• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nursery Pigs

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Indoor distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria in pig buildings as influenced by season and housing type

  • Kim, Ki Youn;Ko, Han Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.742-747
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    • 2019
  • Objective: A concentration of airborne bacteria generated from swine houses is recognized to be relatively higher than other work places and it is essential to optimally manage it to prevent farmers' respiratory diseases. This study was conducted to assess the distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria in swine houses located at South Korea. Methods: A total 27 pig buildings of the enclosed type operated with mechanical ventilation system by a side wall fan and deep-pit manure system with slats were surveyed. Air samples were collected at 1.0 m above the middle floor in pig housing room. A six-stage viable particulate cascade impactor was used to identify the distribution of the sizes of particles in diameter. Results: Seasonal mean levels of airborne bacteria in the housing rooms of gestation/farrowing pigs, nursery pigs and growing/fattening pigs were 3,428(${\pm}1,244$) colony forming unit $(cfu)/m^3$, $8,325({\pm}3,209)cfu/m$, and $13,254({\pm}6,108)cfu/m^3$ for spring; $9,824({\pm}2,157)cfu/m^3$, $18,254({\pm}5,166)cfu/m^3$, and $24,088({\pm}9,274)cfu/m^3$ for summer; $1,707({\pm}957)cfu/m^3$, $4,258({\pm}1,438)cfu/m^3$, and $8,254({\pm}2,416)cfu/m^3$ for autumn; and $2,322({\pm}1,352)cfu/m^3$, $6,124({\pm}1,527)cfu/m^3$ and $12,470({\pm}4,869)cfu/m^3$ for winter, respectively. Conclusion: Concentrations of airborne bacteria according to pig housing type were highest in growing/fattening housing room followed by nursery housing room and gestation/farrowing housing room. In terms of seasonal aspect, the pig building showed the highest levels of airborne bacteria in summer followed by spring, winter and autumn. The respirable airborne bacteria which are ranged between 0.6 and $4.7{\mu}m$ accounted for approximately 60% compared to total airborne bacteria regardless of pig housing type.

Analysis of Plasma Cortisol from Nursery Pigs in Outdoor Efficacy Test for Digital Content - Based Approach in Animal Welfare Convergence Types (동물 복지 융합형 디지털 콘텐츠 제작을 위한 야외효력시험에서 이유 자돈의 혈중 Cortisol 분석)

  • Choi, In-Hag;Park, Chul;Kwak, Sang-Kee;Chung, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2020
  • The plasma cortisol of nurserypigs was examined using an outdoor efficacy testwith a digital content-based approach in animal welfare convergence types. Nine nurserypigs,without discriminating between female and male, were classified into 2 groups of 3 pigs each: control and group 1 (effect+nature), control and group 2(effect+nature+music). The control group was the same for group 1 and 2 to compare the effects using a t-test. There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between the control group and group 1 until 4 h after stress induction. However, significant differences were subsequently found between the control group and group 1 from 8 h to 72 h (p<0.05). Further, plasma cortisol was not affected in group 2 at 0 h through 8 h and 72 h. At 12 h through 48 h, group 2 showed a reduction in plasma cortisol level compared to the control group(p<0.05). These results indicated that after stress induction, applying effect plus nature or effect plus nature plus music can effectively decrease plasma cortisol levels in nursery pigs within8 h through 72 h and may serve as a better model for digital content-based approach in animal welfare convergence types.

Comparative Effects of Sodium Gluconate, Mannan Oligosaccharide and Potassium Diformate on Growth Performances and Small Intestinal Morphology of Nursery Pigs

  • Poeikhampha, T.;Bunchasak, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.844-850
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of Sodium Gluconate (SG), Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS) and Potassium Diformate (PDF) on growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery piglets. One hundred forty four female piglets ($11.69{\pm}0.71\;kg$) were divided into 4 treatments with six replicates of six pigs each. The pigs received a control diet or diets supplemented with SG, MOS and PDF at 2,500, 3,000 and 8,000 ppm; respectively, for 6 weeks. Supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF increased final body weight, average daily gain and tended to improve feed to gain ratio (p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.16; respectively), other than average daily feed intake, intestinal pH and the bacterial populations were not influenced by the dietary treatments. SG significantly decreased the ammonia concentration in the caecum (p<0.05) and supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF tended to increase lactic acid and total short chain fatty acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.08, 0.09; respectively), in addition SG, MOS or PDF slightly increased butyric acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.14). SG highly significant increased the villous height in jejunum (p<0.01) and supplementing SG, MOS or PDF significantly increased crypt depth in jejunum (p<0.05), moreover, PDF significantly increased villous height and crypt depth ratio in jejunum (p<0.05) compared with control. The dietary treatments did not influence villous height and crypt depth in duodenum and villous height in jejunum (p>0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing SG, MOS or PDF as a feed additive has the potential to improve the growth performance, the intestinal lactic acid bacteria population, intestinal short-chain fatty acid concentration and the intestinal morphology of pigs.

Effects of Extruded Corn in Nursery and Finishing Pigs (자돈 및 비육돈에 있어 옥수수의 가공 효과)

  • Han, Y.K.;Kim, I.H.;Hong, J.W.;Kwon, O.S.;Min, B.J.;Lee, W.B.;Shon, K.S.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.949-956
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    • 2003
  • For the Exp. 1, a total of sixty pigs(15.95${\pm}$0.09kg average initial body weight) were used in a 28-d growth assay to determine the effects of extruded chinese corn on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs. Dietary treatments included 1) UCORN(U.S. corn-SBM based diet), 2) CCORN(Chinese corn-SBM based diet) and 3) ECCORN(Extruded Chinese corn-SBM based diet). Overall period, average daily gain of pigs fed ECCORN diet was higher than that of pigs fed CCORN diet(547 vs 522 g/d), however, there was not significant difference. On day 10 of the experiment, pigs fed UCORN and ECCORN diet had significantly increased in DM and DE digestibilities compared to pigs fed CCORN diet(P〈0.05). Also, on day 24 of the experiment, pigs fed UCORN and ECCORN diet had a significant increase in DM digestibility compared to pigs fed CCORN diet(P〈0.05). Pigs fed ECCORN diet had significantly increased DE digestibility compared to pigs fed CCORN diet(P〈0.05). For the Exp. 2, three cannulated barrows(54.09kg average initial body weight) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibilities of amino acids and nutrient digestibility of extruded corn in finishing pigs. Dietary treatments were the same as in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of cystine was greater for UCORN and ECCORN than for CCORN(P〈0.05). Apparent digestibility of DM at the total tract was greater for UCORN and ECCORN than for CCORN(P〈0.05). Pigs fed UCORN and ECCORN diet had a significant increase in apparent total tract digestibility of N compared to pigs fed CCORN diet(P〈0.05). In conclusion, the results obtained from these feeding trials suggest that the extruded corn for nursery pigs had affected growth performance and DM and DE digestibilities. In finishing pigs, extruded corn was an effective means to improve apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and N.

Effects of Expander Conditioning of Complex Nursery Diets on Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs

  • Johnston, S.L.;Hines, R.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Behnke, K.C.;Traylor, S.L.;Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1999
  • Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of conditioning a complex (20% whey, 10% lactose, 4% plasma protein, 4% wheat gluten and 2% blood meal) diet on growth performance of weanling pigs. In Exp. 1,180 pigs (average initial BW of 6.4 kg) were fed the experimental diet (1.7% lysine) during a 7-d growth assay. Treatments were a meal control (M), standard (ST), and expander (EX) conditioned mash or pellets. Rate and efficiency of gain were decreased by 39% and 21% (p<0.005) respectively, for pigs fed EX diets compared to those fed the ST diet. In Exp. 2,196 pigs (average initial BW of 6.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of EX operating conditions on nutritional value of a pelleted complex diet. When steam conditioning temperature (prior to expanding) was $54^{\circ}C$, increasing cone pressure of the EX from 0 to 7 to 14 kg/cm2 resulted in linear decreases in rate of gain of weaned pigs (p<0.006), suggesting heat damage of the diet. Increasing conditioning temperature (i.e., adding steam) of the diets from 46 to 54 to $63^{\circ}C$ (cone pressure at $12kg/cm^2$) resulted in improved rate of gain (p<0.04) of the pigs. However, none of the pigs fed expanded diets compared favorably to the pigs fed the conditioned $(54^{\circ}C)$ pellets processed with no cone pressure. In Exp. 3,168 pigs (average initial BW of 6.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of expanding the various components of the diet. Treatments were M and ST pellets as controls, EX-corn, EX-corn soybean-meal, EX corn-soybean meal-oil, and EX-complete diet. Efficiency of gain was increased by 13% with EX portions of the diet compared to the mash control, but there was a marked decrease in performance when the complete diet was expanded (p<0.001). Expanded corn-soybean meal-oil supported the greatest ADG with a 19% increase compared to the average of the EX corn and EX corn-soybean meal treatments (p<0.005). In conclusion, our results suggest no benefit from expanding complete phase-I diets.

Elimination of respiratory pathogens in endemically infected swine herds by nursery depopulation (Nursery depopulation 기법에 의한 돼지 호흡기질병 상재돈군의 호흡기 병인체 전파방지에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Bong-hwan;Joo, Han-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.755-763
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    • 1997
  • Recently new technologies for the establishment of high health herds are becoming efficient tools in the control of PRRS virus and secondary infections. Medicated early weaning(MEW) and nursery depopulation(ND) have shown to be one of the most successful procedures in the eradication and control of pathogens. Indirect evidence of the role of PRRSV in precipitating secondary infection comes from successful improvement in growth and in decreasing mortality on farms that have eliminated PRRSV through ND. Hence the present experiments were conducted in an effort to compare ND with MEW procedures as a means of eliminating PRRSV controlling secondary pathogens and improving performance of pigs in endemically infected swine herds. Following MEW and ND procedures practiced in the farms, some benefits obtained were as follows: 1. A decrease in PRRSV circulation in the nursery, but no entire elimination. 2. Decrease in the frequency of secondary bacteria and in the use of antibiotics. 3. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection was prevented during the nursery stage. 4. ND protocol had a lower cost and management changes than MEW techniques. 5. Nursery performance was improved after the depopulation, cleaning and disinfection procedures, even though PRRSV still being cycled in the old nursery rooms. These studies revealed that the MEW and ND protocols are not always successful for PRRS virus elimination but it's great effect on control of secondary pathogens and improvement of performance make MEW and ND an efficient tools for the establishment of healthier and more efficient herds.

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Effects of Dietary Astragalus Membranaces and Dried-Onion Meal on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Pig Diets (돼지 사료내 황기와 건조양파분의 첨가가 성장 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 효과)

  • 손경승;홍종욱;권오석;민병준;조진호;진영걸;김인호
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2004
  • Sixty $[(Duroc \times {Yorkshire)} \times {Landrace]}$ nursery pigs$(11.44\pm{0.13Kg}$ average initial body weight) were evaluated to know the effects of dietary Astragalus Membranaces and dried-onion meal complex(AO) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility. There were three pigs per pen and five pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) corn-SBM based diet(CON; basal diet), 2) AO 0.2(basal diet+0.2% AO), 3) AO 0.4(basal diet+0.4% AO) and 4) AO 0.6(basal diet+0.6% AO). ADG was increased as the concentration of AO in the diets was increased(Linear effect, P =0.01). DM and N digestibilities were increased as the concentration of AO in the diets was increased(Linear effect, p =0.01). Thirty $[(Duroc \times {Yorkshire)} \times$ Landrace] growing pigs $(37.97\pm{0.54Kg}$ average initial body weight) were fed dietary treatments included 1) corn-SBM based diet(CON; basal diet) and 2) TRT(basal diet+0.3% AO). Pigs fed TRT diet were significantly(P<0.05) increased in ADG, ADFI and gain/feed compared to pigs fed CON diet. DM and N digestibilites of pigs fed TRT diets was higher than that of pigs fed CON diet(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results obtained from this feeding trial suggest that the dietary AO for nursery and growing pigs had improved growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

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Processing Effects of Feeds in Swine - Review -

  • Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.597-607
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    • 1998
  • Processing is generally employed to alter the physical and chemical properties of feeds used in pig diets, using hammer/roller mills, pellet mills and extruders/expanders. The reported optimum particle sizes of corn are approximately $500{\mu}m$, $500-700{\mu}m$, $400-600{\mu}m$, for nursery, growing-finishing, and breeder pigs respectively. Optimum particle size of grains are affected by diet complexity. There was a trend towards reducing particle size in order to increase ADG in pigs fed a simple diet, though such was not the case for pigs fed a complex diet. Uniformity of particle size also affects the nutritional values of swine feeds. Uniform particle sizes would consistently give greater nutrient digestibilities. In terms of pellet quality, it is reported that a higher incidence of fmes in pelleted feeds has a direct correlation with poorer feed conversion ratio in pigs. Particle and pellet sizes are also very important for pelleting in terms of grinding, digestibility, stomach ulceration and pellet durability. A particle size of $600{\mu}m$, or slightly less, seemed optimal for com in fmishing pigs, and the 5/32 in. diameter pellets supported the best efficiencies of gain during nursery and finishing phases. Extruder and/or expander processes would allow the feed industry an increased flexibility to utilize a wider spectrum of feed ingredients, and improve pellet quality of finished feeds. It would appear that extruded or expanded diets containing highly digestible ingredients have little effect on the growth performance of pigs, and the feeding values of the feeds over pelleted diets were not improved as pigs grew. The extruder or expander is much more effective than a pelletizer in salmonella control. Gastric ulcerations and/or keratinizations were consistently reported in pigs fed mash and processed diets containing finely ground grains, whereas carcass quality was not affected by diet processing methods such as pelleting, extruding or expanding. In corn- or sorghum-based diets, the electrical energy consumption is 4-5 times higher in the expanding than in the pelleting process. But the expander's processing cost was half of that shown by an extruder. Finally, the decision of which feed processing technology to adopt would depend on the processing cost, and any potential improvement in growth performance and digestibilities of nutrients should offset the increased operating and capital costs related to the extruder/expander technology over mash or pelleting processes in pigs.

Effects of Antibiotics, Zinc Oxide or a Rare Earth Mineral-Yeast Product on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Parameters in Weanling Pigs

  • Han, Yung-Keun;Thacker, Philip A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1057-1065
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding a newly-developed rare earth mineral-yeast product, zinc oxide (ZnO) or antibiotics on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum parameters of weanling pigs. In experiment 1, 150 crossbred barrows (24 d old and 6.28 kg BW) were fed one of five dietary treatments consisting of an unsupplemented basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (33 ppm tiamulin and 100 ppm chlortetracycline), ZnO (1,500 or 2,500 ppm) or 0.1% peptide-bound rare earth mineral-yeast. In experiment 2, 576 crossbred barrows (28 d old and 7.20 kg BW) were fed the same diets as those used in experiment 1 modified only by the addition of 1.0% Celite 545 to all diets as a digestibility marker. However, the negative control was not included. In experiment 1, weight gain was significantly lower (p<0.05) for pigs fed the negative control than for pigs fed diets supplemented with antibiotics, ZnO, or rare earth mineral-yeast. Pig performance did not differ between pigs fed the four supplemented diets. In experiment 2, there were no differences in performance between pigs fed diets supplemented with antibiotic, ZnO or rare earth mineral-yeast. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, calcium, phosphorus and energy were significantly (p<0.01) higher on the rare earth mineral-yeast diet than on diets supplemented with ZnO. In addition, pigs fed the diet supplemented with rare earth mineral-yeast had significantly (p<0.05) higher digestibility of histidine, lysine, threonine and valine than pigs fed the ZnO supplemented diets. Digestibility coefficients for pigs fed antibiotics tended to be intermediate to those of pigs fed rare earth mineralyeast or ZnO. In conclusion, the performance of pigs fed rare earth mineral-yeast was basically equal to that of pigs fed antibiotics or ZnO indicating that rare earth mineral-yeast can be successfully used as a growth promoter in diets fed to nursery pigs. The effects of rare earth mineral-yeast appeared to be mediated through improvements in nutrient digestibility.

Effect of Copper Source (Cupric Citrate vs Cupric Sulfate) and Level on Growth Performance and Copper Metabolism in Pigs

  • Armstrong, T.A.;Spears, J.W.;van Heugten, E.;Engle, T.E.;Wright, C.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1154-1161
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    • 2000
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cupric citrate (Cu-citrate) relative to cupric sulfate $(CuSO_4)$ as a Cu source for weanling and grow-finish pigs. In addition, the use of liver and bile Cu concentrations as indices of the bioavailability of Cu sources was investigated. Experiment one consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.4 kg, final BW=21.4 kg) followed by a grow-finish phase (103 d; initial BW=21.5 kg, final BW=111.7 kg). Experiment two only consisted of a nursery phase (35 d; initial BW=6.3 kg, final BW=18.6 kg). Dietary treatments were identical for both experiments and consisted of: control (10 ppm $CuSO_4$); control+66 or 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; control+33, 66, or 100 ppm Cu-citrate. An antibiotic was included in diets for Exp. 1 but not Exp. 2. In both experiments, growth performance variables were similar for pigs receiving Cu-citrate and $CuSO_4$; however, growth performance was not improved by high concentrations of $CuSO_4$. Liver and bile Cu were increased (p<0.05) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$; however, lower dietary concentrations of Cu from either $CuSO_4$ or Cu-citrate did not affect the Cu concentration of liver or bile relative to that observed in the control pigs. Irrespective of Cu source, there was no linear (p>0.10) increase in plasma Cu with increasing Cu concentrations in the diet for both experiments. However, the plasma Cu concentrations were highest (p<0.10) in pigs receiving diets supplemented with 225 ppm $CuSO_4$. Sixteen randomly chosen pigs per treatment in Exp. 1 were continued through the grow-finish phase. Body weight gain and feed intake were improved (p<0.10) by 66 ppm $CuSO_4$, but other dietary Cu treatments did not alter pig performance compared to the control diet. Plasma Cu concentrations were increased (p<0.10) by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ in the growing phase and by 225 ppm $CuSO_4$ and 100 ppm Cu-citrate in the finishing phase. These data reveal no consistent effect of $CuSO_4$ on performance; therefore, it is difficult to assess the efficacy of these two Cu sources. In addition, these studies demonstrate that liver and bile Cu are not good indicators of Cu bioavailability in pigs fed adequate to pharmacological concentrations of Cu.