• Title, Summary, Keyword: Plasma

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Analysis of the Characteristics of Bulking Agents Used in Livestock Manure Composting (축산분뇨 퇴비화에 이용되는 수분조절제의 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Lee, Min-HO;qasim, Waqas;Lee, Yong-Jin;Kim, Won-Joong;Yoon, Yong-Cheol
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the characteristics of 6 recyclable bulking agents which can replace sawdust and rice hulls that are commonly used in livestock manure composting. The content of all the hazardous chemicals found in the bulking agents used in this experiment was between 0.0 and 34.1 ppm, which was noticeably lesser than the maximum content levels of hazardous substances 5.0~900.0 ppm prescribed by the Rural Development Administration(RDA), which means that the bulking agents would be able to replace sawdusts and rice husks. The water content of the bulking agents ranged from a minimum of 12.4% to a maximum of 16.6% in the original state, which was much less than 60%, the optimal moisture content. These results indicate that they would be able to function fully as bulking agents. Their water absorption rate was in the range of minimum 31.9% ~ maximum 600.0%, which showed huge differences among the types of bulking agents. The most appropriate bulking agent in terms of water absorption rate was wood pellets. It was the highest in the wood briquette manufactured by A, which was followed by C and B in the order. The shear strength of the 5 types of bulking agents in the original state was 271.7 N on an average, the highest figure of all, except for the oak briquette whose shear strength could not be measured and the wood pellets in the absorption state. The shear strength in the dry and absorption states then followed, and were 78.0 N and 27.7 N on an average, respectively. The wood briquette of A recorded considerably lower shear strength than that of B and C. Overall, shear strength tended to increase according to lower water absorption rates. Since pine wood chips and oak cuts have relatively greater shear strength even in the absorbing state than the other materials, they will be able to endure some power in the case of stirring with pig droppings.

Effect of Pitamin as an Antibiotics Replacement for Organic livestock Feed Additives in Broiler Chickens (유기사료원료로서 소나무껍질 추출물 피타민의 브로일러에 대한 항생제 대체효과)

  • Kim, Byong-Wan;Oh, Jin-Seok;Han, Ohan-Taek;Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.111-125
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    • 2009
  • Pitamin is a component of pine bark extract that exhibits antimicrobial activity and a variety of physiological effects. This study was earned out to investigate the effects of dietary pitamin as an organic livestock feed additive in broiler chickens. A 35 day trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary premix containing 5% pitamin; investigated parameters included blood lipids, growth performance, quality characteristics of carcasses, and changes of caecal microbials in broiler chickens. Chickens were randomly divided into groups that were untreated (control), treated conventionally with antibiotics in the absence of premix, received 0.1 % or 0.2% premix containing 5% pitamin. Plasma lipids were lower in groups fed diets with pitamin premix (p<0.05). The body weight gain from broiler chickens fed with the diet containing 0.1% pitamin premix and antibiotics was similar, and was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). The weight of breast muscle and thigh meat of carcasses was similar, and was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Abdominal fat and thymus index from chickens receiving either pitamin-supplemented premix was significantly lower and increased, respectively, that of the antibiotic and control groups (both p<0.05). The chickens on the pitamin premix-supplemented diets evidenced significantly higher caecal levels of Bifidobacterium species as compared with the chickens on the control diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that feeding a diet supplemented with a 0.1% premix containing 5.0% pitamin for 35 days maintains the production of broiler chickens at a level comparable to that obtained from the use of antibiotics.

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A Study on Heavy Metal and Selenium Levels in Dried Seafoods (건조수산물의 중금속 및 셀레늄 함량)

  • Kwon, Hye-Jung;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Kyung-A;Kim, Young-Su;Kang, Suk-Ho;Kwak, Shin-Hye;Kang, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Pil-Suk;Cho, Wook-Hyun;Moh, Ara;Park, Yong-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.562-570
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    • 2019
  • The heavy metal concentrations in dried seafoods commonly consumed in Gyeonggi-do were analyzed. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were measured in 95 samples with an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an Hg analyzer. The average concentration [mean±SD(minimum-maximum) mg/kg] of heavy metals were as follows: Pb 0.062±0.071(0.002-0.428), Cd 0.083±0.100(0.004-0.540), Hg 0.012±0.012(N.D-0.054) and Se 0.839±0.371(0.362-2.124). All the levels were below the recommended standards of the MFDS (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety). In the comparison of heavy metal content by anchovy size, it was shown that mercury was significantly higher in large anchovy (P<0.05). Selenium levels were found to differ significantly in small anchovy and large anchovy (P<0.05). Pb, Cd and Hg were significantly higher in Tiger prawn among shrimp (P<0.05). The heavy metal and selenium levels of anchovy and shad were highest in the intestine. However, the heavy metal and selenium levels of shrimp were highest in the head. In addition, weekly (monthly) intake of mercury and cadmium from dried seafoods was found to be 0.712% and 2.978% of PTW(M)I (Provisional Tolerable Weekly(Monthly) Intake) respectively. Therefore, it was found that dried seafoods were safe for consumption.

A Study on the Tendency of Dose value According to Dose calibrator Measurement Depth and Volume (Dose calibrator 측정 깊이와 용량의 변화에 따른 선량 값의 성향에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jin Gu;Ham, Jun Cheol;Oh, Shin Hyun;Kang, Chun Koo;Kim, Jae Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2020
  • Purpose It is intended to figure out the errors derived from changes in depth and volume when measuring the Standard source and 99mTc-pertechnetate by using a Dose calibrator. Then recommend appropriate measurement depth and volume. Materials and Methods As a Dose calibrator, CRC-15βeta and CRC-15R (Capintec, New Jersey, USA) was used, and the measurement sources were 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs and 99mTc-pertechnetate was also adopted due to its high frequency of use. The Standard source was respectively measured the changes according to its depth without changing the volume, in a range of 0 cm to 15 cm from the bottom of the ion chamber. 99mTc-pertechnetate was measured at each depth by changing the volume with 0.1 mL, 0.3 mL, 0.5 mL, 0.7 mL and 0.9 mL Respectively. And the depth range was from 0 cm to 15 cm at the bottom of the ion chamber. Results In the case of Standard source 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs and 99mTc-pertechnetate, there were significant differences according to the measurement depth(p<0.05). 99mTc-pertechnetate has a negative correlation coefficient according to the depth, and the error of the measured value was negligible at a depth from 0 cm to 7 cm at 0.3 mL and 0.5 mL, and the range of error increased as the volume increased. Conclusion In clinical practice, it is sometimes installed differently than the Standard depth recommended by the equipment company. If it's measured at the recommended depth and volume, it could be thought that unnecessary exposure of the operator and the patient will be reduced, and more accurate radiation exams will be possible in quantitative analysis.

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A Study on Cation Extraction and Impurity Separation in Slag (슬래그 내 양이온 추출 및 불순물 분리 연구)

  • Lee, Ye Hwan;Kang, Hyerin;Jang, Younghee;Lee, Si-Jin;Kim, Sung Su
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.311-315
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    • 2019
  • The cation extraction and impurity separation were studied in order to investigate the recyclability of a slag produced from the steel refinery industry. Two types of slag (Slag-A, B) were collected and characterized in this study. The initial characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) confirmed the existence of various kinds of ions in the slag such as Ca2+ (30 ~ 40%), Fe3+ (20 ~ 30%), Si4+ (15%), Al3+ (10%), Mn2+ (7%), and Mg2+ (3 ~ 5%). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis on the extracted slag using 2 M HCl as a solvent indicated that a higher concentration of Ca2+ was extracted as the S/L ratio was increased. The Ca2+ extraction concentration were found to be 8,940 mg L-1 (Slag-A) and 10,690 (Slag-B) mg L-1 when the S/L ratio for Ca2+ extraction was 0.1. However, the extract was strongly acidic ( < pH 1) at 0.1 S/L. Also the other ions (impurities) were extracted simultaneously in addition to Ca2+. To increase the purity of Ca2+ in order to transform the slag to a high value resource, a pH-swing was conducted. The impurities tended to precipitate at higher rate as the pH was increased. Notably, the Ca2+ rapidly precipitated above a certain pH and at a pH of 10.5, while the selectivity of Ca2+ was over 99%. It is expected that the aqueous solution in which high contents of Ca2+ was selectively dissolved in this study would be suitable for the carbonation process for reducing CO2 and for the production of calcium carbonate.

Sugar and Sodium Content of Franchise Chickens and Market Chickens (프랜차이즈 치킨과 대형마트 내 판매 치킨의 당과 나트륨 함량 조사)

  • Lee, Young-Ju;Jung, So-Young;Kim, Nam-Hoon;Park, Young-Ae;Jo, Ju-Yeon;Kim, Youn-Cheon;Lee, Sang-Me;Kim, Moo-Sang
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2020
  • We investigated the content of sugar and sodium in 4 types of chicken (fried, seasoned, soy sauce-flavored, cheese powder-flavored). A total of 123 samples were collected from franchise stores and markets in Seoul. The sugar content of chicken samples was analyzed by HPLC-ELSD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector). The average sugar content of seasoned chicken was highest at 8.7±2.3 g/100 g while that of fried chicken was lowest at 0.6±0.3 g/100 g. The average content of sugar sorted by place of sale showed a significant difference (P<0.05). The sodium content in chicken samples was analysed using the ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). The sodium content of seasoned chicken with cheese powder was the highest at 627.0±109.2 mg/100 g and that of fried chicken was the lowest at 448.0±65.3 mg/100 g. The sugar content of seasoned chicken sold in both franchise stores and markets was found to exceed the 50 g daily level as recommended by the WHO. In addition, the average sodium content in seasoned chicken (franchise stores and markets) and cheese-powdered chicken was more than twice as high as the daily 2,000 mg recommended by the WHO.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Migrated from Glassware, Ceramics, Enamelware, and Earthenware (유리제, 도자기제, 법랑 및 옹기류 재질의 식품용 기구 및 용기·포장의 중금속 이행량 모니터링)

  • Cho, Kyung Chul;Jo, Ye-Eun;Park, So-Yeon;Park, Yongchjun;Park, Se-Jong;Lee, Hye Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the migration levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) from food contact articles (glassware, ceramics, enamelware, and earthenware) into a food stimulant (4% v/v, acetic acid). Migration tests were performed at 25℃ for 24 h and all analyses were performed using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by linearity of calibration curves, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, and uncertainty. In glassware, the migration concentrations ranged from not-detected (N.D.) to 752.21 ㎍/L and N.D. to 1.99 ㎍/L for Pb and Cd, respectively. In ceramics, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 1,955.86 ㎍/L, N.D. to 74.06 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 302.40 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. In enamelware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 4.48 ㎍/L, N.D. to 7.00 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 52.00 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and Sb, respectively. In earthenware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 13.68 ㎍/L, N.D. to 0.04 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 6.71 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. All results were below the migration limits of Korea standards and specifications for food utensils, containers, and packages.

Dietary corn resistant starch regulates intestinal morphology and barrier functions by activating the Notch signaling pathway of broilers

  • Zhang, Yingying;Liu, Yingsen;Li, Jiaolong;Xing, Tong;Jiang, Yun;Zhang, Lin;Gao, Feng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.2008-2020
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary corn resistant starch (RS) on the intestinal morphology and barrier functions of broilers. Methods: A total of 320 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments: one normal corn-soybean (NC) diet, one corn-soybean-based diet supplementation with 20% corn starch (CS), and 3 corn-soybean-based diets supplementation with 4%, 8%, and 12% corn resistant starch (RS) (identified as 4% RS, 8% RS, and 12% RS, respectively). Each group had eight replicates with eight broilers per replicate. After 21 days feeding, one bird with a body weight (BW) close to the average BW of their replicate was selected and slaughtered. The samples of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum digesta, and blood were collected. Results: Birds fed 4% RS, 8% RS and 12% RS diets showed lower feed intake, BW gain, jejunal villus height (VH), duodenal crypt depth (CD), jejunal VH/CD ratio, duodenal goblet cell density as well as mucin1 mRNA expressions compared to the NC group, but showed higher concentrations of cecal acetic acid and butyric acid, percentage of jejunal proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and delta like canonical Notch ligand 4 (Dll4), and hes family bHLH transcription factor 1 mRNA expressions. However, there were no differences on the plasma diamine oxidase activity and D-lactic acid concentration among all groups. Conclusion: These findings suggested that RS could suppress intestinal morphology and barrier functions by activating Notch pathway and inhibiting the development of goblet cells, resulting in decreased mucins and tight junction mRNA expression.

Evaluation of Mineral Content in Convenience Baby Food (간편 이유식의 무기질 함량 평가)

  • Cho, Young-Sun;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Shin, Sang-Woon;Sung, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ji-Eun;Baek, Eun-Jin;Lee, Eun-Bin;Kim, Hye-Jin;Park, Yong-Bae;Yun, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.489-494
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    • 2020
  • A total of 101 samples of convenience baby food products were analyzed by microwave digestion and mineral nutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). By type, the samples included 44 rice porridges, 40 soft-boiled rices, 11 purees, and 6 powders. The mean values for iron (Fe) content were 0.05 to 0.45 mg/100 g (excepted powder type, mg/l0 g). This was equivalent to 22.35% for rice porridge, 10.55% for soft-boiled rice, 9.88% for puree and 2.74% for powder type compared to the KDRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans), respectively. The mean values for zinc (Zn) was 0.06 to 0.28 mg/100 g (excepted powder type, mg/l0 g) and the KDRI ratio was the lowest at 5.94% in puree, with 27.76%, 28.95% and 10.91% in rice porridge, soft-boiled rice and powder type, respectively. Calcium (Ca) content relative to KDRIs was relatively low compared to other minerals, with 6.65% for rice porridge, 3.61% for soft-boiled rice, 6.24% for puree and 3.07% for powder type, respectively. The magnesium (Mg) content of baby food ranged from 13.4% to 39.0% compared to KDRIs, and was included in all baby food as a whole. For balanced nutritional mineral supply to infants, it is recommended that information on mineral sources and ingredients in convenience baby food be clearly provided to ensure proper growth and development.

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Response of Two Lines of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to Cold Stress (유채 두 계통에서 저온 스트레스에 반응하는 전사체 발현 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Cha, Young-Lok;An, Da-Hee;Byun, Jong-Won;Kang, Yong-Ku
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.37-71
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    • 2021
  • Rapeseed is a typical winter crop, and its freezing stress tolerance is a major feature for winter survival. Therefore, it is important to comprehend clearly the physical and molecular mechanisms of rapeseed under freezing stress conditions. This study investigates the physical and transcriptome changes of two rapeseed lines, 'J8634-B-30' and 'EMS26', under cold acclimation and freezing temperature treatments. The proline content of 'J8634-B-30' at 5 ℃ increased 8.7-fold compared to that before treatment, and there was no significant change in that of 'EMS26' RNA-sequencing analysis revealed 5,083 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of 'J8634-B-30' under cold acclimation condition. Among the genes, 2,784 (54.8%) were up-regulated and 2,299 (45.2%) were down-regulated. The DEGs of 'EMS26' under cold acclimation condition were 5,831 genes, and contained 2,199 up-regulated genes (37.7%) and 3,632 down-regulated genes (62.3%). Among them, only DEGs annotated in the cold response-related signaling pathways were selected, and their expression in the two rapeseed lines was compared. Comparative DEGs analysis indicated that cold response related signaling pathways are proline metabolism and ABA (Abscisic acid) signaling. And ICE (Inducer of CBF expression) - CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) - COR (Cold-regulated) signaling were the significantly differentially expressed transcripts in the two rapeseed lines. The major induced transcripts of 'J8634-B-30' induced P5CS (Δ'-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase), which is related to proline biosynthesis, PYL (pyrabactin resistance-like protein, ABA receptor) and COR413 (cold-regulated 413 plasma membrane 1). In conclusion, these result provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of freezing stress tolerance in rapeseeds. Further functional studies should be performed on the freezing stress-related genes identified in this study, which can contribute to the transgenic and molecular breeding for freezing stress tolerance in rapeseed.