• Title, Summary, Keyword: Organic light-emitting diodes

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Characteristics of $Al_2O_3/TiO_2$ multi-layers as moisture permeation barriers deposited on PES substrates using ECR-ALD

  • Gwon, Tae-Seok;Mun, Yeon-Geon;Kim, Ung-Seon;Mun, Dae-Yong;Kim, Gyeong-Taek;Park, Jong-Wan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.457-457
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    • 2010
  • Flexible organic light emitting diodes (F-OLEDs) requires excellent moisture permeation barriers to minimize the degradation of the F-OLEDs device. Specifically, F-OLEDs device need a barrier layer that transmits less than $10^{-6}g/m^2/day$ of water and $10^{-5}g/m^2/day$ of oxygen. To increase the life time of F-OLEDs, therefore, it is indispensable to protect the organic materials from water and oxygen. Severe groups have reported on multi-layerd barriers consisting inorganic thin films deposited by plasma enhenced chemical deposition (PECVD) or sputtering. However, it is difficult to control the formation of granular-type morphology and microscopic pinholes in PECVD and sputtering. On the contrary, atomic layer deoposition (ALD) is free of pinhole, highly uniform, conformal films and show good step coverage. Thus, $Al_2O_3/TiO_2$ multi-layer was deposited onto the polyethersulfon (PES) substrate by electron cyclotron resonance atomic layer deposition (ECR-ALD), and the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) were measured. WVTR of moisture permeation barriers is dependent upon density of films and initial state of polymer surface. A significant reduction of WVTR was achieved by increasing density of films and by applying low plasma induced interlayer on the PES substrate. In order to minimize damage of polymer surface, a 10 nm thick $TiO_2$ was deposited on PES prior to a $Al_2O_3$ ECR-ALD process. High quality barriers were developed from $Al_2O_3$ barriers on the $TiO_2$ interlayer. WVTR of $Al_2O_3$ by introducing $TiO_2$ interlayer was recorded in the range of $10^{-3}g/m^2.day$ at $38^{\circ}C$ and 100% relative humidity using a MOCON instrument. The WVTR was two orders of magnitude smaller than $Al_2O_3$ barriers directly grown on PES substrate without the $TiO_2$ interlayer. Thus, we can consider that the $Al_2O_3/TiO_2$ multi-layer passivation can be one of the most suitable F-OLEDs passivation films.

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A Study on the Electron Transfer at the Alq3/Ba and Alq3/Au Interfaces by NEXAFS Spectroscopy (NEXAFS 분광법에 의한 Alq3/Ba과 Alq3/Au의 계면에서의 전자 천이에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Su-Yong;Ju, Sung-Hoo;Yang, Jae-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2012
  • Tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); $Alq_3$ has been frequently used as an electron transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes. Either Ba with a low work function or Au with a high work function was deposited on $Alq_3$ layer in vacuum. And then, the behaviors of electron transition at the $Alq_3$/Ba and $Alq_3$/Au interfaces were investigated by using the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In the each interface, the energy levels of unoccupied obitals were assigned as ${\pi}^*$(LUMO, LUMO+1, LUMO+2 and LUMO+3) and ${\sigma}^*$. And the relative intensities of these peaks were investigated. In an oxygen atom composing $Alq_3$ molecule, the relative intensities for a transition from K-edge to LUMO+2 were largely increased as Ba coverage (${\Theta}_{Ba}$, 2.7 eV) with a low work function was in-situ sequentially increased on $Alq_3$ layer. In contrast, the relative intensities for the LUMO+2 peak were reduced as Au coverage (${\Theta}_{Au}$, 5.1 eV) with a high work function were increased on $Alq_3$ layer. This means that the electron transition by photon in oxygen atom which consists in the unoccupied orbitals in $Alq_3$ molecule, largely depends on work function of a metal. Meanwhile, in the case of electron transition in a carbon atom, as ${\Theta}_{Ba}$ was increased on $Alq_3$, the relative intensity from K-edge to ${\pi}_1{^*}$ (LUMO and LUMO+1) was slightly decreased, and from K-edge to ${\pi}_2{^*}$ (LUMO+2 and LUMO+3) was somewhat increased. This rising of the energy state from ${\pi}_1{^*}$ to ${\pi}_2{^*}$ exhibits that electrons provided by Ba would contribute to the process of electron transition in the $Alq_3$/Ba interfaces. As shown in above observation, the analyses of NEXAFS spectra in each interface could be important as a basic data to understand the process of electron transition by photon in pure organic materials.

Study on Pressure-dependent Growth Rate of Catalyst-free and Mask-free Heteroepitaxial GaN Nano- and Micro-rods on Si (111) Substrates with the Various V/III Molar Ratios Grown by MOVPE

  • Ko, Suk-Min;Kim, Je-Hyung;Ko, Young-Ho;Chang, Yun-Hee;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Yoon, Jong-Moon;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Cho, Yong-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.180-180
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    • 2012
  • Heteroepitaxial GaN nano- and micro-rods (NMRs) are one of the most promising structures for high performance optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, lasers, solar cells integrated with Si-based electric circuits due to their low dislocation density and high surface to volume ratio. However, heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs growth using a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) machine is not easy due to their long surface diffusion length at high growth temperature of MOVPE above $1000^{\circ}C$. Recently some research groups reported the fabrication of the heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs by using MOVPE with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique assisted by metal catalyst. However, in the case of the VLS technique, metal catalysts may act as impurities, and the GaN NMRs produced in this mathod have poor directionallity. We have successfully grown the vertically well aligned GaN NMRs on Si (111) substrate by means of self-catalystic growth methods with pulsed-flow injection of precursors. To grow the GaN NMRs with high aspect ratio, we veried the growth conditions such as the growth temperature, reactor pressure, and V/III molar ratio. We confirmed that the surface morphology of GaN was strongly influenced by the surface diffusion of Ga and N adatoms related to the surrounding environment during growth, and we carried out theoretical studies about the relation between the reactor pressure and the growth rate of GaN NMRs. From these results, we successfully explained the growth mechanism of catalyst-free and mask-free heteroepitaxial GaN NMRs on Si (111) substrates. Detailed experimental results will be discussed.

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The PMOLED data driver circuit improving the output current deviation problem (출력 전류 불균일 현상을 개선한 PMOLED 데이터 구동 회로)

  • Kim, Jung-Hak;Kim, Seok-Yoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2008
  • This paper proposes a newly structured circuit that can compensate current deviation of a data driver circuit for OLED. A conventional data drivel circuit for OLED cannot compensate the current deviation at the data drivel circuit output terminal generated by MOS process change, but the proposed data drivel circuit can authorize uniform value of current to an OLED panel by calibrating the current deviation at the output terminal. The proposed circuit can minimize current deviation of the output current via process change by connecting the circuit for data output current with a common interconnect line through addition of a switching transistor to the existing data output circuit. The circuit proposed in this paper has been designed based on an OLED panel supporting $128{\times}128$ resolution, and the process used for driver circuit development is 0.35um. As a result of the experiment in this study, the output current of the data driver circuit proposed here has 1% range of error, while 9% range of severe changes was demonstrated in the case of the previous data driver circuit. When using the data driver circuit for OLED proposed in this paper, high definition OLED display can be actualized and the circuit can be applied to mobile display devices requiring high quality display features.

Study on the Optical Characteristics of the Green Phosphor for PDP Application (PDP용 녹색 형광체의 광 특성 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Bo Yong;Yoo, Jae Soo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2009
  • Plasma Display Panels(PDPs) require to have improved luminous efficiency, low manufacturing cost, and high image quality to compete with other flat display devices such as Liquid Crystal Displays(LCDs) and organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs). In addition, the diversity of product line-up may be needed for high market share. In this paper, the optical characteristics of typical green phosphor for PDP application are reviewed and the problem-based solution will be proposed. We also shortly describe the principle of 3D-PDPs which are promising. Then, the requirement of green phosphor for 3D-PDP application is summarized and research achievement, as of now, is described. The typical problems of $Zn_2SiO_4:Mn$ phosphor, which is the most well-known, are the negatively charged surface property and the long decay time, which leads to unstable discharge in green cell and afterimage. These problems were solved by coating the phosphor surface with metallic oxide. It was found that $Al_2O_3$ would be the best material for $Zn_2SiO_4:Mn$ phosphor. It gives longevity as well as low operating voltage due to the charging effect in green cells. Also, new phosphors, $(Y,\;Gd)Al_3(BO_3)_4:Tb$ and $(Mg,\;Zn)Al_2O_4:Mn$ phosphor are proposed for increasing the luminance and reducing the decay time, which are capable to apply for 3D-PDP application.

Fabrication and Characterization of High Luminance WOLED Using Single Host and Three Color Dopants (단일 호스트와 3색 도펀트를 이용한 고휘도 백색 유기발광다이오드 제작과 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Min Young;Lee, Jun Ho;Jang, Ji Geun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2016
  • White organic light-emitting diodes with a structure of indium-tin-oxide [ITO]/N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis-[4-(phenylm-tolvlamino)-phenyl]-biphenyl-4,4-diamine [DNTPD]/[2,3-f:2, 2-h]quinoxaline-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile [HATCN]/1,1-bis(di-4-poly-aminophenyl) cyclo -hexane [TAPC]/emission layers doped with three color dopants/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline [Bphen]/$Cs_2CO_3$/Al were fabricated and evaluated. In the emission layer [EML], N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene [mCP] was used as a single host and bis(2-phenyl quinolinato)-acetylacetonate iridium(III) [Ir(pq)2acac]/fac-tris(2-phenylpyridinato) iridium(III) $[Ir(ppy)_3]$/iridium(III) bis[(4,6-di-fluoropheny)-pyridinato-N,C2] picolinate [FIrpic] were used as red/green/blue dopants, respectively. The fabricated devices were divided into five types (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5) according to the structure of the emission layer. The electroluminescence spectra showed three peak emissions at the wavelengths of blue (472~473 nm), green (495~500 nm), and red (589~595 nm). Among the fabricated devices, the device of D1 doped in a mixed fashion with a single emission layer showed the highest values of luminance and quantum efficiency at the given voltage. However, the emission color of D1 was not pure white but orange, with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage [CIE] coordinates of (x = 0.41~0.45, y = 0.41) depending on the applied voltages. On the other hand, device D5, with a double emission layer of $mCP:[Ir(pq)_2acac(3%)+Ir(ppy)_3(0.5%)]$/mCP:[FIrpic(10%)], showed a nearly pure white color with CIE coordinates of (x = 0.34~0.35, y = 0.35~0.37) under applied voltage in the range of 6~10 V. The luminance and quantum efficiency of D5 were $17,160cd/m^2$ and 3.8% at 10 V, respectively.

Design of Cloud-Based Data Analysis System for Culture Medium Management in Smart Greenhouses (스마트온실 배양액 관리를 위한 클라우드 기반 데이터 분석시스템 설계)

  • Heo, Jeong-Wook;Park, Kyeong-Hun;Lee, Jae-Su;Hong, Seung-Gil;Lee, Gong-In;Baek, Jeong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Various culture media have been used for hydroponic cultures of horticultural plants under the smart greenhouses with natural and artificial light types. Management of the culture medium for the control of medium amounts and/or necessary components absorbed by plants during the cultivation period is performed with ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and/or IoT (Internet of Things) in a smart farm system. This study was conducted to develop the cloud-based data analysis system for effective management of culture medium applying to hydroponic culture and plant growth in smart greenhouses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conventional inorganic Yamazaki and organic media derived from agricultural byproducts such as a immature fruit, leaf, or stem were used for hydroponic culture media. Component changes of the solutions according to the growth stage were monitored and plant growth was observed. Red and green lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.) which developed 2~3 true leaves were considered as plant materials. The seedlings were hydroponically grown in the smart greenhouse with fluorescent and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) lights of $150{\mu}mol/m^2/s$ light intensity for 35 days. Growth data of the seedlings were classified and stored to develop the relational database in the virtual machine which was generated from an open stack cloud system on the base of growth parameter. Relation of the plant growth and nutrient absorption pattern of 9 inorganic components inside the media during the cultivation period was investigated. The stored data associated with component changes and growth parameters were visualized on the web through the web framework and Node JS. CONCLUSION: Time-series changes of inorganic components in the culture media were observed. The increases of the unfolded leaves or fresh weight of the seedlings were mainly dependent on the macroelements such as a $NO_3-N$, and affected by the different inorganic and organic media. Though the data analysis system was developed, actual measurement data were offered by using the user smart device, and analysis and comparison of the data were visualized graphically in time series based on the cloud database. Agricultural management in data visualization and/or plant growth can be implemented by the data analysis system under whole agricultural sites regardless of various culture environmental changes.

Effects of Encapsulation Layer on Center Crack and Fracture of Thin Silicon Chip using Numerical Analysis (봉지막이 박형 실리콘 칩의 파괴에 미치는 영향에 대한 수치해석 연구)

  • Choa, Sung-Hoon;Jang, Young-Moon;Lee, Haeng-Soo
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • Recently, there has been rapid development in the field of flexible electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells and flexible sensors. Encapsulation process is added to protect the flexible electronic devices from exposure to oxygen and moisture in the air. Using numerical simulation, we investigated the effects of the encapsulation layer on mechanical stability of the silicon chip, especially the fracture performance of center crack in multi-layer package for various loading condition. The multi-layer package is categorized in two type - a wide chip model in which the chip has a large width and encapsulation layer covers only the chip, and a narrow chip model in which the chip covers both the substrate and the chip with smaller width than the substrate. In the wide chip model where the external load acts directly on the chip, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness enhanced the crack resistance of the film chip as the thickness of the encapsulation layer increased regardless of loading conditions. In contrast, the encapsulation layer with high stiffness reduced the crack resistance of the film chip in the narrow chip model for the case of external tensile strain loading. This is because the external load is transferred to the chip through the encapsulation layer and the small load acts on the chip for the weak encapsulation layer in the narrow chip model. When the bending moment acts on the narrow model, thin encapsulation layer and thick encapsulation layer show the opposite results since the neutral axis is moving toward the chip with a crack and load acting on chip decreases consequently as the thickness of encapsulation layer increases. The present study is expected to provide practical design guidance to enhance the durability and fracture performance of the silicon chip in the multilayer package with encapsulation layer.