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Effect of Supplementary Actinomycetes (Nocardia sp. CS682) Ferment on the Laying Performance, Blood Parameters, Immunoglobulin and Small Intestinal Microflora Contents in Laying Hens (방선균(Nocardia sp. CS682) 발효물의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 혈액성상, 면역글로불린 및 소장내 미생물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhee, Ah-Reum;Shin, Dong-Hun;Kim, Chan-Ho;Jung, Byoung-Yun;Yoo, Jin-Chul;Hong, Young-Ho;Paik, In-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of CS682, a fermentation product of Actinomycetae(Nocardia sp. CS682), and its commercial product DSC682$^{(R)}$ on the performance, blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response in laying hens. Hy-Line Brown$^{(R)}$ laying hens were housed in two bird cages. Feeding trial lasted 5 wk under 16.5 h:7.5 h(L:D) lighting regimen. In Exp.1, a total of 480 birds of 86 wk old were assigned to four dietary treatments: Control, Antibiotics (6 ppm avilamycin), CS682-0.1 (CS682 0.1%) and CS682-1.0 (CS682 1.0% supplementation). Each treatment was replicated five times with 24 birds (or 12 cages) per replication. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,000 birds of 26 wk old were assigned to five dietary treatments: Control, Antibiotics (6 ppm avilamycin), DCS682-0.05 (DCS682 0.05%), DCS682-0.1 (DCS682 0.1%), DCS682-0.2 (DCS682 0.2% supplementation). Each treatment was replicated five times with 40 birds (or 20 cages) per replication. In Exp. 1, there were no significant differences among treatments in egg production, egg weight, broken & soft egg production, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Also, there were no significant differences among treatments in eggshell thickness, eggshell color and Haugh unit. However, eggshell strength was significantly (p<0.05) greater in CS682 and Antibiotics treatments than Control, and egg yolk color was significantly (p<0.05) higher in CS682-1.0 than Control. In Exp. 2, feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) lower in DSC682-0.05 than Control. Lightness(L) of Hunter Lab color of eggshell of DCS and Antibiotics treatments was significantly (p<0.05) lower than Control. Egg yolk color of DCS 0.1 and 0.2 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Control. Haugh unit increased significantly (p<0.05) in Antibiotics and DCS682-0.1 treatments. The immunoglobulin levels of plasma (IgG and IgA) and eggyolk (IgY) were not significantly affected by treatments. Antibiotics and CS682 or DCS682 treatments significantly (p<0.05 or 0.01) influenced some of the erythrocytes and leukocytes parameters in blood. In Exp.1, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) decreased by CS682 treatments and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) was highest in Antibiotics treatments. In Exp.2, the level of monocyte (MO) decreased in DCS682-0.10 and 0.20 treatments. The cfu of C. perfringens and S. typhimurium in small intestinal content were highest in Control and lowest in Antibiotics in both experiments. In Exp. 2, DSC682-0.05 and -0.1 treatments were highest and Antibiotic treatment was lowest in Lactobacilli spp. The results of the present layer experiments indicated that supplementation of 0.1~0.2% CS682 or DCS682 may increase eggshell strength, color of eggshell and eggyolk, Haugh unit, and control harmful intestinal microbes.

The Influences of Perfusion Temperature on Inflammatory and Hematologic Responses during Cardiopulmonary Bypass (체외순환시 염증과 혈액학적 반응에 대한 관류온도의 영향)

  • 김상필;최석철;박동욱;한일용;이양행;조광현;황윤호
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.817-826
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    • 2004
  • Background: Several studies have demonstrated that conventional hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes cellular injury, abnormal responses in peripheral vascular beds and increased postoperative bleeding, whereas normothermic CPB provides protection of the hypothermic-induced effects and better cardiac recovery. The present study was prospectively performed to compare the effects of normothermic CPB to those of hypothermic CPB on the inflammatory and hematologic responses during cardiac surgery. Material and Method: Thirty-four adult patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to hypothermic CPB (nasopharyngeal temperature $26~28^{\circ}C,$ n=17) or normothermic CPB (nasopharyngeal $temperature>35.5^{\circ}C,$ n=17) group. In both groups, cold $(4^{\circ}C)$ crystalloid cardioplegia was applied for myocardial protection. Blood samples were drawn from radial artery before (Pre-CPB), 10 minutes after starting (CPB-10) and immediately after ending (CPB-OFF) CPB. Total leukocyte and platelet counts, interleukin-6 (IL-6) level(expressed as percent to the baseline of Pre-CPB), D-dimer level, protein C and protein S activity were measured with the blood samples. The amount of bleeding for postoperative 24 hours and blood transfusion after operation were also assessed. All parameters were compared between the two groups. Result: The total leukocyte counts $(10,032\pm65/mm^3)$ and the increased ratio of IL-6 $(353\pm7.0%)$ at CPB-OFF in the normothermic group were higher than that $(7,254\pm48/mm^3$ and $298\pm7.3%)$ of the hypothermic group(p=0.02 and p=0.03). In the normothermic group, protein C activity $(32\pm3.8%)$ and protein S activity $(35\pm4.1%)$ at CPB-OFF were significantly lower than that $(45\pm4.3%$ and $51\pm3.8%)$ of the hypothermic group (p=0.04 and p=0.009). However, there were no differences in platelet counts and D-dimer concentration. In the normothermic group, the amount of bleeding for postoperative 24 hours $(850\pm23.2$ mL) and requirements for blood transfusion after operation such as packed cell $(1,402\pm20.5$ mL), fresh frozen plasma $(970\pm20.8$ mL) and platelet $(252\pm6.4$ mL) were higher than that $(530\pm21.5$ mL, $696\pm15.7$ mL, $603\pm18.2$ mL and $50\pm0.0$ mL) of the hypothermic group. Conclusion: These results indicate that normothermic CPB with cold crystalloid cardioplegia was associated with higher increase in inflammatory response, hemostatic abnormalities and postoperative bleeding problem than moderate hypothermic CPB.

Application of a Single-pulsatile Extracorporeal Life Support System for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation -An experimental study - (단일 박동형 생명구조장치의 인공폐 적용 -실험연구-)

  • Kim, Tae-Sik;Sun, Kyung;Lee, Kyu-Baek;Park, Sung-Young;Hwang, Jae-Joon;Son, Ho-Sung;Kim, Kwang-Taik;Kim. Hyoung-Mook
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2004
  • Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system is a device for respiratory and/or heart failure treatment, and there have been many trials for development and clinical application in the world. Currently, a non-pulsatile blood pump is a standard for ECLS system. Although a pulsatile blood pump is advantageous in physiologic aspects, high pressure generated in the circuits and resultant blood cell trauma remain major concerns which make one reluctant to use a pulsatile blood pump in artificial lung circuits containing a membrane oxygenator. The study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that placement of a pressure-relieving compliance chamber between a pulsatile pump and a membrane oxygenator might reduce the above mentioned side effects while providing physiologic pulsatile blood flow. The study was performed in a canine model of oleic acid induced acute lung injury (N=16). The animals were divided into three groups according to the type of pump used and the presence of the compliance chamber, In group 1, a non-pulsatile centrifugal pump was used as a control (n=6). In group 2 (n=4), a single-pulsatile pump was used. In group 3 (n=6), a single-pulsatile pump equipped with a compliance chamber was used. The experimental model was a partial bypass between the right atrium and the aorta at a pump flow of 1.8∼2 L/min for 2 hours. The observed parameters were focused on hemodynamic changes, intra-circuit pressure, laboratory studies for blood profile, and the effect on blood cell trauma. In hemodynamics, the pulsatile group II & III generated higher arterial pulse pressure (47$\pm$ 10 and 41 $\pm$ 9 mmHg) than the nonpulsatile group 1 (17 $\pm$ 7 mmHg, p<0.001). The intra-circuit pressure at membrane oxygenator were 222 $\pm$ 8 mmHg in group 1, 739 $\pm$ 35 mmHg in group 2, and 470 $\pm$ 17 mmHg in group 3 (p<0.001). At 2 hour bypass, arterial oxygen partial pressures were significantly higher in the pulsatile group 2 & 3 than in the non-pulsatile group 1 (77 $\pm$ 41 mmHg in group 1, 96 $\pm$ 48 mmHg in group 2, and 97 $\pm$ 25 mmHg in group 3: p<0.05). The levels of plasma free hemoglobin which was an indicator of blood cell trauma were lowest in group 1, highest in group 2, and significantly decreased in group 3 (55.7 $\pm$ 43.3, 162.8 $\pm$ 113.6, 82.5 $\pm$ 25.1 mg%, respectively; p<0.05). Other laboratory findings for blood profile were not different. The above results imply that the pulsatile blood pump is beneficial in oxygenation while deleterious in the aspects to high pressure generation in the circuits and blood cell trauma. However, when a pressure-relieving compliance chamber is applied between the pulsatile pump and a membrane oxygenator, it can significantly reduce the high circuit pressure and result in low blood cell trauma.

The Comparative Study of on Pump CABG during Pulsatile $(T-PLS^{TM})$ and Nonpulsatile $(Bio-pump^{TM})$ Perfusion (관상동맥우회술 시 사용된 박동성펌프$(T-PLS^{TM})$와 비박동성펌프$(Bio-pump^{TM})$의 비교연구)

  • Park Young-Woo;Her Keun;Lim Jae-Ung;Shin Hwa-Kyun;Won Yong-Soon
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.354-358
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    • 2006
  • Background: Pulsatile pumps for extracorporeal circulation have been known to be better for tissue perfusion than non-pulsatile pumps but be detrimental to blood corpuscles. This study is intended to examine the risks and benefits of $T-PLS^{TM}$ through the comparison of clinical effects of $T-PLS^{TM}$ (pulsatile pump) and $Bio-pump^{TM}$ (non-pulsatile pump) used for coronary bypass surgery. Material and Method: The comparison was made on 40 patients who had coronary bypass using $T-PLS^{TM}\;and\;Bio-pump^{TM}$ (20 patients for each) from April 2003 to June 2005. All of the surgeries were operated on pump beating coronary artery bypass graft using cardiopulmonary extra-corporeal circulation. Risk factors before surgery and the condition during surgery and the results were compared. Result: There was no significant difference in age, gender ratio, and risk factors before surgery such as history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary infarction, and renal failure between the two groups. Surgery duration, hours of heart-lung machine operation, used shunt and grafted coronary branch were little different between the two groups. The two groups had a similar level of systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure, but pulse pressure was measured higher in the group with $T-PLS^{TM}\;(46{\pm}15\;mmHg\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;vs\;35{\pm}13\;mmHg\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p<0.05)$. The $T-PLS^{TM}$-operated patients tended to produce more urine volume during surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant $(9.7{\pm}3.9\;cc/min\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;vs\;8.9{\pm}3.6\;cc/min\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p=0.20)$. There was no significant difference in mean duration of respirator usage and 24-hour blood loss after surgery between the two groups. Plasma free Hb was measured lower in the group with $T-PLS^{TM}\;(24.5{\pm}21.7\;mg/dL\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;versus\;46.8{\pm}23.0mg/dL\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p<0.05)$. There was no significant difference in coronary infarction, arrhythmia, renal failure and morbidity rate of cerebrovascular disease. There was a case of death after surgery (death rate of 5%) in the group tested with $T-PLS^{TM}$, but the death rate was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Coronary bypass was operated with $T-PLS^{TM}$ (Pulsatile flow pump) using a heart-lung machine. There was no unexpected event caused by mechanical error during surgery, and the clinical process of the surgery was the same as the surgery for which $Bio-pump^{TM}$ was used. In addition, $T-PLS^{TM}$ used surgery was found to be less detrimental to blood corpuscles than the pulsatile flow has been known to be. Authors of this study could confirm the safety of $T-PLS^{TM}$.

Effect of Exercise on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Skeletal Muscle and Liver in STZ-diabetic Rats (STZ-당뇨쥐에서 운동부하가 골격근 및 간의 항산화효소 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Seok, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Suck-Kang
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2000
  • Background: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, super oxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GPX) and catalase(CAT) of skeletal muscle(gastrocnemius) and liver in streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats. The malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration was also measured as an index of lipid poroxidation of tho tissues by exercise-induced oxidative stresses in diabetic rats. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ in citrate buffer solution was injected twice at S days intervals intraperitoneally(50, 70 mg/kg respectively). On the 28th day after the first STZ injection, the diabetic animals were randomly divided into pre- and post-exercise groups, The exercise was introduced to the rats of post-exercise group by treadmill running until exhaution with moderate intensity ($V_{O2max}$: 50-70%) of exercise. The duration of average running time was 2 hours and 19 minutes. Results: The blood glucose concentration was increased(p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentration was decreased(p<0.001) in the diabetic rats. The glycogen concentration in the muscle and liver was decreased by exhaustive exercise in the diabetic rats(p<0.001), In the skeletal muscle, the activities of GPX was increased(p<0.05) and the activities of SOD and CAT were not changed in the diabetic rats compare to those of the control rats. The activities of GPX was not changed by exercise but the activities of SOD(p<0.01) and CAT(p<0.01) were decreased by exercise in the diabetic rats, The concentration of MDA was not changed by exercise in diabetic rats, and the values of pre-exercise and post-exercise diabetic rats were not different from the value those of control rats, In the liver, the activities of SOD was decreased(p<0.01), and the activities of GPX and CAT were not changed in diabetic rats compared to the values of control rats, The activities of SOD, GPX and CAT were not changed by exercise in diabetic rats but the activity of SOD seemed to decrease slightly, The MDA concentration was increased in the diabetic rats compared to the values of control rats(p<0.001), but there was no change of MDA concentration by exercise in diabetic rats, Conclusions: In summary, exhaustive physical exercise did not seem to impose oxidative stress on the skeletal muscle because of due to oxygen free radicals, regardless of the decrease in SOD and CAT in the diabetic rats, In liver tissue, the tissue damage by oxidative stress was observed in diabetic rats but the additional tissue damage by exhaustive physical exercise was not observed.

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The Effect of Structured Information on the Sleep Amount of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery (계획된 간호 정보가 수면량에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 -개심술 환자를 중심으로-)

  • 이소우
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 1982
  • The main purpose of this study was to test the effect of the structured information on the sleep amount of the patients undergoing open heart surgery. This study has specifically addressed to the Following two basic research questions: (1) Would the structed in formation influence in the reduction of sleep disturbance related to anxiety and Physical stress before and after the operation? and (2) that would be the effects of the structured information on the level of preoperative state anxiety, the hormonal change, and the degree of behavioral change in the patients undergoing an open heart surgery? A Quasi-experimental research was designed to answer these questions with one experimental group and one control group. Subjects in both groups were matched as closely as possible to avoid the effect of the differences inherent to the group characteristics, Baseline data were also. collected on both groups for 7 days prior to the experiment and found that subjects in both groups had comparable sleep patterns, trait anxiety, hormonal levels and behavioral level. A structured information as an experimental input was given to the subjects in the experimental group only. Data were collected and compared between the experimental group and the control group on the sleep amount of the consecutive pre and post operative days, on preoperative state anxiety level, and on hormonal and behavioral changes. To test the effectiveness of the structured information, two main hypotheses and three sub-hypotheses were formulated as follows; Main hypothesis 1: Experimental group which received structured information will have more sleep amount than control group without structured information in the night before the open heart surgery. Main hypothesis 2: Experimental group with structured information will have more sleep, amount than control group without structured information during the week following the open heart surgery Sub-hypothesis 1: Experimental group with structured information will be lower in the level of State anxiety than control group without structured information in the night before the open heart surgery. Sub-hypothesis 2 : Experimental group with structured information will have lower hormonal level than control group without stuctured information on the 5th day after the open heart surgery Sub-hypothesis 3: Experimental group with structured information will be lower in the behavioral change level than control group without structured information during the week after the open heart surgery. The research was conducted in a national university hospital in Seoul, Korea. The 53 Subjects who participated in the study were systematically divided into experimental group and control group which was decided by random sampling method. Among 53 subjects, 26 were placed in the experimental group and 27 in the control group. Instruments; (1) Structed information: Structured information as an independent variable was constructed by the researcher on the basis of Roy's adaptation model consisting of physiologic needs, self-concept, role function and interdependence needs as related to the sleep and of operational procedures. (2) Sleep amount measure: Sleep amount as main dependent variable was measured by trained nurses through observation on the basis of the established criteria, such as closed or open eyes, regular or irregular respiration, body movement, posture, responses to the light and question, facial expressions and self report after sleep. (3) State anxiety measure: State Anxiety as a sub-dependent variable was measured by Spi-elberger's STAI Anxiety scale, (4) Hormornal change measure: Hormone as a sub-dependent variable was measured by the cortisol level in plasma. (5) Behavior change measure: Behavior as a sub-dependent variable was measured by the Behavior and Mood Rating Scale by Wyatt. The data were collected over a period of four months, from June to October 1981, after the pretest period of two months. For the analysis of the data and test for the hypotheses, the t-test with mean differences and analysis of covariance was used. The result of the test for instruments show as follows: (1) STAI measurement for trait and state anxiety as analyzed by Cronbachs alpha coefficient analysis for item analysis and reliability showed the reliability level at r= .90 r= .91 respectively. (2) Behavior and Mood Rating Scale measurement was analyzed by means of Principal Component Analysis technique. Seven factors retained were anger, anxiety, hyperactivity, depression, bizarre behavior, suspicious behavior and emotional withdrawal. Cumulative percentage of each factor was 71.3%. The result of the test for hypotheses show as follows; (1) Main hypothesis, was not supported. The experimental group has 282 minutes of sleep as compared to the 255 minutes of sleep by the control group. Thus the sleep amount was higher in experimental group than in control group, however, the difference was not statistically significant at .05 level. (2) Main hypothesis 2 was not supported. The mean sleep amount of the experimental group and control group were 297 minutes and 278 minutes respectively Therefore, the experimental group had more sleep amount as compared to the control group, however, the difference was not statistically significant at .05 level. Thus, the main hypothesis 2 was not supported. (3) Sub-hypothesis 1 was not supported. The mean state anxiety of the experimental group and control group were 42.3, 43.9 in scores. Thus, the experimental group had slightly lower state anxiety level than control group, howe-ver, the difference was not statistically significant at .05 level. (4) Sub-hypothesis 2 was not supported. . The mean hormonal level of the experimental group and control group were 338 ㎍ and 440 ㎍ respectively. Thus, the experimental group showed decreased hormonal level than the control group, however, the difference was not statistically significant at .05 level. (5) Sub-hypothesis 3 was supported. The mean behavioral level of the experimental group and control group were 29.60 and 32.00 respectively in score. Thus, the experimental group showed lower behavioral change level than the control group. The difference was statistically significant at .05 level. In summary, the structured information did not influence the sleep amount, state anxiety or hormonal level of the subjects undergoing an open heart surgery at a statistically significant level, however, it showed a definite trends in their relationships, not least to mention its significant effect shown on behavioral change level. It can further be speculated that a great degree of individual differences in the variables such as sleep amount, state anxiety and fluctuation in hormonal level may partly be responsible for the statistical insensitivity to the experimentation.

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Nutritional Studies for Improvement of Feeding on Korean Native Goat - Absorption of Nutrients in Rumen - (한국재래산양(韓國在來山羊)의 사양개선(飼養改善)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 제일위((第一胃)에서의 영양소(營養素) 흡수(吸收)에 대(對)하여 -)

  • Kwon, Soon Ki
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.284-302
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    • 1982
  • Development of protein resources as food has been a big issue especially in Southeast Asia region, and intake of protein is also insufficient in Korea. To cope with this shortage of protein resources and its improvement together with increased production of high nutritive animal protein, studies were carried out on feeding of Korean native goats. In the experiments were made absorption of carbohydrate and volatile fatty acid in miniature rumen, and absorption of amino acid in rumen as in vivo were conducted as part of studies on nutritional absorption in rumen. Those nutritional for improvement of feeding and management as described above are summarized as following. 1. According to the result of test on the nutritional absorption of native goat by means of miniature rumen method, absorption ratio of VFA measured at 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after injection of nutrition showed propionic acid 70-86%, acetic acid 74-87%, and lactic acid 76-89%. In the absorption of organic substances, ethyl alcohol of 0.5% showed 29-87% and lactic acid of 0.1M showed 12-27% of absorption ratio. 2. Result of absorption measurement in rumen from L-type free amino acid injection in the content of rumen vein showed lower rate at menthionine-free group compared to whole-egg amino acid injection in the content of rumen vein showed lower rate at methioine-free group compared to whole-egg amino acid group, and high absorption ratio was observed at methionine 3 times group and urea added group. Deficiency of methionine caused no change of the content in mucous membranes. 3. Absorption of amino acid in rumen muscular layer showed equal tendency as in the mucous membrane without exerting any influence of methionine deficiency. At the methionine3-times group, content of methionine and glutamine were increased by 14.7 and 4.4 times as compared to whole-egg amino acid group, an absorption ratio of glutamine, proline and valine were increased at urea added group. 4. In general, concentration of amino acid in rumen vein plasma was lower than in rumen mucous membrane and muscular layer. Absorption ratio of amino acid is decreased due to methionine deficiency, and tripling of methionine or urea adding caused increment of amino acid. Absorption pattern is thus varied depending on the composition of amino acid. 5. At the urea added group, content of ammonia-N, amino-N and urea were increased in rumen muscular layer. As the inside of goat's rumen was unable to clean thoroughly, investigation was made on remaining bacteria, however, variation of ammonia-N was affected by these bacterial content. 6. Variation in rumen structure by differential absorption of amino acid was observed by general microscope and fluorescent microscope. According to the result of observation in the methionine 3 times group, single cylinder epithelium of mucous membrane showed rather thin, and it was thick at urea added group though no significant differences existed among test groups in submucous membrane and muscular layer.

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Cardio-pulmonary Adaptation to Physical Training (운동훈련(運動訓練)에 대(對)한 심폐기능(心肺機能)의 적응(適應)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Kang-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.103-120
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    • 1967
  • As pointed out by many previous investigators, the cardio-pulmonary system of well trained athletes is so adapted that they can perform a given physical exercise more efficiently as compared to non-trained persons. However, the time course of the development of these cardio-pulmonary adaptations has not been extensively studied in the past. Although the development of these training effects is undoubtedly related to the magnitude of an exercise load which is repeatedly given, it would be practical if one could maintain a good physical fitness with a minimal daily exercise. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to study the time course of the development of cardio-pulmonary adaptations while a group of non-athletes was subjected to a daily 6 to 10 minutes running exercise for a period of 4 weeks. Six healthy male medical students (22 to 24 years old) were randomly selected as experimental subjects, and were equally divided into two groups (A and B). Both groups were subjected to the same daily running exercise (approximately 1,000 kg-m). 6 days a week for 4 weeks, but the rate of exercise was such that the group A ran on treadmill with 8.6% grade for 10 min daily at a speed of 127 m/min while the group B ran for 6 min at a speed of 200 m/min. In order to assess the effects of these physical trainings on the cardio-pulmonary system, the minute volume, the $O_2$ consumption, the $CO_2$ output and the heart rate were determined weekly while the subject was engaged in a given running exercise on treadmill (8.6% grade and 127 m/min) for a period of 5 min. In addition, the arterial blood pressure, the cardiac output, the acid-base state of arterial blood and the gas composition of arterial blood were also determined every other week in 4 subjects (2 from each group) while they were engaged in exercise on a bicycle ergometer at a rate of approximately 900 kg m/min until exhaustion. The maximal work capacity was also determined by asking the subject to engage in exercise on treadmill and ergometer until exhaustion. For the measurement of minute volume, the expired gas was collected in a Douglas bag. The $O_2$ consumption and the $CO_2$ output were subsequently computed by analysing the expired gas with a Scholander micro gas analyzer. The heart rate was calculated from the R-R interval of ECG tracings recorded by an Offner RS Dynograph. A 19 gauge Cournand needle was inserted into a brachial artery, through which arterial blood samples were taken. A Statham $P_{23}AA$ pressure transducer and a PR-7 Research Recorder were used for recording instantaneous arterial pressure. The cardiac output was measured by indicator (Cardiogreen) dilution method. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) The maximal running time on treadmill increased linearly during the 4 week training period at the end of which it increased by 2.8 to 4.6 times. In general, an increase in the maximal running time was greater when the speed was fixed at a level at which the subject was trained. The mammal exercise time on bicycle ergometer also increased linearly during the training period. (2) In carrying out a given running exercise on treadmill (8.6%grade, 127 m/min), the following changes in cardio·pulmonary functions were observed during the training period: (a) The minute volume as well as the $O_2$ consumption during steady state exercise tended to decrease progressively and showed significant reductions after 3 weeks of training. (b) The $CO_2$ production during steady state exercise showed a significant reduction within 1 week of training. (c) The heart rate during steady state exercise tended to decrease progressively and showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of training. The reduction of heart rate following a given exercise tended to become faster by training and showed a significant change after 3 weeks. Although the resting heart rate also tended to decrease by training, no significant change was observed. (3) In rallying out a given exercise (900 kg-m/min) on a bicycle ergometer, the following change in cardio-vascular functions were observed during the training period: (3) The systolic blood pressure during steady state exercise was not affected while the diastolic blood Pressure was significantly lowered after 4 weeks of training. The resting diastolic pressure was also significantly lowered by the end of 4 weeks. (b) The cardiac output and the stroke volume during steady state exercise increased maximally within 2 weeks of training. However, the resting cardiac output was not altered while the resting stroke volume tended to increase somewhat by training. (c) The total peripheral resistance during steady state exercise was greatly lowered within 2 weeks of training. The mean circulation time during exorcise was also considerably shortened while the left heart work output during exercise increased significantly within 2 weeks. However, these functions_at rest were not altered by training. (d) Although both pH, $P_{co2}\;and\;(HCO_3-)$ of arterial plasma decreased during exercise, the magnitude of reductions became less by training. On the other hand, the $O_2$ content of arterial blood decreased during exercise before training while it tended to increase slightly after training. There was no significant alteration in these values at rest. These results indicate that cardio-pulmonary adaptations to physical training can be acquired by subjecting non-athletes to brief daily exercise routine for certain period of time. Although the time of appearance of various adaptive phenomena is not identical, it may be stated that one has to engage in daily exercise routine for at least 2 weeks for the development of significant adaptive changes.

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Studies on Ancylostomiasis I. An Experimental Study on Hookworm Infection and Anemia (구충증(鉤蟲症)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 제1편(第1篇) 구충(鉤蟲)의 감염(感染) 및 구충성빈혈(鉤蟲性貧血)에 관(關)한 고찰(考奈))

  • Lee, Mun-Ho;Kim, Dong-Jip;Lee, Jang-Kyu;Seo, Byong-Sul;Lee, Soon-Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 1967
  • In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problems. The present study was aimed to; determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylostoma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of the ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity(worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of $^{59}Fe\;and\;^{51}Cr$. Materials and Methods Ten healthy male volunteers(doctors, medical students and laboratory technicians) with the ages ranging from 21 to 40 years were selected as the experimental materials. They had no history of hookworm infection for preceding several years, and care was taken not to be exposed to reinfection. A baseline study including a through physical examinations and laboratory investigations such as complete blood counts, stool examination and estimation of the serum iron levels was done, and a vermifuge, bephenium hydroxynaphoate, was given 10 days prior to the main experiment. The ancylostoma duodenale filariform larvae were obtained in the following manner; The pure ancylostoma duodenale ova were obtained from the hookworm anemia patients and a modified filter paper method was adopted to harvest larger number of infective larvae, which were washed several times with saline. The actively moving mature larvae were put into the gelatine capsules, 150 in each, and were given to the volunteers in the fasting state with 300ml. of water. The volunteers were previously treated with intramuscular injection of 15mg. of chlorpromazine in order to prevent the eventual nausea and vomiting after the larvae intake. The clinical symptoms and signs mainly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, appearance of the ova and occult blood in the stool etc. were checked every day for the first 20 days and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment, which usually lasted for about 3 months. Roentgenological survey of the lungs was also done. The hematological changes such as the red blood cell, white blood cell and eosinophil cell counts, hemoglobin content and serum iron levels were studied. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova were counted in triplicate on two successive days using the Stoll's dilution method. The ferrokinetic data were calculated by the modified Huff's method and the apparent half survival time of the red blood cells by the modified Gray's method. The isotopes were simultaneously tagged and injected intravenously, and then the stool and blood samples were collected as was described by Roche et al., namely, three separate 4-day stool samples with the blood sample drawing before each 4-day stool collection. The radio-activities of the stools ashfied and the blood were separately measured by the pulse-height analyser. The daily blood loss was calculated with the following formula; daily blood loss in $ml.=\frac{cpm/g\;stool{\times}weight\;in\;g\;of\;4-day\;stool}{cpm/ml\;blood{\times}4}$ The average of these three 4-day periods was given as the daily blood loss in each patient. The blood loss per day per worm was calculated by simply dividing the daily blood loss by the number of the hookworm recovered after the vermifuge given twice a week at the termination of the experiment. The iron loss in mg. through the gastrointestinal tract was estimated with the daily iron loss in $mg=\frac{g\;Hgb/100ml{\times}ml\;daily\;blood\;loss{\times}3.40}{100}$ 3.40=mg of iron per g Hgb following formula; Results 1. The respiratory symptoms such as cough and sputum were noted in almost all cases within a week after the infection, which lasted about 2 weeks. The roentgenological findings of the chest were essentially normal. A moderate degree of febril reaction appeared within 2 weeks with a duration of 3 or 4 days. 2. The gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, epigastric fullness, abdominal pain and loose bowel appeared in all cases immediately after the larvae intake. 3. The reduction of the red blood cell count was not remarkable, however, the hemoglobin content and especially the serum iron level showed the steady decreases until the end of the experiment. 4. The white blood cells and eosinophil cells, on the contrary, showed increases in parallel and reached peaks in 20 to 30 days after the infection. A small secondary rise was noted in 2 months. 5. The ova first appeared in the stool in 40. 1 days after the infection, ranging from 29 to 51 days, during which the occult blood reaction of the stool became also positive in almost cases. 6. The number of ova recovered per day was 164, 320 on the average, ranging from 89,500 to 253,800. The number of the worm evacuated by vermifuge was in rough correlation with the number of ova recovered. 7. The infectivity of ancylostoma duodenale was 14% on the average, ranging from 7.3 to 20.0%, which is relatively lower than those reported by other workers. 8. The mean fecal blood loss was 5.78ml. per day, with a range of from 2.6 to 11.7ml., and the mean blood loss per worm per day was 0.30ml., with a range of from 0.13 to 0.73ml., which is in rough coincidence with those reported by other authors. There appeared to exist, however, no correlation between the blood loss and the number of ova recovered. 9. The mean fecal iron loss was 2.02mg. per day, with a range of from 1.20 to 3.89mg., which is less than those appeared in the literature. 10. The mean plasma iron disappearance rate was 0.80hr., with a range of from 0.62 to 0.95hr., namely, a slight accerelation. 11. The hookworm anemia appeared to be iron deficiency in origin caused by continuous intestinal blood loss.

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Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Enema on Recovery of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (과산화수소 관장이 급성 일산화탄소중독의 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Won-Kyun;Chae, E-Up
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 1986
  • Carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning has been one of the major environmental problems because of the tissue hypoxia, especially brain tissue hypoxia, due to the great affinity of CO with hemoglobin. Inhalation of the pure oxygen$(0_2)$ under the high atmospheric pressure has been considered as the best treatment of CO poisoning by the supply of $0_2$ to hypoxic tissues with dissolved from in plasma and also by the rapid elimination of CO from the carboxyhemoglobin(HbCO). Hydrogen peroxide $(H_2O_2)$ was rapidly decomposed to water and $0_2$ under the presence of catalase in the blood, but the intravenous administration of $H_2O_2$ is hazardous because of the formation of methemoglobin and air embolism. However, it was reported that the enema of $H_2O_2$ solution below 0.75% could be continuously supplied $0_2$ to hypoxic tissues without the hazards mentioned above. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of $H_2O_2$ enema on the elimination of CO from the HbCO in the recovery of the acute CO poisoning. Rabbits weighting about 2.0 kg were exposed to If CO gas mixture with room air for 30 minutes. After the acute CO poisoning, 30 rabbits were divided into three groups relating to the recovery period. The first group T·as exposed to the room air and the second group w·as inhalated with 100% $0_2$ under 1 atmospheric pressure. The third group was administered 10 ml of 0.5H $H_2O_2$ solution per kg weight by enema immediately after CO poisoning and exposed to the room air during the recovery period. The arterial blood was sampled before and after CO poisoning ana in 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the recovery period. The blood pH, $Pco_2\;and\;Po_2$ were measured anaerobically with a Blood Gas Analyzer and the saturation percentage of HbCO was measured by the Spectrophotometric method. The effect of $H_2O_2$ enema on the recovery from the acute CO poisoning was observed and compared with the room air group and the 100% $0_2$ inhalation group. The results obtained from the experiment are as follows: The pH of arterial blood was significantly decreased after CO poisoning and until the first 15 minutes of the recovery period in all groups. Thereafter, it was slowly increased to the level of the before CO poisoning, but the recovery of pH of the $H_2O_2$ enema group was more delayed than that of the other groups during the recovery period. $Paco_2$ was significantly decreased after CO poisoning in all groups. Boring the recovery Period, $Paco_2$ of the room air group was completely recovered to the level of the before CO Poisoning, but that of the 100% $O_2$ inhalation group and the $H_2O_2$ enema group was not recovered until the 90 minutes of the recovery period. $Paco_2$ was slightly decreased after CO poisoning. During the recovery Period, it was markedly increased in the first 15 minutes and maintained the level above that before CO Poisoning in all groups. Furthermore $Paco_2$ of the $H_2O_2$ enema group was 102 to 107 mmHg and it was about 10 mmHg higher than that of the room air group during the recovery period. The saturation percentage of HbCO was increased up to the range of 54 to 72 percents after CO poisoning and in general it was generally diminished during the recovery period. However in the $H_2O_2$ enema group the diminution of the saturation percentage of HbCO was generally faster than that of the 100% $O_2$ inhalation group and the room air group, and its diminution in the 100% $O_2$ inhalation group was also slightly faster than that of the room air group at the relatively later time of the recovery period. In conclusion, the enema of 0.5% $H_2O_2$ solution is seems to facilitate the elimination of CO from the HbCO in the blood and increase $Paco_2$ simultaneously during the recovery period of the acute CO poisoning.

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