• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAT

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Allergenicity and toxicity evaluation of the PAT protein expressed in herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Zoysia japonica (제초제저항성 GM 잔디에서 발현된 PAT 단백질의 알레르겐 유발 가능성 및 독성 평가)

  • Jeong, Hye-Rin;Sun, Hyeon-Jin;Kang, Ji-Nam;Kang, Hong-Gyu;Lee, Hyo-Yeon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.316-323
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to evaluate the potential allergenicity and oral toxicity of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) protein expressed in Zoysia japonica, a herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) zoysiagrass. In silico analysis of PAT showed no similarities with any known allergenic or toxic proteins, with <35% amino acid sequence homology with known allergens across a length of 80 amino acids and no continuous eight amino acid identity with known allergens. The PAT protein expressed in Z. japonica degraded very rapidly in the simulated gastric fluid in the presence of pepsin, and, no glycosylation of PAT was observed. The oral toxicity test revealed no mortality or toxic effect in mice following PAT administration at 4,000 mg/kg body weight. Our findings indicate that the PAT protein expressed in Zoysia japonica does not exhibit allergenic or toxic properties.

A New Method for Unconstrained Pulse Arrival Time (PAT) Measurement on a Chair

  • Kim Ko-Keun;Chee Young-Joon;Lim Yong-Gyu;Choi Jin-Wook;Park Kwang-Suk
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2006
  • A new method of measuring pulse arrival time (PAT), which is usually used for the estimation of systolic blood pressure, in an unconstrained manner using a chair, is proposed. The capacitive-coupled ECG (CC-ECG) measurement system and the air cushion with balancing tubes system were used for unconstrained PAT measurement. Firstly, the correlation between the standard PAT (S-PAT) from the photoplethysmography (PPG) and the PAT measured in an unconstrained manner (U-PAT) was evaluated. It was observed that U-PAT, which is the time delay from the R-peak of ECG to the steepest decent point of air cushion pressure wave, is significantly correlated with the S-PAT. Secondly, systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured by the radial tonometer is compared to the U-PAT. The ten-beat averaged U-PAT removed respiration effects and demonstrated a high intra-subject correlation with SBP in all participants. Finally, the tonometry SBP was estimated from these U-PAT values for one participant intermittently during half a day.

Analysis of a Heterocyst-controlling Gene and Its Expression upon Nitrogen Starvation in a Cyanobacterium (남조류의 이형세포 조절 유전자와 질소량에 따른 유전자 발현의 분석)

  • Bae, Jeong-Jin;Yoon, Ho-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.510-517
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    • 2005
  • The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena is capable of both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation which probably facilitated its incredible adaptation and proliferation in freshwater environments. A small gene, patS, was found to block nitrogen fixing cells from developing which resulted in death of Anabaena in the absence of combined nitrogen sources. We analyzed the DNA sequences in the vicinity of the patS gene by using a codon usage program and detected no codon bias other than the patS open reading frame. Three overlapping cosmids that contain the patS gene were identified, and the presence of other known heterocyst-controlling genes was examined. The patS expression in response to nitrogen starvation was analyzed at the level of transcription and translation by using Northern blot analyses and lacZ-reporter-gene fusion experiments, respectively. The patS expression increased rapidly (within 12 hours) upon the removal of combined nitrogen from the media.

Process analytical technology (PAT): field applications and current status in pharmaceutical industries (공정분석기술: 제약산업에서의 기술개발 사례 및 현황)

  • Woo, Young-Ah;Kim, Jong-Yun;Park, Yong Joon;Yeon, Jei-Won;Song, Kyuseok;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2009
  • The goal of PAT (Process Analytical Technology) is to build quality into products through better understanding and control of manufacturing processes, rather than merely testing the quality of the end product. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are trying to develop and implement new technologies in pharmaceutical production and quality control for real-time measurements of critical product and process parameters. Characterization of manufacturing process through experimental design, for evaluation of the effect of product and process variables, represents an integral part of the PAT framework. However, the publications regarding real PAT application to pharmaceutical process are very limited and the technologies are confidential as well. In this review, the case studies related to PAT are shown with real applications from a pharmaceutical company. Additionally, various applications of PAT on the developing stage are introduced with high analytical technologies for the improvement of quality control on manufacturing process.

A Study on the Equilibrium Cyclic Oligomer of Poly(alkylene terephthalate) by Using RIS Model (RIS 모델을 이용한 폴리알킬렌테레프탈레이트의 평형 고리 올리고머에 관한 연구)

  • 육지호;류동일
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.182-193
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    • 2000
  • Molar cyclization equilibrium constant (K$_{x}$) of poly(alkylene terephthalate) (PAT) cyclics was calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation on the basis of rotational isomeric state (RIS) model. The experimental $K_{x}$ of PAT cyclics, which was not clearly explained by the Jacobson-Stockmayer theory and the method of Flory, Suter, and Mutter however, was explained well by the direct computational method with the reaction radius ${\gamma}$=0.5 < ${\gamma}^{2}$> $^{1/2}$. The effect of PAT conformation on $K_{x}$ of PAT cyclics was investigated by changing its statistical weight parameters, ${\sigma}_{1}$ and ${\sigma}_{2}{\cdot}K_{x}$ of PAT cyclics obtained by the direct computation method with various radii and the radius ${\gamma}$=0.5 < ${\gamma}^{2}$> $^{1/2}$ was slightly changed with ${\sigma}_{1}$ and ${\sigma}_{2}$. Consequently, it was concluded that $K_{x}$ of PAT cyclics is strongly dependent on the configuration of each PAT and affected by the change of its conformation to some extent.

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An Effective Selection of PAT Gene Transformed Populus alba $\{times}$ Populus glandulosa No.3 using Herbicide Basta Treatment (제초제 Basta를 이용한 Phosphinothricin Acetyltransferase 유전자로 형질전환된 현사시 3호의 효율적인 선발)

  • 오경은;문흥규;박재인;양덕춘
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.28-33
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to simple transformants selection by herbicide Basta treatment after transformation with Agrobacteium tumefaciens MP90/PAT in hybrid poplar(Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa No. 3). In preliminary study, we determined that the lethal concentration of herbicide Basta was 1.0mg/L in callus culture, adventitious bud formation and axillary bud elongation experiment. By the treatment of 1.0mg/L Basta, we could be selected the transformed shoots effectively from the various cultures. In addition, the treatment was useful on selection of transformants which are growing in soil pot. Finally, we also confirmed the transformation by PAT assay, Above results show that the herbicide Basta treatment and PAT assay can be a very simple and effective method for the identification of PAT gene transformed hybrid poplar.

Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to PAT Protein Expressed in Genetically Modified Herbicide-Resistance Maize (제초제 내성 유전자 변형 옥수수 중 PAT단백질에 특이한 단크론성 항체의 생산과 특성 확인)

  • Kim, Sol-A;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Shim, Won-Bo;Kang, Sung-Jo;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2018
  • In this study, PAT protein of genetically modified maize was prepared from the recombinant E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), and mice were immunized with the recombinant PAT protein. After cell fusion and cloning, two hybridoma cells (PATmAb-7 and PATmAb-12) were chosen since the monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) produced by them were confirmed to be specific to PAT protein in the indirect enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot tests. There were no cross-reactions of either Mabs to other GM proteins or to the extracts of non-GM maize. The ELISA based on the PATmAb-7 can sensitively detect 0.3 ng/g PAT protein in corn. These results indicate that the developed Mabs can be used as bio-receptors in the development of immunosensors and biosensors for the rapid and simple detection of GM corn adulterated in foods.

APP Tail 1 (PAT1) Interacts with Kinesin Light Chains (KLCs) through the Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain (APP tail 1 (PAT1)과 kinesin light chains (KLCs)의 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain을 통한 결합)

  • Jang, Won Hee;Kim, Sang-Jin;Jeong, Young Joo;Jun, Hee Jae;Moon, Il Soo;Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1608-1613
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    • 2012
  • A conventional kinesin, KIF5/Kinesin-I, transports various cargoes along the microtubule through interaction between its light chain subunit and the cargoes. Kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with many different cargoes using their tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, but the mechanism underlying recognition and binding of a specific cargo has not yet been completely elucidated. We used the yeast two-hybrid assay to identify proteins that interact with the TPR domain of KLC1. We found an interaction between the TPR domain of KLC1 and an amyloid precursor protein (APP)-binding protein PAT1 (protein interacting with APP tail 1). The yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that the TPR domain-containing region of KLC1 mediated binding to the C-terminal tail region of PAT1. PAT1 also bound to KLC2 but not to kinesin heavy chains (KIF5A, KIF5B, and KIF5C) in the yeast two-hybrid assay. These protein-protein interactions were also observed in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay and by co-immunoprecipitation. Anti-PAT1 antibody as well as anti-APP anti-body co-immunoprecipitated KLC and KHCs associated with PAT1 from mouse brain extracts. These results suggest that PAT1 could mediate interactions between Kinesin-I and APP containing vesicles.

A Study On The Relationship Characteristics Between Inborn(Myers-Brigg's Type Indicator: MBTI) and Acquired(Personality Adaptation Type: PAT) Factors of Personality (성격의 선천적 요인(MBTI)과 후천적 요인(PAT)의 관계특성 연구)

  • Oh, Soo-Hee
    • 한국사회복지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.757-779
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of study is to provide efficient initial approaches for counseling in social work practice settings. First, it attempts to identify the correlation between the Myers-Brigg's Type Indicator(MBTI), a personality index based on the theory of psychological typology, and Personality Adaptation Types(PAT) models. Second, it attempts to develop a counseling method which can be applied to the initial interview, using the paradigm of door to therapy such as "Open Door", "Target Door", and "Trap Door" based on the PAT theory. The result of the quantitative study showed the correlation between MBTI and PAT as follows: MBTI Extrovert and Feeling(E, F) type was statistically correlated to hysterical PAT. MBTI Extrovert, Intuition and Perceiving(E, N, P) type was statistically correlated to Obsessive-Compulsive PAT. In conclusion, this study finds that when a clinical social worker approaches a client with the client's MBTI personality type and an interventional personality adaptation theory approach such as "Open Door", "Target Door", or "Trap Door", the efficiency of communication is increased significantly.

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Transformation and Expression of the PAT Gene in Arabidopsis Tryptophan Mutants

  • Lim, Seon-Hee;Kim, Young-Soon;Cheong, Hyeon-Sook
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 1996
  • Phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase (PAT) catalyzes the second step of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is encoded by a single-copy gene that complements all the visible phenotypes of the tryptophan mutant (trp1-100) of Arabidopsis. The trp1-100 is blue fluorescent under UV light becuase it accumulates anthranilate. To obtain a plant with reduced PAT activity, PAT1 genes with several internal deletions in different promoter regions (pHS 101, pHS102, pHS104, pHS105, and pHS107) were induced into trp1-100 via Agrobacterium. Then, homozygous T3 plants were isolated and examined for blue fluorescence. Introduction of the PAT1 gene fusants results in the reversion of fluorescence phenotype except in the case of pHS105. These results prompted us to perform a parallel analysis of anthranilate synthase and PAT interms of the genetic complementation. A plant line carrying pHS105 gene fusant does not completely complement the blue fluorescence but it accumulates less anthranilate than trp1-100. The activity of PAT was reduced in the transgenic mutant as well. The plant carrying these constructs will add to the growing collection of molecular tools for the study of the indolic secondary metabolism.

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