• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pandemic

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Modelling the Impact of Pandemic Influenza (신종 인플루엔자 대유행의 확산과 영향 모델링)

  • Chun, Byung-Chul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2005
  • The impact of the next influenza pandemic is difficult to predict. It is dependent on how virulent the virus is, how rapidly it spreads from population to population, and the effectiveness of prevention and response efforts. Despite the uncertainty about the magnitude of the next pandemic, estimates of the health and economic impact remain important to aid public health policy decisions and guide pandemic planning for health and emergency sectors. Planning ahead in preparation for an influenza pandemic, with its potentially very high morbidity and mortality rates, is essential for hospital administrators and public health officials. The estimat ion of pandemic impact is based on the previous pandemics- we had experienced at least 3 pandemics in 20th century. But the epidemiologi cal characteristics - ie, start season, the impact of 1st wave, pathogenicity and virulence of the viruses and the primary victims of population were quite different from one another. I reviewed methodology for estimation and modelling of pandemic impact and described some nations's results using them in their national preparedness plans. And then I showed the estimates of pandemic influenza impact in Korea with FluSurge and FluAid. And, I described the results of pandemic modelling with parameters of 1918 pandemic for the shake of education and training of the first-line responder health officials to the epidemics. In preparing influenza pandemics, the simulation and modelling are the keys to reduce the uncertainty of the future and to make proper policies to manage and control the pandemics.

The Preparedness Plan for Influenza Pandemic (신종 인플루엔자 대유행에 대한 우리나라의 대응방안)

  • Lee, Duk-Hyoung;Park, Ki-Dong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.386-390
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    • 2005
  • Influenza A viruses periodicall y cause worldwide epidemics, or pandemics, with high rates of illness and death. A pandemic can occur at any time, with the potential to cause serious illness, death and social and economic disruption throughout the world. Historic evidence suggests that pandemics occurred three to four times per century. In the last century there were three influenza pandemics. The circumstances still exist for a new influenza virus with pandemic potential to emerge an d spread. The unpredictability of the timing of the next pandemic is underlined by the occurrence of several large outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza since the early 1980s. In 1999, the World Health Organization published the Influenza pandemic plan. The role of WHO and guidelines for national and regional planning. And in 2005, WHO revised the global influenza preparedness plan for new national measures before and during pandemics. This document outlines briefly the Korean Centers for Disease Control's plan for responding to an influenza pandemic. According to the new pandemic phases of WHO, we set up the 4 national levels of preparedness and made guidelines for preventing and control the epidemics in each phase. And also we described the future plans to antiviral stockpiles and pandemic vaccine development.

The Evaluation of Policies on 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Korea (2009년 발생한 신종인플루엔자 대유행에 대한 정책적 대응 평가)

  • Choi, Won-Suk;Kim, Woo-Joo;Cheong, Hee-Jin
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.105-108
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: To evaluate the policies on 2009 influenza pandemic in Korea at the end of first wave. Methods: The main policies and the estimation of these were described according to the progress of 2009 influenza pandemic. Results: The public health measures for containment were estimated to be successful in the early stage. The preparedness of antiviral agents and vaccines before the pandemic, risk-communication on pandemic influenza and policies of government including vaccines, and the education of health care worker and support of health care institutions was not enough to respond to the pandemic. Conclusions: The additional evaluation should be performed at the end of the pandemic in various aspects including health and socioeconomic effects.

Awareness about Pandemic Infectious Diseases, Ethical Awareness, and Ethical Decision-making among Nursing Students (간호대학생의 신종 감염병에 대한 인식, 신종 감염병 상황에서의 윤리 인식과 윤리적 의사결정)

  • Kim, Yunsoo;Hong, Sungsil
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.326-339
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study attempts to identify the level of awareness, ethical awareness, and decision-making among nursing students, in response to pandemic infectious diseases. Methods: Subjects were 210 nursing college students attending colleges in 5 cities and provinces nationwide. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 using a self-administrated questionnaire, and analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics. Results: Considering the awareness of pandemic infectious diseases, the nursing students expressed high concern about the possibility of future outbreaks of pandemic infectious diseases and seriousness of the situation. There were numerous negative views on the response and stockpiling of drugs by the government. Ethical awareness of pandemic infectious diseases was high, with demands for accurate information and proper protective equipment. Overall, ethical decision-making when responding to pandemic infectious diseases represented a high score. Also, higher awareness levels of pandemic infectious diseases would result in increased ethical and ethical decision-making. Conclusion: In conclusion, we propose the introduction of an ethical education program for medical personnel and nursing university students, to enable the handling of future pandemic outbreaks of new infectious diseases.

The Impact of Government Regulations on Consumers Behaviour during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study in Indonesia

  • IRIANI, Sri Setyo;NUSWANTARA, Dian Anita;KARTIKA, Ajeng Dianing;PURWOHANDOKO, Purwohandoko
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.939-948
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of the research is to examine whether government regulation on Covid 19 pandemic has had a significant impact in economic sectors, particularly on consumer behavior. Thus there are three hypotheses, 1) viral marketing has an effect on online trust during the Covid-19 Pandemic Era, 2) viral marketing has an effect on impulse buying during the Covid-19 Pandemic Era, and 3) Viral marketing has an effect on impulse buying in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era through online trust. To test the hypotheses, questionnaires were distributed to 150 respondents, however, only 110 were selected due to incomplete data. There are 3 variables, namely viral marketing, online trust, and impulse buying, where online trust is also a mediating variable. Once the assumption test is completed, the researcher employs path analysis to test the hypotheses. The results are 1) there is an effect of viral marketing on online trust in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era, 2) There is no effect of viral marketing on impulse buying in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era, and 3) Viral marketing has an effect on impulse buying in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era through online trust. This means online trust succeed in mediating viral marketing-impulse buying relationship. The findings emphasized that the credibility of online trust enforce consumers in making buying decisions.

Analysis of trends and meanings of fashion masks under the pandemic influence (팬데믹 영향 하의 패션 마스크 디자인 경향 및 의미 분석)

  • Li, Hongyan;Yim, Eunhyuk
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.406-421
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    • 2021
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, the obligatory wearing of masks has led to increased consumer demand and the diversification of mask design. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand the inner meaning and characteristics of masks in the pandemic situation. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze the characteristics of fashionable masks and their new cultural meaning under the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is based on literature review and empirical research. Drawing on an investigation of the historical evolution of masks and their transition under the pandemic (exhibiting differences in mask culture among countries and regions), this study analyzed 54 distinctive fashion masks designed by fashion brands and influencers that appeared from January 2020 to January 2021. The characteristics of fashion masks identified under the influence of the pandemic are as follows: Message delivery on political issues and human rights; psychological defense and expression of individuality; and conspicuous display via luxurious materials and luxury brand logos; moreover, the design of the mask uses the same material, color, pattern, decoration, and other methods as clothing to achieve the overall style. Over the course of the pandemic (and even in post-pandemic lifestyle), fashion masks are becoming more diversified conveying new social and cultural meanings.

The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Stock Market: An Empirical Study in Saudi Arabia

  • ALZYADAT, Jumah Ahmad;ASFOURA, Evan
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.913-921
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    • 2021
  • The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Saudi Arabia stock market. The study relied on the data of the daily closing stock market price index Tadawul All Share Index (TASI), and the number of daily cases infected with COVID-19 during the period from March 15, 2020, to August 10, 2020. The study employs the Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) model, the Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) models. The results of the correlation matrix and the Impulse Response Function (IRF) show that stock market returns responded negatively to the growth in COVID-19 infected cases during the pandemic. The results of ARCH model confirmed the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on KSA stock market returns. The results also showed that the negative market reaction was strong during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study concluded that stock market in KSA responded quickly to the COVID-19 pandemic; the response varies over time according to the stage of the pandemic. However, the Saudi government's response time and size of the stimulus package have played an important role in alleviating the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Saudi Arabia Stock Market.

The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza in Korea

  • Kim, Jae Yeol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2016
  • In late March of 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico, was eventually identified as H1N1 influenza A. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised a pandemic alert to the highest level. More than 214 countries have reported confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza A. In Korea, the first case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection was reported on May 2, 2009. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 750,000 cases of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 were confirmed by laboratory test. The H1N1-related death toll was estimated to reach 252 individuals. Almost one billion cases of influenza occurs globally every year, resulting in 300,000 to 500,000 deaths. Influenza vaccination induces virus-neutralizing antibodies, mainly against hemagglutinin, which provide protection from invading virus. New quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine generates similar immune responses against the three influenza strains contained in two types of trivalent vaccines and superior responses against the additional B strain.

Clinical characteristics and outcomes among pediatric patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection

  • Lee, Eun;Seo, Ju-Hee;Kim, Hyung-Young;Na, Shin;Kim, Sung-Han;Kwon, Ji-Won;Kim, Byoung-Ju;Hong, Soo-Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.54 no.8
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    • pp.329-334
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and epidemiologic features and outcomes among children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of hospitalized pediatric patients (<18 years) diagnosed with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea, between September 2009 and February 2010. Results: A total of 72 children were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection (median age, 6.0 years; range, 2 months to 18 years). A total of 40% had at least 1 underlying medical condition, including asthma (17%), malignancies (19%), and heart diseases (17%). Of the 72 patients, 54 (76%) children admitted with H1N1 infection showed radiographic alterations compatible with pneumonia. There was no significant difference in pre-existing conditions between pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infected patients with or without pneumonia. Children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia were more likely to have a lower lymphocyte ratio (P=0.02), higher platelet count (P=0.02), and higher level of serum glucose (P=0.003), and more commonly presented with dyspnea than did those without pneumonia (P=0.04). Conclusions: No significant differences in age, sex, or presence of preexisting conditions were found between children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 H1N1 influenza infection with pneumonia and those without pneumonia. Higher leukocyte count, higher glucose level, and a lower lymphocyte ratio were associated with the development of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia.

Awareness about pandemic influenza, Ethical Awareness, and Ethical Decision-making among Nursing Students in the situation of COVID-19 pandemic. (코로나-19 대유행 시 간호대학생의 신종감염병에 대한 인식과 윤리 인식, 윤리적 의사결정)

  • Park, Mihwa
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.335-344
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    • 2020
  • This study was a descriptive research study to identify of awareness about pandemic influenza, ethical awareness, and ethical decision-making in the situation of COVID-19 pandemic. The subjects were 194 nursing students in H and Y city. Data collected from May 1 to June 20, 2020 and analyzed using the SPSS 24.0 program. The subject's awareness about pandemic influenza was moderate, and ethical awareness and ethical decision-making were high. Ethics awareness and ethical decision-making levels were higher for those who had a history of infection with new type of infectious disease than those who did not. Awareness about pandemic influenza is positively correlated with ethical awareness(r=.291, p<.001) and ethical decision-making related to pandemic influenza(r=.143, p=.046), ethical awareness is a positive correlation with ethical decision-making(r=.274, p<.001). Based on result, propose the development of an educational program to make correct ethical decisions in the social disaster caused by infectious diseases for nursing students.