• Title/Summary/Keyword: Pelvic neoplasms

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Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignancy of the Uterus: a Case Report

  • Shin, Dahye;Hwang, Jiyoung;Hong, Seong Sook;Lee, Eun Ji;Kim, Yon Hee
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2019
  • Pelvic actinomycosis is an uncommon infectious disease. It induces a chronic, suppurative illness characterized by an infiltrative and granulomatous response and, thus, the clinical and radiologic findings may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. A 56-year-old female with a long-standing intrauterine device was diagnosed with pelvic actinomycosis manifesting as a large uterine mass with locally infiltrative spread into surrounding tissue that mimicked uterine malignancy. Actinomyces israelii infection was confirmed with a surgical specimen, and the patient was treated with antibiotic medication. Pelvic actinomycosis must be included in the differential diagnoses of patients with an infiltrative pelvic mass extending across tissue planes or in patients with findings of multiple microabscesses, particularly in a patient with an intrauterine device, even the lesion primarily involves the uterus.

Management for locally advanced cervical cancer: new trends and controversial issues

  • Cho, Oyeon;Chun, Mison
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.254-264
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    • 2018
  • This article reviewed new trends and controversial issues, including the intensification of chemotherapy and recent brachytherapy (BT) advances, and also reviewed recent consensuses from different societies on the management of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Intensive chemotherapy during and after radiation therapy (RT) was not recommended as a standard treatment due to severe toxicities reported by several studies. The use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pelvic RT planning has increased the clinical utilization of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the evaluation of pelvic lymph node metastasis and pelvic bone marrow. Recent RT techniques for LACC patients mainly aim to minimize toxicities by sparing the normal bladder and rectum tissues and shortening the overall treatment time by administering a simultaneous integrated boost for metastatic pelvic lymph node in pelvic IMRT followed by MRI-based image guided adaptive BT.

Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction Related to Pelvic Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting with Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Report

  • Han, Sanghoon;Han, Kyoung Hee
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.116-120
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    • 2019
  • Bilateral renal obstruction is a rare critical condition, requiring a prompt diagnostic approach and treatment to restore the renal function. The most commonly observed obstructive uropathy in children is congenital malformation, such as posterior urethral valves and bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Malignant pelvic masses obstructing the ureter are widely reported in adults but are rarely observed in children. The treatment of ureteral obstruction related to pelvic malignancy is a therapeutic challenge with a median survival duration of 3-7 months in adults; however, pediatric patients with pelvic malignancy leading to ureteral obstruction had better outcomes, with a reported 5-year mortality rate of 20%, than the adult patients. Here, we report a rare case of bilateral ureteral obstruction associated with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma presenting with acute kidney injury treated by ureteral diversion with double J stent, and concommittent emergency hemodialysis, leading to restoration of good renal function. We suggest that bilateral ureteral obstruction should be released as soon as possible using surgical or interventional approach to minimize the obstruction period, and subsequential chemotherapy may contribute to improvement of survival and recovery of renal function.

Assessment of inter- and intra-fractional volume of bladder and body contour by mega-voltage computed tomography in helical tomotherapy for pelvic malignancy

  • Kim, Sunghyun;You, Sei Hwan;Eum, Young Ju
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We describe the daily bladder volume change observed by mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) during pelvic radiotherapy with potential predictors of increased bladder volume variations. Materials and Methods: For 41 patients who received pelvic area irradiation, the volumes of bladder and pelvic body contour were measured twice a day with pre- and post-irradiation MVCT from the 1st to the 10th fraction. The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 18 to 30 Gy) up to a 10th fraction. The upper and lower margin of MVCT scanning was consistent during the daily treatments. The median age was 69 years (range, 33 to 86 years) and 10 patients (24.4%) were treated postoperatively. Results: Overall bladder volume on planning computed tomography was 139.7 ± 92.8 mL. Generally, post-irradiation bladder volume (POSTBV) was larger than pre-irradiation bladder volume (PREBV) (p < 0.001). The mean PREBV and POSTBV was reduced after 10 fraction treatments by 21.3% (p = 0.028) and 25.4% (p = 0.007), respectively. The MVCT-scanned body contour volumes had a tendency to decrease as the treatment sessions progressed (p = 0.043 at the 8th fraction and p = 0.044 at the 10th fraction). There was a statistically significant correlation between bladder filling time and PREBV (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Daily MVCT-based bladder volume assessment was feasible both intra- and inter-fractionally.

Outcome analysis in patients with uterine sarcoma

  • Yu, Tosol;Kim, Hak Jae;Wu, Hong-Gyun;Ha, Sung Whan;Song, Yong-Sang;Park, Noh-Hyun;Kim, Jae-Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors for survivals and to evaluate the impact of postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) on pelvic failure in patients with uterine sarcoma treated with radical surgery. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 75 patients with uterine sarcoma who underwent radical surgery with (n = 22) or without (n = 53) radiotherapy between 1990 and 2010. There were 23 and 52 patients with carcinosarcoma and non-carcinosarcoma (leiomyosarcoma, 22; endometrial stromal sarcoma, 25; others, 5), respectively. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 17 to 269 months). Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and pelvic failure-free survival (PFFS) of total patients was 64.2% and 83.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that mitotic count (p = 0.006) was a significant predictor of OS. However, factors were not found to be associated with PFFS. On analyzing each of the histologic subtypes separately, postoperative WPRT significantly reduced pelvic failure in patients with carcinosarcoma (10.0% vs. 53.7%; p = 0.046), but not in patients with non-carcinosarcoma (12.5% vs. 9.9%; p = 0.866). Among the patients with carcinosarcoma, 4 patients (17%) had recurrence within the pelvis and 3 patients (13%) had recurrence in other sites as an initial failure, whereas among the patients with non-carcinosarcoma, 3 patients (6%) experienced pelvic failure and 13 patients (25%) experienced distant failure. Conclusion: The most significant predictor of OS was mitotic count. Based on the improved PFFS after postoperative WPRT only in patients with carcinosarcoma and the difference in patterns of failure between histologic subtypes, optimal adjuvant treatment options should be offered to patients based on the risk of recurrence patterns.

Outcome after Surgery for Metastases to the Pelvic Bone: A Single Institutional Experience

  • Krishnan, Chandra Kumar;Han, Ilkyu;Kim, Han-Soo
    • Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.116-125
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    • 2017
  • Background: The pelvic bone is the most common site of bone metastases following the axial skeleton. Surgery on the pelvic bone is a demanding procedure. Few studies have been published on the surgical outcomes of metastasis to the pelvic bone with only small numbers of patients involved. This study sought to analyze the complications, local progression and survival after surgery for metastasis to the pelvic bone on a larger cohort of patients. Methods: We analyzed 83 patients who underwent surgery for metastases to the pelvic bone between the years 2000 and 2015. There were 41 men and 42 women with a mean age of 55 years. Possible factors that might be associated with complications, local progression and survival were investigated with regard to patient demographics and disease-related and treatment-related variables. Results: The overall complication rate was 16% (13/83). Advanced age (> 55 years, p = 0.034) and low preoperative serum albumin levels (${\leq}39g/L$, p = 0.001) were associated with increased complication rates. In patients with periacetabular disease, the complication rate was higher in those who underwent total hip replacement arthroplasty (THR) than those who did not (p = 0.030). Local progression rate was 46% (37/83). The overall median time to local progression was $26{\pm}14.3months$. The median time from local progression to death was 13 months (range, 0 to 81 months). The local progression-free survival was $52.6%{\pm}6.4%$ at 2 years and $36.4%{\pm}7.6%$ at 5 years, respectively. Presence of skip lesions (p = 0.017) and presence of visceral metastasis (p = 0.027) were found to be significantly associated with local progression. The median survival of all patients was 24 months. The 2-year and 3-year survival rates were $52.5%{\pm}5.9%$ and $35.6%{\pm}6%$, respectively. Metastasis from the kidney, breast, or thyroid or of hematolymphoid origin (p = 0.014), absence of visceral metastasis (p = 0.017) and higher preoperative serum albumin levels (p = 0.009) were associated with a prolonged survival. Conclusions: Advanced age and low serum albumin levels were associated with high complication rates. Local progression after surgery for metastases to the pelvic bone was affected by the presence of skip lesions, not by surgical margins. Primary cancer type, serum albumin level and visceral metastasis influenced survival.

A sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with masculinization in a premenarchal girl

  • Park, Soo-Min;Kim, Young-Nam;Woo, Young-Jong;Choi, Ho-Sun;Lee, Ji-Shin;Heo, Suk-Hee;Kim, Chan-Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.224-227
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    • 2011
  • A sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare benign tumor; it usually is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients present with pelvic pain or a palpable abdominal mass. Hormonal effects such as masculinization are uncommon. Here, an 11-year old premenarchal girl presented with deepening of the voice. In addition, clitoromegaly and hirsutism with a male suprapubic hair pattern were observed. The laboratory findings showed that the testosterone level was elevated to 3.67 ng/ml, andostenedione to above 10 ng/ml, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate to 346 ${\mu}g$/dl and 17-hydroxy progesterone (17-OHP) to 11.28 ng/ml. The chromosome evaluation revealed a 46,XX female karyotype. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was performed. The 17-OHP to cortisol ratio in 30 minutes was 0.045, which suggested a heterozygote for the 21-hydroxylase deficiency. However, the CYP21A2 gene encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase showed normal. The pelvic ultrasound showed a heterogeneous mass consisting of predominantly solid tissue in the pelvic cavity. The pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed an $8.9{\times}6.2{\times}6.6$ cm mass of the left ovary. A left oophrectomy was performed and microscopic examination confirmed a sclerosing stromal tumor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor was positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin, but negative for S-100 protein and cytokeratin. Following surgery, the hormone levels returned to the normal range and the hirsutism resolved.

Value of imaging study in predicting pelvic lymph node metastases of uterine cervical cancer

  • Jung, Wonguen;Park, Kyung Ran;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Kyubo;Lee, Jihae;Jeong, Songmi;Kim, Yi-Jun;Kim, Jiyoung;Yoon, Hai-Jeon;Kang, Byung-Chul;Koo, Hae Soo;Sung, Sun Hee;Cho, Min-Sun;Park, Sanghui
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.340-348
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting pelvic lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to March 2015, 114 patients with FIGO stage IA1-IIB uterine cervical cancer who underwent hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and took CT, MRI, and PET/CT before surgery were enrolled in this study. The criteria for LN metastases were a LN diameter ${\geq}1.0cm$ and/or the presence of central necrosis on CT, a LN diameter ${\geq}1.0cm$ on MRI, and a focally increased FDG uptake on PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for pelvic LN metastases were estimated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for detection of pelvic LN metastases were 51.4%, 85.9%, 41.3%, 90.1%, and 80.3% for CT; 24.3%, 96.3%, 56.3%, 86.8%, and 84.6% for MRI; and 48.6%, 89.5%, 47.4%, 90.0%, and 82.9% for PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity of PET/CT and CT was higher than that of MRI (p=0.004 and p= 0.013, respectively). The specificity of MRI was higher than those of PET/CT and CT (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively). The difference of specificity between PET/CT and CT was not statistically significant (p=0.167). Conclusion: These results indicate that preoperative CT, MRI, and PET/CT showed low to moderate sensitivity and PPV, and moderate to high specificity, NPV, and accuracy. More efforts are necessary to improve sensitivity of imaging modalities in order to predict pelvic LN metastases.

Primary Pelvic Peritoneal Yolk Sac Tumor in the Post-Pubertal Female: a Case Report with Literature Review

  • Kim, Myojeong;Lee, Eun Ji;Hwang, Jiyoung;Hong, Seong Sook;Chang, Yun-Woo;Oh, Eunsun;Nam, Bo Da;Choi, Inho;Kim, Jeong Sig
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 2019
  • Yolk sac tumors are rare malignant germ cell neoplasms that usually arise from the gonads. Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (EGYSTs) frequently occur in the mediastinum in post-pubertal females. EGYSTs in the pelvis are extremely rare, and to date, only thirteen cases have been reported in the English literature. Among them, the primary EGYST of the pelvic peritoneum in post-pubertal females has only been reported in ten cases. The present case describes a 26-year-old female diagnosed with primary peritoneal yolk sac tumor located in the rectouterine pouch. We report clinical and tumor imaging features, including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance images (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and present a review of the literature.

Clinical significance of lymph node size in locally advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  • Oh, Jinju;Seol, Ki Ho;Choi, Youn Seok;Lee, Jeong Won;Bae, Jin Young
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2019
  • Background: This study aimed to assess the in-field lymph node (LN) failure rate according to LN size and to investigate effect of LN size on the survival outcome of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 310 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT were enrolled in retrospective study. LN status was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. All patients received conventional external beam irradiation and high-dose rate brachytherapy, and concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In-field LN failure rate according to LN size was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up period was 83 months (range, 3-201 months). In-field LN failure rate in patients with pelvic LN size more than 10 mm was significantly higher than that in patients with pelvic LN size less than 10 mm (p<0.001). A similar finding was observed in the infield para-aortic LN (PALN) failure rate (p=0.024). The pelvic and PALN size (${\geq}10mm$) was a significant prognostic factor of overall-survival (OS) and disease-free survival rate in univariate and multivariate analyses. The OS rate was significantly different between groups according to LN size (<10 mm vs. ${\geq}10mm$). Conclusion: A LN of less than 10 mm in size in an imaging study is controlled by CCRT. On the other hand, in LN of more than 10 mm in size, the in-field LN failure rate increase and the prognosis deteriorate. Therefore, a more aggressive treatment strategy is needed.