• Title, Summary, Keyword: PGPR

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Current Perspectives on the Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (식물생장촉진 근권미생물의 영향에 대한 연구 현황 및 전망)

  • Le, Thien Tu Huynh;Jun, Sang Eun;Kim, Gyung-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1281-1293
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    • 2019
  • The rhizosphere is the active zone where plant roots communicate with the soil microbiome, each responding to the other's signals. The soil microbiome within the rhizosphere that is beneficial to plant growth and productivity is known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR take part in many pivotal plant processes, including plant growth, development, immunity, and productivity, by influencing acquisition and utilization of nutrient molecules, regulation of phytohormone biosynthesis, signaling, and response, and resistance to biotic- and abiotic-stresses. PGPR also produce secondary compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that elicit plant growth. Moreover, plant roots exude attractants that cause PGPR to aggregate in the rhizosphere zone for colonization, improving soil properties and protecting plants against pathogenic factors. The interactions between PGPR and plant roots in rhizosphere are essential and interdependent. Many studies have reported that PGPR function in multiple ways under the same or diverse conditions, directly and indirectly. This review focuses on the roles and strategies of PGPR in enhancing nutrient acquisition by nutrient fixation/solubilization/mineralization, inducing plant growth regulators/phytohormones, and promoting growth and development of root and shoot by affecting cell division, elongation, and differentiation. We also summarize the current knowledge of the effects of PGPR and the soil microbiota on plants.

Improved Germination and Seedling Growth of Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea in Heavy Metal Contaminated Medium by Inoculation of a multiple-Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium (m-PGPR) (중금속 오염배지에서 식물성장증진 근권미생물에 의한 식용 피 발아율과 유식물 성장 증진)

  • Lee, Ah-Reum;Bae, Bum-Han
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2011
  • Positive effect of multiple-PGPR (Plan Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria), isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil, on the germination of Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) was quantitatively estimated in 5 heavy metal (Cd, As, Ni, Cu, and Pb) contaminated liquid medium. The $EC_{50}$ value for respective heavy metal was estimated by TSK (Trimmed Speraman-Karber) model based on germination rate. The results showed overall increase in $EC_{50}$ with PGPR inoculation. The $EC_{50}$ value increased 1.4% from 96.0 mg/L (control) to 97.4 mg/L (PGPR-treated) in As contaminated medium. In Ni contaminated medium, the $EC_{50}$ value increased 31.9% from 148.0 mg/L (control) to 195.2 mg/L (PGPR-treated), while the $EC_{50}$ showed 4.8% increase from 63.4 mg/L (control) to 66.5 mg/L (PGPR-treated) in Cu medium. Overall seedling growth was stronger in the PGPR treated seeds than that in the control, but positive effect on seedling growth was not conspicuous. At effective concentration of 100 mg/L, the average seedling length of the PGPR treatment in As, Cd, Cu, and Ni medium, respectively, was 1.13, 0.14, 0.40, and 0.06 cm longer than that in the control. However, the increase of seedling growth was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05). These results suggest that inoculation of the isolated-PGPR exerts positive effects on seed germination by reducing heavy metal toxicity and can be an effective tool for application of phytoremediation on heavy metal contaminated soils.

Genetic Diversity of Cultivable Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria in Korea

  • Kim, Won-Il;Cho, Won-Kyong;Kim, Su-Nam;Chu, Hyo-Sub;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul;Yun, Jong-Chul;Park, Chang-Seuk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.777-790
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    • 2011
  • To elucidate the biodiversity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in Korea, 7,638 bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plant species growing in many different regions were screened. A large number of PGPR were identified by testing the ability of each isolate to promote the growth of cucumber seedlings. After redundant rhizobacteria were removed via amplified rDNA restriction analysis, 90 strains were finally selected as PGPR. On the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, 68 Gram-positive (76%) and 22 Gram-negative (24%) isolates were assigned to 21 genera and 47 species. Of these genera, Bacillus (32 species) made up the largest complement, followed by Paenibacillus (19) and Pseudomonas (11). Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the Grampositive PGPR fell into two categories: low- and high- G+C (Actinobacteria) strains. The Gram-negative PGPR were distributed in three categories: ${\alpha}$-proteobacteria, ${\beta}$- proteobacteria, and ${\gamma}$-proteobacteria. To our knowledge, this is the largest screening study designed to isolate diverse PGPR. The enlarged understanding of PGPR genetic diversity provided herein will expand the knowledge base regarding beneficial plant-microbe interactions. The outcome of this research may have a practical effect on crop production methodologies.

Enhancing Resistance of Red Pepper to Phytophthora Blight Diseases by Seed Treatment with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

  • M. Rajkumar;Lee, Kui-Jae;Lee, Wang-Hyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.95.1-95
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    • 2003
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to suppress phytopthora blight. This suppression has been related to both microbial antagonism and induced resistance. The PGPR isolates were screened by dual culture plate method and most of the isolates were showed varying levels of antagonism. Among the PGPR isolates pyoverdin, pyochelin and salicylic acid producing strains showed the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of Phytopkhora capsici and increased plant growth promotion in red pepper. PGPR isolates further analysed for its ability to induce production of defence related enzymes and chemicals. The activities such as Phenyle alanin ammonia Iyase (PAL), Peroxidase (PO), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and accumulation of phenolics were observed in PGPR pretreated red pepper plants challenged with Phytopkhora capsici. The present study shows that an addition of direct antagonism and plant growth promotion, induction of defense related enzymes involved to enhance resistance against invasion of P. capsici in red pepper.

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Rapid Detection of Cadmium-Resistant Plant Growth Promotory Rhizobacteria: A Perspective of ELISA and QCM-Based Immunosensor

  • Agrawal, Ruchi;Satlewal, Alok;Chaudhary, Manav;Verma, Amit;Singh, Rachna;Verma, A.K.;Kumar, Rajesh;Singh, K.P.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.849-855
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    • 2012
  • Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) pseudomonads have a large number of lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface, which induces immune responses. Cd-resistant PGPR prevalent at the Cd-affected sites under biophytostabilization was monitored. Transmissiom electron microscopy was used to the study the behavior of tolerance of PGPR to cadmium level and its effect on pseudomonad strains (Z9, S2, KNP2, CRPF, and NBRI). An immunosensor was developed by immobilizing antibody (anti-Z9 or anti-S2) against selected PGPR on a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Immunosensors were found to supplement the inherent specificity of antigen-antibody reactions with the high sensitivity of a physical transducer. On comparison of the efficiency of detection with ELISA, the spectrophotometric technique, the developed immunosensor was found to be more sensitive, fast, and reliable even after regeneration for several times. Thus, the immunosensor may be used for future detection of PGPR strains after automation of the screening process.

Invisible Signals from the Underground: Bacterial Volatiles Elicit Plant Growth Promotion and Induce Systemic Resistance

  • Ryu, Choong-Min;Farag, Mohammed A.;Pare, Paul. W.;Kloepper, Joseph W.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2005
  • Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a wide range of root-colonizing bacteria with the capacity to enhance plant growth and control plant pathogens. Here we review recent progress that indicate some PGPR strains release a blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that promote growth in Arabidopsis seedlings and induce resistance against Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. In particular, the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin released exclusively from the PGPR strains triggered the greatest level of growth promotion and induced systemic resistance. Pharmacological applications of 2,3-butanediol promoted the plant growth and induced resistance, while bacterial mutants blocked in 2,3-butanediol and acetoin synthesis was devoid of growth-promotion and induced resistance capacities. The results suggested that the bacterial VOCs play a critical role in the plant growth promotion and induced resistance by PGPR. Using transgenic and mutant lines of Arabidopsis, we provide evidences that the signal pathway activated by volatiles from one PGPR strain is dependent on cyto-kinin activation for growth promotion and dependent on an ethylene-signaling pathway for induced pathogen resistance. This discovery provides new insight into the role of bacterial VOCs as initiators of both plant growth promotion and defense responses in plants.

Heavy Metals Immobilization in Soil with Plant-growth-promoting Rhizobacteria and Microbial Carbonate Precipitation in Support of Radish Growth

  • He, Jing;Zhang, Qiuzhuo;Achal, Varenyam
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2020
  • The application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) supports the growth of plants in contaminated soil while ureolytic bacteria can immobilise heavy metals by carbonate precipitation. Thus, dual treatment with such bacteria may be beneficial for plant growth and bioremediation in contaminated soil. This study aimed to determine whether the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens could work in synergy with ureolytic bacteria to assist with the remediation of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soils. Pot experiments were conducted to grow radish plants in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils treated with PGPR P. fluorescens and the results were compared with dual inoculation of P. fluorescens combined with ureolytic Staphylococcus epidermidis HJ2. The removal rate of the metals from the soil was more than 83% for Cd and Pb by the combined treatment compared to 17% by PGPR alone. Further, the dual treatment reduced the metal accumulation in the roots by more than 80%. The translocation factors for Cd and Pb in plant tissues in both treatments remained the same, suggesting that PGPR combined with the carbonate precipitation process does not hamper the transfer of essential metal ions into plant tissues from the soil.

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria influence potato tuberization through enhancing lipoxygenase activity

  • Akula, Nookaraju;Upadhyaya, Chandrama P.;Kim, Doo-Hwan;Chun, Se-Chul;Park, Se-Won
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.18-18
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    • 2010
  • Molecular insights on the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in potato tuberization are reported in the present study. The PGPRwere isolated from the soil collected from potato fields of Highland Agricultural Research Centre, Pyeongchang, Korea and they were identified to the genus level based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. These PGPR were heat-killed, filtered and the filtrates were addedindividually at a concentration of $10^7\;cfu\;mL^{-1}$ in MS (Murashige and Skoog's) medium supplemented with 7% (w/v) sucrose to study their influence on in vitro potato tuberization. Tuber initiation occurred early in untreated control, while tuber growth was pronounced in case of PGPR treatments. The control explants showed tuber formation as a result of sub-apical swelling of stolons while several sessile tubers formed directly in the axils of nodal cuttings in case of PGPR treatments, which is an indication of strong induction for tuberization. Theexplants cultured on MS medium supplemented with bacterial isolate 6 (Bacillus firmus strain 40) showed highest average tuber yield (Ca. 12.56 g per treatment) after 30 days of culture, which was 3 folds increase over the untreated control. A significant increase in lipoxygenase (LOX1) mRNA expression and activity of LOX enzyme were also detected in the tubers induced on PGPR treatments as compared to untreated control. This LOX expression level correlated with increased tuber growth and tuber yield. Further studies focused on the role of bacteria cell wall components, growth regulators and signal molecules released by PGPR are under investigation to elicit clues for PGPR-mediated signal pathway controlling potato tuberization.

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Enhancing Resistance of Red Pepper to Phytophthora Blight Diseases by Seed Treatment with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

  • M. Rajkumar;Lee, Kui-Jae;Park, Min-Kyung;Jo, Rae-Yun;Lee, Wang-Hui
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.47-47
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    • 2003
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to suppress phytopthora blight. This suppression has been related to both microbial antagonism and induced resistance. The PGPR isolates were screened by dual culture plate method and most of the isolates were showed varyinglevels of antagonism. Among the PGPR isolates pyoverdin, pyochelin and salicylic acid producing strains showed the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici and increased plant growth promotion in red pepper. PGPR isolatesfurther analysed for its ability to induce production of defence related enzymes and chemicals. The activities such as Phenyle alanin ammonia lyase (PAL), Peroxidase (PO), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and accumulation of phenolics were observed in PGPR pretreated red pepper plants challenged with Phytophthora capsici. The present study shows that an addition of direct antagonism and plant growth promotion, induction of defense related enzymes involved to enhance resistance against invasion of P. capsici in red pepper.

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Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

  • Park, Yong-Soon;Park, Kyungseok;Kloepper, Joseph W.;Ryu, Choong-Min
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2015
  • Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.