• Title/Summary/Keyword: Policy Leverage

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Exploring MNC - Startup Symbiotic Relationship in an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

  • Loganathan, Muralidharan
    • Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.131-149
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    • 2018
  • Multinational corporations (MNCs) leverage global locations for efficient production and sustained growth, and move significant foreign direct investments globally, particularly into emerging economies. MNCs also engage in entrepreneurial ecosystems of host countries for strategic benefits and impact the ecosystem as well. Of late, MNCs are increasingly entering into emerging economies like India through foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and they are playing a vital role in start-up promotion in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Therefore, we examine the role of MNCs and its impact on the entrepreneurial ecosystems in India by exploring a symbiotic relationship between MNCs and startups. We use a case-based method to ascertain and analyze specific benefits that emerge from such symbiotic relationships and draw implications for startups in India's technology entrepreneurial ecosystem.

A Structural Analysis between Overseas Opening of Geospatial Information and the Promotion of Geospatial Information Industry Using the Systems Thinking (시스템 사고를 통한 지도데이터 국외개방과 공간정보 산업 활성화간 인과구조 분석)

  • Yi, Mi Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 2018
  • South Korea has been reluctant to open its geospatial information overseas to ensure security as a divided country. However, this cannot continue as the domestic and international environments related to geospatial information and the industrial ecosystem of information and communication technologies have been changing dramatically. Within this context, this study aims to analyze the causal relations among relevant variables and how they change and interact with time using a systems thinking process. First, causal maps were created for the domains of national security, map-based convergence service, and corporate competition. Then, the causal maps for each domain were integrated, based on which the points for policy intervention and dominant feedback loops were identified. The analysis results showed that securing the self-sufficiency of domestic geospatial businesses is a key element to determine the whole causal map, and the variable that changes the dominant feedback loop from a vicious circle to a virtuous one is the decision to open geospatial information overseas. In this study, I found the policy leverage that is a policy intervention point that can produce a great effect with little input by building a causal map of the interactions between major variables. This study is significant in that it identified and analyzed the dominant feedback loop as to which causal structure would dominate the system in the long term. The results of this study can be used to discuss not only the impacts of map data overseas opening on the national security and geospatial information industry, but also the interactions in the future when Google or other global companies request to release the geospatial information.

Regional Strategic Industry (RSI) Promotion Projects and Their Impact on Regional Economic Growth: Focused on Chungbuk Province Cases (지역전략산업육성사업과 지역경제성장 파급효과: 충북 사례를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Nam-Hee;Jo, Byung-Seol;Ahn, Yoo-Jeong;Lee, Man-Hyung
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.5-29
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    • 2013
  • This study tries to measure the direct and indirect effects of the Regional Strategic Industry (RSI) promotion projects in Chungbuk Province in Korea. In specific, it critically examines whether there exists policy consistency and connectivity between the hardware-oriented Stage I (2002~2007) and the software-centered Stage II (2008~2012) RSI promotion projects. Applying System Dynamics (SD) techniques, this study examines complex system characteristics of RSI promotion projects, all of which have been derived from the causal and stock-flow models and their simulated results. Major findings are as follows: Firstly, 'the continuous investment' is regarded as the most crucial policy leverage for the strategic industry promotion and regional economic growth. Secondly, without exceptions, the RSI promotion projects should switch their evaluation criteria to performance-oriented ones. Thirdly, in selecting their subprojects, the RSI promotion projects should pay due attention to evaluating technology value and marketability. Fourthly, it should put policy priority in strengthening cluster networking and interconnectivity among projects, inevitably supporting a selective number of virtuous network systems. Fifthly, auxiliary projects such as marketing, technology aid, and knowledge-based services should not be overlooked.

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Smart Specialisation Strategy and the Role of Strong Clusters: As a Development Leverage in Asia

  • Anastasopoulos, Despina;Brochler, Raimund;Kalentzis, Arion Louis
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.102-112
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    • 2017
  • In this increasingly globalised and rapidly-changing world, the various challenges that can arise are also increasingly globalised and complex. These may range from economic, environmental, societal or even demographic challenges. Solutions should therefore be applicable world-wide, but they need to be properly adapted to the specifications and needs at the regional and country level. This implies that past models of centralised innovation can be progressively substituted by new approaches based on openness and strategic collaboration between the various players involved. There are various models of openness and collaboration in research, development and innovation creating scientific networks at different levels. This paper is designed in a way to present the concept of smart specialisation and clusters and how they are linked and contribute to the support of Smart Specialisation Strategy in the Asian countries. The following paragraphs describe how smart specialisation is applied and the importance of clusters in developing a S3 strategy. In addition, the status of cluster policies in Asia as well as the steps towards S3 are also presented. The status of cluster policies and their steps towards S3 policies in Asia are described. The approach of China to adopt S3 in their R&I policy is also presented. The scope of this paper, is to demonstrate the policy framework of cluster and S3 policies in the region of Asia and how they are applied. China has been further analysed as a case, since they are more active in applying such policies.

The Impact of Monetary Policy on Household Debt in China

  • CANAKCI, Mehmet
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.653-663
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    • 2021
  • There has been a massive increase in household debt in China, especially in the last five of years. Learning from past experiences, the country needs careful forecasting that may help to form new policies or make amendments to the existing ones. This research paper aims to highlight the impact of the monetary policy on household debt in China. The study covers the time period from 1996 to 2020 The study employs a cointegration test, Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bound Test (ARDL) approach, a Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) and PP test (PMG) and time series data. The findings suggest on a quantitative analysis using a time-series model in which gdp per capita and interest rate has a positive impact on household debt whereas, cpi doesn't have significant impact. In a short-term variables relationship, household debt responds more to an increase in income than in the long-term. Also, the impact of interest rate changes on household debt is lower than income in the short run.The research suggests that there should be some restrictions on household debt and consumer financing provided to citizens and for this, appropriate leverage measures should be taken in order for the central bank to sustain robust macroeconomic conditions.

The effect of recapitalization on capital structure decision and corporate value in Korean Firms (한국기업의 자본재조정이 자본구조 의사결정과 기업가치에 미치는 영향분석)

  • Kim, Jooyul;Kim, Dongwook;Kim, Byounggon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzed how Korean firms' recapitalization affects their capital structure decision and firm value. Recapitalization was categorized into three groups according to the influence of the debt to equity ratio: debt ratio-increasing-recapitalization(capital reduction with refund, cash dividend), debt ratio-unchanging-recapitalization (capital reduction without refund, retirement of repurchased stocks), and debt ratio-decreasing-recapitalization(exercise the rights for convertible bonds, bond with stock warrants, exchangeable bonds and stock options). This article highlights how the relationship between the firms' recapitalization and the capital structure decision driven by the change in debt to equity ratio through the recapitalization should affect the firm value. The whole recapitalization sample used for this analysis comprised 22,814 enterprises listed on the Korea Exchange that were analyzed over the 16-year period from 2000 to 2015. To summarize the results of this Panel Data Analysis, firstly, when a firm executes debt ratio-increasing-recapitalization and debt ratio-decreasing-recapitalization at the period of t-1, the debt to equity ratio, which is increased or decreased, should affect the firm's debt capacity in the same period, then, at the period of t, the firm establishes a leverage policy to readjust the debt to equity ratio the other way around. These adjustments of debt-paying-ability from the leverage policy, including the capital structure decision, finally affect the firm value. Secondly, when a firm implements the debt ratio-unchanging-recapitalization in the period of t-1, the debt to equity ratio, which is neutral, should not affect the firm's capital structure decision. But, the firm value is positively affected by the influence of that recapitalization. Conclusively, we acknowledge a firm which carries out the recapitalization balances its capital structure to the optimal level of leverage and that the capital structure decision positively affects the corporate value.

Small Business Innovation Research Program in the United States: A Political Review and Implications for East Asian Countries

  • Ryu, Youngbok
    • STI Policy Review
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.54-86
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    • 2015
  • The study examines the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, with a focus on the recent Reauthorization, and compares, in the political context, the U.S. and East Asian countries-Japan, Korea and Taiwan-that adopted the U.S. SBIR program. For the systematic analysis and cross-country comparison, the study employs Kingdon (2003)'s framework-his political theory and Garbage Can Model-to identify political participants and processes underlying the SBIR Reauthorization and to analyze the differences in problem, policy, and politics streams between the U.S. and East Asian countries. For the cross-country comparison, specifically, the study uses various data sources such as OECD, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, and World Value Survey. Based on the analysis outcomes, implications of U.S. practices on East Asian countries are extracted as follows. East Asian countries tend to: Have higher entrepreneurial aspiration while lower entrepreneurial activity and attitude than the U.S.; bear higher long term orientation and uncertainty avoidance while lower individualism than the U.S.; and have greater expectations of technology development and higher confidence in political parties while participating less in political action than the U.S. Drawing on the differences, the following policy recommendations are suggested. East Asian countries should: Improve entrepreneurs' access to resources (in particular, financial resource) in order to link their high entrepreneurial aspiration to actual entrepreneurial activities; cultivate failure-tolerating culture and risk-taking entrepreneurs, for instance, by providing a second chance to SBIR-participating businesses that failed to materialize their innovative ideas; and leverage their high expectations of new technology in order to take bold actions regarding their SBIR programs, and update the programs by drawing out constructive dialogues between SBIR stakeholders.

Influences and International Political Implications of the Shale gas Revolution (셰일가스 혁명의 파급영향과 국제정치적 함의 - 에너지 안보를 중심으로 -)

  • Suh, Dong-Joo
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.26-57
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    • 2014
  • Revolution of Shale gas literally brings about great changes in many spheres. In the past most academic research had been focused on the influence and innovative change in term of economic perspective. But nowadays we should more concern about the security approach and perspective as its status of the future's core energy resources. Revolution of Shale gas has an great influence on the reshaping of global and regional alliance order. There are many international political implications as follows. Contribution of energy hegemony with leading U.S.; Acting as strategic leverage on the reshaping international order; Deepening competition among major states on the construction of energy security and so on. We'd better make a good solution and systematic policies which are preparing for the Shale gas's revolution period including on the understanding about the change on the global energy structure and making a national policy agenda of energy security issues and so on. The thesis like 'to get the energy resources is to get the hegemonic power in the world' will persist. The same holds good of Shale gas case. To meet the revolution of shale gas era, we have important tasks as like making an opportunity to develope not only regional but also international prosperity.

Why Security Awareness Education is not Effective? (정보보안 인식 교육의 효과에 대한 연구)

  • Yim, Myung-Seong
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2014
  • While organizations are making a considerable effort to leverage formal and informal control mechanisms (e.g., policies, procedures, organizational culture) to improve security, their impact and effectiveness is under scrutiny as employees seldom comply with information security procedures. The best way to ensure the viability of a security policy is to make sure users understand it and accept necessary precautions. From an organization's perspective, a lack of security knowledge and awareness on the part of employees is a major problem. However, previous studies suggest that effect of security awareness education is inconsistent. Thus, this study is to find the answer why security awareness education is not effective. Conclusions and implications are discussed.

A Research on the Prospect for the Future Energy Society in Korea: Focused on the Complementary Analysis of AHP and Causal Loop Diagram (한국의 미래 에너지사회 전망에 관한 연구 : 계층분석법과 인과지도의 보완적 분석을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Byung-Yong;Choi, Han-Lim;Ahn, Nam-Sung
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.61-86
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    • 2010
  • This research analyzed on the future energy society of Korea in 2030 using system thinking approach. Key uncertainty factors determining the future energy society were analyzed in a multi disciplinary view point such as politics, economy, society, ecology and technology. Three causal loop diagrams for the future energy system in Korea and related policy leverages were shown as well. 'Global economic trends', 'change of industrial structure' and 'energy price' were identified as key uncertainty factors determining the Korean energy future. Three causal loop diagrams named as 'rate of energy self-sufficiency and alternative energy production', 'economic activity and energy demand' and 'Excavation of new growth engines' were developed. We integrated those causal loop diagrams into one to understand the entire energy system of the future, proposed three strategic scenarios(optimistic, pessimistic and most likely) and discussed implications and limits of this research.

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