• Title/Summary/Keyword: Oxidation

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Effects of Alanine and Glutamine on Alcohol Oxidation and Urea Nitrogen Production in Perfused Rat Liver

  • Yim, Jungeun;Chyun, Jonghee;Cha, Youngnam
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2003
  • Most of the ethyl alcohol consumed by humans is oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver by the cytoplasmic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) system. For this ADH-catalyzed oxidation of alcohol, $NAD^+$ is required as the coenzyme and $NAD^+$becomes reduced to NADH. As the $NAD^+$becomes depleted and NADH accumulates, alcohol oxidation is reduced. For continued alcohol oxidation, the accumulated NADH must be quickly reoxidized to $NAD^+$, and it is this reoxidation of NADH to $NAD^+$that is known to be the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation rate of alcohol The reoxidation of NADH to $NAD^+$is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, with pyruvate being utilized as the substrate. The pyruvate may be supplied from alanine as a result of amino acid metabolism via the urea cycle. Also, glutamine is thought to help with the supply of pyruvate indirectly, and to activate the urea cycle by producing $NH_3$. Thus, in the present study, we have examined the effects of alanine and glutamine on the alcohol oxidation rate. We utilized isolated perfused liver tissue in a system where media containing alanine and glutamine was circulated. Our results showed that when alanine (5.0mM) was added to the glucose-free infusion media, the alcohol oxidation rate was increased by 130%. Furthermore, when both glutamine and alanine were added together to the infusion media, the alcohol oxidation rate increased by as much as 190%, and the rate of urea nitrogen production increased by up to 200%. The addition of glutamine (5.0mM) alone to the infusion media did not accelerate the alcohol oxidation rate. The increases in the rates of alcohol oxidation and urea nitrogen production through the addition of alanine and glutamine indicate that these amino acids have contributed to the enhanced supply of pyruvate through the urea cycle. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of alanine and glutamine could contribute to increased alcohol detoxification through the urea cycle, by enhancing the supply of pyruvate and $NAD^+$to ensure accelerated rates of alcohol oxidation.

Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

  • Yun, Jung-Mi;Surh, Jeong-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation.

Ammonia oxidation activity of nitrifying bacteria and effects of some environmental factors (질화세균의 암모니아 산화능과 이에 미치는 환경요인의 영향)

  • 송홍규;하영칠;홍순우
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 1983
  • Ammonia oxidation activity of polluted water samples in Jinhae Bay and isolated strain from the seawater was investigated, and effects of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, substrate concentration to the ammonia oxidation were also investigated. The ammonia oxidation activities of sediments, 0.01-0.04mg eq. $NO_2-N/l/h$, were exceptionally higher than that of sea water, $0.5{\sim}1{\mu}g$ eq. $NO_2-N/l/h$. the activities of muddy sediments at station 4 and 2 were 0.03~0.04mg eq. $NO_2-N/l/h$ and that of sandy sediment at station 3 was 0.002mg eq. $NO_2-N/l/h$. In the case of sea water, the activity of polluted area, station 1, was 2 times higher than that of offshore, station 4. The isolated strain reached log phase after 30days culturs and its oxidation activity was $2{\sim}3{\mu}g$ eq. $NO_2-N/day$. The maximum oxidation of ammonia by IA 13 strain occured at 30mg/l oxidation increased with the salinity rising up to 100% seawater concentraion. And temperature for maximum oxidation of ammonia was $35^{\circ}C$. the oxidation increased with the salinity rising up to 100% seawater concentration.

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Hydrogen Effect on the Oxidation of Zr-Alloy Claddings under High Temperature (수소화물에 의한 Zr 합금의 고온산화 가속효과)

  • Jung, Yunmock;Ha, Sungwoo;Park, Kwangheon
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.389-394
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    • 2016
  • The operation method of nuclear power plants is currently changing to high burn-up and long period that can enhance economics and efficiency of the plant. Since nuclear plant operation environment has been becoming severe, the amount of absorbed hydrogen also has increased. Absorbed hydrogen can be fatal securing safety of nuclear fuel cladding in case of Loss of Coolant Accidents(LOCA). In order to examine the impact of hydride on high-temperature oxidation, high-temperature oxidation experiment was performed on normal Zry-4 cladding and on Zry-4 cladding where hydrogen is charged in air pressure steam atmosphere under the $950^{\circ}C$ and $1000^{\circ}C$. According to the results, while oxidation acceleration due to charged hydrogen was not observed prior to breakaway oxidation creation, oxidation began to accelerate in cladding where hydrogens charged as soon as the breakaway oxidation started. If so much hydrogen are charged in the cladding, equiaxial monoclinic phase to unstable of stress is formed and it is presumed that oxidation is accelerated because nearby stress caused a crack in equiaxial phase, and that makes corrosion resistance decline sharply.

Oxidation Behaviors of SiCf/SiC Composites Tested at High Temperature in Air by an Ablation Method

  • Park, Ji Yeon;Kim, Daejong;Lee, Hyeon-Geun;Kim, Weon-Ju;Pouchon, Manuel
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.498-503
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    • 2018
  • Using the thermal ablation method, the oxidation behavior of $SiC_f/SiC$ composites was investigated in air and in the temperature range of $1,300^{\circ}C$ to $2,000^{\circ}C$. At the relatively low temperature of $1,300^{\circ}C$, passive oxidation, which formed amorphous phase, predominantly occurred in the thermal ablation test. When the oxidation temperature increased, SiO (g) and CO (g) were formed by active oxidation and the dense oxide layer changed to a porous one by vaporization of gas phases. In the higher temperature oxidation test, both active oxidation due to $SiO_2$ decomposition on the surface of the oxide layer and active/passive oxidation transition due to interfacial reaction between oxide and base materials such as SiC fiber and matrix phase simultaneously occurred. This was another cause of high temperature degradation of $SiC_f/SiC$ composites.

The Characteristics of the Oxide Layer Produced on the Plasma Nitrocarburized Compound Layer of SCM435 Steel by Plasma Oxidation (플라즈마 산질화처리된 SCM435강의 표면경화층의 미세조직과 특성)

  • Jeon Eun-Kab;Park Ik-Min;Lee Insup
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.265-269
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    • 2004
  • Plasma nitrocarburising and post oxidation were performed on SCM435 steel by a pulsed plasma ion nitriding system. Plasma oxidation resulted in the formation of a very thin ferritic oxide layer 1-2 $\mu\textrm{m}$ thick on top of a 15~25 $\mu\textrm{m}$ $\varepsilon$-F $e_{2-3}$(N,C) nitrocarburized compound layer. The growth rate of oxide layer increased with the treatment temperature and time. However, the oxide layer was easily spalled from the compound layer either for both oxidation temperatures above $450^{\circ}C$, or for oxidation time more than 2 hrs at oxidation temperature $400^{\circ}C$. It was confirmed that the relative amount of $Fe_2$$O_3$, compared with $e_3$$O_4$, increased rapidly with the oxidation temperature. The amounts of ${\gamma}$'-$Fe_4$(N,C) and $\theta$-$Fe_3$C, generated from dissociation from $\varepsilon$-$Fe_{2-3}$ /(N,C) phase during $O_2$ plasma sputtering, were also increased with the oxidation temperature.e.

Specimen Geometry Effects on Oxidation Behavior of Nuclear Graphite

  • Cho, Kwang-Youn;Kim, Kyung-Ja;Lim, Yun-Soo;Chung, Yun-Joong;Chi, Se-Hwan
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.196-200
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    • 2006
  • Graphite has hexagonal closed packing structure with two bonding characteristics of van der Waals bonding between the carbon layers at c axis, and covalent bonding in the carbon layer at a and b axis. Graphite has high tolerant to the extreme conditions of high temperature and neutron irradiations rather than any other materials of metals and ceramics. However, carbon elements easily react with oxygen at as low as 400C. Considering the increasing production of today of hydrogen and electricity with a nuclear reactor, study of oxidation characteristics of graphite is very important, and essential for the life evaluation and design of the nuclear reactor. Since the oxidation behaviors of graphite are dependent on the shapes of testing specimen, critical care is required for evaluation of nuclear reactor graphite materials. In this work, oxidation rate and amounts of the isotropic graphite (IG-110, Toyo Carbon), currently being used for the Koran nuclear reactor, are investigated at various temperature. Oxidation process or principle of graphite was figured out by measuring the oxidation rate, and relation between oxidation rate and sample shape are understood. In the oxidation process, shape effect of volume, surface area, and surface to volume ratio are investigated at $600^{\circ}C$, based on the sample of ASTM C 1179-91.

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A Study on Enhancement of Np Extraction by TBP Through the Electrochemical Adjustment of Np Oxidation State by Using a Glassy Carbon Fiber Column Electrode

  • Kim, Kwang-Wook;Song, Kee-Chan;Lee, Eil-Hee;Park, In-Kyu;Yoo, Jae-Hyung
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2000
  • The changes of Np oxidation state in nitric acid and the effect of nitrous acid on the oxidation state were analyzed by spectrophotometry, solvent extraction, and electrochemical methods. An enhancement of Np extraction to 30 vol.% TBP was carried out through adjustment of Np oxidation state by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system. The information of electrolytic behavior of nitric acid was important because the nitrous acid affecting the Np redox reaction was generated during the electrolytic adjustment of the Np oxidation state. The Np solution used in this work consisted of Np(V) and Np(Ⅵ)without (IV). The composition of Np(V) in the range of 0.5M -5.5 M nitric acid was 32% ~ 19%. The electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) to Np(Ⅵ)in the solution enhanced Np extraction efficiency about five times higher than the case without the electrolytic oxidation. It was confirmed that the nitrous acid of less than about 10-5 M acted as a catalyst to accelerate the chemical oxidation reaction of Np(V) to Np(Ⅵ).

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A study on the formation of oxide scale on the stainless steel to improve the oxidation resistance (스테인레스강의 내산화성 향상을 위한 스케일 형성에 관한 연구)

  • 김대환;김재철;김길무
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 1995
  • Stainless steels are widely selected as commercial engineering materials mainly because of their excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and strength. Because the manufacturing temperature of stainless steels is relatively high, the chemical and physical properties of the oxide film which was formed on the stainless steels are of importance in determining the rate of oxidation and the life of equipment exposed to high temperature oxidizing environments. In this study, the oxidation behavior of S. S. 304 and S. S. 430 added by a small amount of oxygen active elements(each +0.5wt% Hf and Y) was studied to improve oxidation resistance. The results of cyclic and isothermal oxidation on S. S. 304 added by OAE showed relatively poor oxidation resistance due to spallations and cracks of $Cr_2O_3$ layer. But all S. S. 430+0.5wt% OAE maintained constant oxidation rates and stable oxide layers at high temperature environment. Especially S. S. 430+0.5wt% Y formed a $Cr_2O_3$ oxide layer and improved cyclic oxidation resistance preventing loss of protective layers about 1000 hours at $1000^{\circ}C$

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Effects of Surface Deformation on Intergranular Oxidation of Alloy 600 (Alloy 600의 결정립계 산화에 대한 표면 변형의 영향)

  • Ha, Dong Woog;Lim, Yun Soo;Kim, Dong Jin
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2020
  • Immersion tests of Alloy 600 were conducted in simulated primary water environments of a pressurized water reactor at 325 ℃ for 10, 100, and 1000 h to obtain insight into effects of surface deformation on internal and intergranular (IG) oxidation behavior through precise characterization using various microscopic equipment. Oxidized samples after immersion tests were covered with polyhedral and filamentous oxides. It was found that oxides were abundant in mechanically ground (MG) samples the most. The number density of surface oxides increased with time irrespective of the method of surface finish. IG oxidation occurred in mechanically polished (MP) and chemically polished (CP) samples with thin internal oxidation layers. However, IG oxidation was suppressed with relatively thick internal oxidation layers in MG samples compared to MP and CP samples, suggesting that MG treatment could increase resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) from the standpoint of IG oxidation. As a result, appropriate surface treatment for Alloy 600 could prevent oxygen diffusion into grain boundaries, inhibit IG oxidation, and finally induce its high PWSCC resistance.