, protein and ash. The higher contents of iron and most vitamins in the diluted DFMS than the human milk or cow milk would indicate that they were fortificated with these nutrients. When these diluted DFMS were compared with the Korean R.D.A. for infant, it was clear that they could supply sufficient amount of the nutrients required by R.D.A. except the niacin which failed to reach the recommended level. The fact that iron content of DFM-C was not sufficient while vitamin A supply was excessive by 6 fold would indicate that further studies for the improvement may be necessary. 4. There was a little difference among DFMS in amino acid composition. The similarity of the essential amino acids composition between DFMS and cow milk indicated that there was no modification of the essential amino acids. However, present data showed that the amino acid compositon of FM was similar to that of the cow milk. 5. There was no difference among DFMS in the degree of saturation of fatty acids. The similar or higher levels of essential fatty acids contents of DFMS as compared with human milk revealed that essential fatty acids were added to DFMS during the course of process. From the experimental results described above, it may be concluded that the nutritive effects of three kinds of locally produced DFMS were much alike. It was also found that macro and micro nutrient composition except amino acid composition of locally produced dried formula milk was very much similar to that of the human milk. Moreover, fortification of iron and vitamins resulted in improving their nutritive values as the single form of infantile food, but it seemed that more consideration should be given on the fortification of some nutrients.

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Performance Analysis of Frequent Pattern Mining with Multiple Minimum Supports (다중 최소 임계치 기반 빈발 패턴 마이닝의 성능분석)

  • Ryang, Heungmo;Yun, Unil
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2013
  • Data mining techniques are used to find important and meaningful information from huge databases, and pattern mining is one of the significant data mining techniques. Pattern mining is a method of discovering useful patterns from the huge databases. Frequent pattern mining which is one of the pattern mining extracts patterns having higher frequencies than a minimum support threshold from databases, and the patterns are called frequent patterns. Traditional frequent pattern mining is based on a single minimum support threshold for the whole database to perform mining frequent patterns. This single support model implicitly supposes that all of the items in the database have the same nature. In real world applications, however, each item in databases can have relative characteristics, and thus an appropriate pattern mining technique which reflects the characteristics is required. In the framework of frequent pattern mining, where the natures of items are not considered, it needs to set the single minimum support threshold to a too low value for mining patterns containing rare items. It leads to too many patterns including meaningless items though. In contrast, we cannot mine any pattern if a too high threshold is used. This dilemma is called the rare item problem. To solve this problem, the initial researches proposed approximate approaches which split data into several groups according to item frequencies or group related rare items. However, these methods cannot find all of the frequent patterns including rare frequent patterns due to being based on approximate techniques. Hence, pattern mining model with multiple minimum supports is proposed in order to solve the rare item problem. In the model, each item has a corresponding minimum support threshold, called MIS (Minimum Item Support), and it is calculated based on item frequencies in databases. The multiple minimum supports model finds all of the rare frequent patterns without generating meaningless patterns and losing significant patterns by applying the MIS. Meanwhile, candidate patterns are extracted during a process of mining frequent patterns, and the only single minimum support is compared with frequencies of the candidate patterns in the single minimum support model. Therefore, the characteristics of items consist of the candidate patterns are not reflected. In addition, the rare item problem occurs in the model. In order to address this issue in the multiple minimum supports model, the minimum MIS value among all of the values of items in a candidate pattern is used as a minimum support threshold with respect to the candidate pattern for considering its characteristics. For efficiently mining frequent patterns including rare frequent patterns by adopting the above concept, tree based algorithms of the multiple minimum supports model sort items in a tree according to MIS descending order in contrast to those of the single minimum support model, where the items are ordered in frequency descending order. In this paper, we study the characteristics of the frequent pattern mining based on multiple minimum supports and conduct performance evaluation with a general frequent pattern mining algorithm in terms of runtime, memory usage, and scalability. Experimental results show that the multiple minimum supports based algorithm outperforms the single minimum support based one and demands more memory usage for MIS information. Moreover, the compared algorithms have a good scalability in the results.

The Patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes from used Litter Stockpile from Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) (사용한 한우 깔짚에서 배출되는 CH4 및 N2O의 배출 특성)

  • Park, Kyu-Hyun;Choi, Dong-Yoon;Yoo, Yong-Hee
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to measure methane ($CH_4$) and nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) emissions from the 6 month old litter stockpile used for korean native cattle (Hanwoo) from August 3, 2007 to October 4, 2007. Daily mean $CH_4$ emissions was peaked to 273.013 ${\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ (SE : ${\pm}1.047{\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$) on first day and then gradually decreased to 2.309 ${\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ (SE : ${\pm}0.061{\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$) at the end of this experiment. Daily mean $N_2O$ emissions was as little as 0.269 ${\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ (SE : ${\pm}0.018{\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$) on first day, but exponentially increased up to 3.569 ${\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ (SE : ${\pm}0.454{\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$) on 43rd day and then slowly decreased to 1.888 ${\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ (SE : ${\pm}0.012{\mu}g\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1}$) at the end of this experiment. Carbon dioxide equivalent ($CO_2$-eq), calculated by global warming potentials of $CH_4$ or $N_2O$, of $CH_4$ on first day occupied approximately 99% of sum of $CO_2$-eq of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$. Methane emissions decreased and $N_2O$ emissions increased so that $CO_2$-eq ratio of $CH_4$ to $N_2O$ was 50:50 on 34th day. The effect of $N_2O$ on the ratio was increase thereafter. The ratio of daily mean $CH_4$ and $N_2O$ emissions to daily error of the mean was calculated to find daily fluctuation of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$ emissions. The ratio of $CH_4$ was less than 1.0% till 11th day but increased to 10.9% on 57th day. The ratio of $N_2O$ (0.4%~51.0%) was higher than that of $CH_4$, showing high in early stage and then gradually decrease, which was different from the pattern of $CH_4$. The ratio of daily mean emissions to daily error of the mean was little in case of active $CH_4$ or $N_2O$ generation period, which would be caused by the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of composting process. Hence more air supply on early stage to decrease $CH_4$ generation and proper turning to reduce spatial heterogeneity are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Application of MicroPACS Using the Open Source (Open Source를 이용한 MicroPACS의 구성과 활용)

  • You, Yeon-Wook;Kim, Yong-Keun;Kim, Yeong-Seok;Won, Woo-Jae;Kim, Tae-Sung;Kim, Seok-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Recently, most hospitals are introducing the PACS system and use of the system continues to expand. But small-scaled PACS called MicroPACS has already been in use through open source programs. The aim of this study is to prove utility of operating a MicroPACS, as a substitute back-up device for conventional storage media like CDs and DVDs, in addition to the full-PACS already in use. This study contains the way of setting up a MicroPACS with open source programs and assessment of its storage capability, stability, compatibility and performance of operations such as "retrieve", "query". Materials and Methods: 1. To start with, we searched open source software to correspond with the following standards to establish MicroPACS, (1) It must be available in Windows Operating System. (2) It must be free ware. (3) It must be compatible with PET/CT scanner. (4) It must be easy to use. (5) It must not be limited of storage capacity. (6) It must have DICOM supporting. 2. (1) To evaluate availability of data storage, we compared the time spent to back up data in the open source software with the optical discs (CDs and DVD-RAMs), and we also compared the time needed to retrieve data with the system and with optical discs respectively. (2) To estimate work efficiency, we measured the time spent to find data in CDs, DVD-RAMs and MicroPACS. 7 technologists participated in this study. 3. In order to evaluate stability of the software, we examined whether there is a data loss during the system is maintained for a year. Comparison object; How many errors occurred in randomly selected data of 500 CDs. Result: 1. We chose the Conquest DICOM Server among 11 open source software used MySQL as a database management system. 2. (1) Comparison of back up and retrieval time (min) showed the result of the following: DVD-RAM (5.13,2.26)/Conquest DICOM Server (1.49,1.19) by GE DSTE (p<0.001), CD (6.12,3.61)/Conquest (0.82,2.23) by GE DLS (p<0.001), CD (5.88,3.25)/Conquest (1.05,2.06) by SIEMENS. (2) The wasted time (sec) to find some data is as follows: CD ($156{\pm}46$), DVD-RAM ($115{\pm}21$) and Conquest DICOM Server ($13{\pm}6$). 3. There was no data loss (0%) for a year and it was stored 12741 PET/CT studies in 1.81 TB memory. In case of CDs, On the other hand, 14 errors among 500 CDs (2.8%) is generated. Conclusions: We found that MicroPACS could be set up with the open source software and its performance was excellent. The system built with open source proved more efficient and more robust than back-up process using CDs or DVD-RAMs. We believe that the operation of the MicroPACS would be effective data storage device as long as its operators develop and systematize it.

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