• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nursery Pigs

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Corn Particle Size Affects Nutritional Value of Simple and Complex Diets for Nursery Pigs and Broiler Chicks

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hong, J.W.;Cabrera, M.R.;Hines, R.H.;Behnke, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.872-877
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of reducing particle size of corn from 1,000 to 500 ${\mu}m$ in simple and complex diets for nursery pigs and broiler chicks. In Exp 1., 192 nursery pigs were used in a 24 d growth assay. Treatments were: 1) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 2) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a simple diet; 3) 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet; and 4) 500 ${\mu}m$ corn in a complex diet. Overall, pigs fed complex diets had 9% greater ADG (p<0.005) and 5% greater gain/feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed simple diets. Also, pigs fed the 500 ${\mu}m$ treatments had 3% better overall gain/feed than those fed the 1,000 ${\mu}m$ treatments (p<0.007). At d 9, apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater for complex diets and diets with smaller particle size (p<0.02). At d 23, there were no differences in nutrient digestibility resulting from diet complexity, but pigs fed diets with corn ground to 500 ${\mu}m$ had greater digestibility of DM (p<0.02) and GE (p<0.003) than pigs fed diets with corn ground to 1,000 ${\mu}m$. A second experiment was designed to determine if four days old broiler chicks were an acceptable model for predicting the effects of feed processing procedures on nursery pigs. Chicks fed complex diets had 3% greater gain/feed than chicks fed simple diets (p<0.001). Rate of gain and feed intake were improved by 3 and 2%, respectively, for chicks fed crumbled diets (p<0.03). However, there were several significant interactions among the main effects. For instance, crumbling did not affect gain/feed in chicks fed complex diets, but rate of gain and feed intake were increased by 7 and 6%, respectively, when simple diets were crumbled (diet complexity${\times}$diet form, p<0.001). Also, gain/feed of chicks was improved by 3% when particle size was reduced in meal diets, but not affected in chicks fed crumbles (diet form${\times}$particle size, p<0.005). Thus, our data suggested that reduction of particle size of corn was important for simple and complex diets and that a complex diet with 1,000 ${\mu}m$ corn gave no better performance than a simple diet with 500 ${\mu}m$ corn.

Evaluation of the Apparent Ileal Digestibility (AID) of Protein and Amino Acids in Nursery Diets by In vitro and In vivo Methods

  • Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.1007-1010
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    • 2011
  • The objective was to evaluate in vitro prediction of ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids (AA) for current nursery pig diets (n = 10) by using pepsin and pancreatin incubations. To compare in vivo ileal digestibility, forty nursery pigs (4 pigs per diet) with an initial BW of $12.2{\pm}2.7$ kg were surgically equipped with T-cannula in the distal ileum. In all cases, the values of in vitro digestibility were higher than those of in vivo digestibility (p<0.05). With regard to the relationships of essential and non essential AA (CP), the $r^2$ value was 0.76. With regard to AA, high relationships were observed in Ile, Thr, and Gly (0.85, 0.83, and 0.89, respectively). Also, there was a lower relationship for Arg, Met, Ala, Asp, Glu, Pro, Ser, and Tyr with $R^2$ values of 0.56, 0.54, 0.40, 0.54, 0.45, 0.24, 0.49, and 0.35, respectively between in vitro and in vivo digestibility. The EAA relationship ($R^2$ = 0.71) was generally higher than that of NEAA ($R^2$ = 0.50) numerically. In conclusion, there were strong linear relationships between in vivo and in vitro ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly). In vitro prediction of ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly) seems to have significant potential for practical application.

Effects of Fermented Soy Protein on Growth Performance and Blood Protein Contents in Nursery Pigs

  • Min, B.J.;Cho, J.H.;Chen, Y.J.;Kim, H.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Lee, C.Y.;Park, B.C.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.1038-1042
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    • 2009
  • Fifty-four cross-bred ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) pigs (13.47${\pm}$0.03 kg average initial BW) were evaluated in a 42 d growth assay to determine the effects of the fermented soy product (FSP). The dietary treatments were: FSP 0 (corn-soybean basal diet), FSP 2.5 (FSP 0 amended with 2.5% FSP), and FSP 5 (FSP 0 amended with 5% FSP). The body weight at the end of the experiment increased linearly (p = 0.05) as the FSP levels in the diets increased. In addition, the ADG and G/F ratio also increased (linear effect, p = 0.06) as the levels of FSP increased. However, there was no effect of FSP on ADFI or DM digestibility (p>0.05). Furthermore, the N digestibility increased as the FSP levels increased (linear effect, p = 0.003), although the total protein concentration in the blood was not affected by FSP (p>0.05). Additionally, the albumin concentration was higher in pigs fed diets that contained 2.5% FSP than in pigs in the control group or the FSP 5 group (quadratic effect, p = 0.07). The creatinine concentrations were also evaluated at d 42 and found to be greater in pigs that received the FSP 2.5 diet (quadratic effect, p = 0.09). Moreover, the creatinine concentration increased linearly in response to FSP treatment (p = 0.09). Finally, although the BUN concentration on the final day of the experiment was greater in pigs that received the FSP 2.5 diet (quadratic effect, p = 0.10), there were no incremental differences in BUN concentrations among groups (p>0.05). Taken together, the results of this study indicate that feeding FSP to pigs during the late nursery phase improves growth performance and N digestibility.

Effects of Replacing Dried Skim Milk With Wheat Gluten and Spray Dried Porcine Protein on Growth Performance and Digestibility of Nutrients in Nursery Pigs

  • Burnham, L.L.;Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1576-1583
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    • 2000
  • Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional value of wheat gluten (WG) and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in diets for nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 120 weanling pigs (5.7 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 35-d growth assay. Treatments for d 0 to 14 were: 1) dried skim milk (DSM)-dried whey-SBM based control; 2) WG to replace the protein from DSM; 3) SDPP; and 4) WG-SDPP (50:50 blend on a protein basis) to replace the protein from DSM. From d 14 to 35, all pigs were fed a common corn-SBM-whey-based diet. For d 0 to 14, there were no differences in ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed (p>0.11). However, for d 14 to 35, pigs fed diets with WG had greater gain/feed than those fed SDPP (p<0.05), and pigs fed diets with the WG-SDPP blend had greater ADG than pigs fed diets with WG or SDPP alone (p<0.07). In a second experiment, 60 weanling pigs (5.1 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 28-d growth assay. All pigs were fed the WG-SDPP diet fed in Exp. 1 for d 0 to 14, and changed to experimental diets for d 14 to 28. Treatments were: 1) the whey-SBM-based diet used for d 14 to 28 in Exp. 1; or 2) a whey-SBM based diet with 3% added SDPP. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, gain/feed, or apparent digestibilities of DM and N among treatments for d 14 to 28 or overall (p>0.14). In a third experiment, 150 weanling pigs (5.6 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 32-d growth assay to determine the optimal blend of WG and SDPP for use after weaning. The SDPP was added as 8% of the control diet, and WG was substituted on a protein basis to yield the desired SDPP:WG blends. Treatments were (d 0 to 14): 1) SDPP; 2) 75% SDPP and 25% WG; 3) 50% SDPP and 50% WG; 4) 25% SDPP and 75% WG; and 5) WG. As in Exp. 1, all pigs were switched to a common corn-SBM-whey-based diet for d 14 to 32. For d 0 to 14, ADG and ADFI increased as replacement of the SDPP was increased up to 50% and decreased when more of the SDPP was removed from the diet (quadratic effects, p<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Apparent digestibilities of DM and N (at d 13) were not affected by treatments (p>0.18). For d 14 to 32, treatments did not affect ADG (p>0.2), although there were quadratic responses in ADFI (p<0.04), with pigs fed the 50:50 blend suggested the greatest intake of feed. For the overall experimental period (d 0 to 32), ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed increased as WG was used to replace as much as 50% of the SDPP (quadratic effects p<0.04, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively). In conclusion, WG can successfully replace up to 50% of the SDPP in a complex nursery diet, when SDPP is included at the 8% level. There is no advantage to keeping SDPP in the diet after Phase I (d 0 to 14).

Effects of Replacing Spray Dried Porcine Plasma with Solpro500 on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology of Starter Pigs

  • Lai, C.H.;Qiao, S.Y.;Li, Defa;Piao, X.S.;Bai, L.;Mao, X.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate Solpro500 (a wheat hydrolysate containing a high level of glutamine) as a replacement for spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in diets fed to nursery pigs. One hundred and eight pigs (Dalland, $5.39{\pm}0.80$ kg BW) weaned at 21 days were assigned to one of three treatment groups for a 28 day feeding trial. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were supplemented with either 8% SDPP, 4% SDPP plus 4% Solpro500 or 8% Solpro500. Each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs per pen (4 barrows and 2 gilts). The experimental results indicated no significant difference (p>0.05) in daily gain, feed intake or feed efficiency for pigs fed the three experimental diets. However, the diarrhea index for pigs fed either 4% SDPP and 4% Solpro500 or 8% Solpro500 was lower (p<0.05) than that for pigs fed 8% SDPP. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter or crude protein between pigs fed the three diets. The intestinal morphology (villous height, villous width and crypt depth) was not affected by diet treatments (p>0.05). In conclusion, Solpro500 SDPP can replace SDPP without any negative effects on nursery pig performance.

Relative Availability of Iron in Mined Humic Substances for Weanling Pigs

  • Kim, S.W.;Hulbert, L.E.;Rachuonyo, H.A.;McGlone, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1266-1270
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    • 2004
  • Humic substances include several biological active and inactive compounds that are commonly used for improving soil fertility. Use of humic substances in swine diets is a novel concept. Humic substances contain 8,700 mg/kg of iron but its bioavailability is unknown. This study was conducted to test the bioavailability of iron in humic substances for nursery pigs. One hundred twenty five pigs (Newsham, Colorado Springs, CO) were not given supplemental iron while nursing for 21 d. Pigs were weaned on d 21 and allotted to one of five treatments (four control treatments with different levels of supplemented iron; 0, 30, 70 and 88 mg/kg from ${FeSO}_4$ and one treatment with 70 mg/kg iron from humic substances). Pigs were fed diets for 5 wk ad libitum and water was accessible freely. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly. Blood samples were taken from pigs on d 28 to measure the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration. Pigs fed a diet with the humic substances grew faster (p<0.05) during the first week postweaning, but performance was not different during the entire 5 wk period. Feed intake and gain/feed were the same among treatments. The slope ratio technique was used to estimate relative iron bioavailability. The concentration of blood hemoglobin did not respond to dietary iron levels using this model. However, the number of red blood cells (106/$\mu$l) was modeled by 4.438+0.017${\times}$ 'ron (mg/kg) from ${FeSO}_4$'0.012${\times}$'ron (mg/kg) from the humic substances' Based on the comparison between the slopes (0.012 from humic substances and 0.017 from ${FeSO}_4$), iron in humic substances was 71% as available as the iron in ${FeSO}_4$. The slopes for dietary feed intake of ${FeSO}_4$ and the iron in humic substances did not differ (p>0.05). Humic substances can replace ${FeSO}_4$ as an alternative iron source for pigs at 71% relative bioavailability.

Phytobiotics and Organic Acids As Potential Alternatives to the Use of Antibiotics in Nursery Pig Diets

  • Kommera, S.K.;Mateo, R.D.;Neher, F.J.;Kim, S.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1784-1789
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    • 2006
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phytobiotics and organic acids on growth performance of nursery pigs as an alternative to antibiotics. Phytobiotics refer bioactive compounds from plant materials including essential oils and herbal extracts. In Exp. 1,144 pigs, weaned at 23.4${\pm}$0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were: 1) NC (no antibiotics and no phytobiotics); 2) PC (NC+carbadox, 50 mg/kg); and 3) PB (NC+phytobiotics; 0.1% PEP1000-$1^{(R)}$. Each treatment had six replicates with eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 5 wks in 3 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 2 wk; phase 3 for 1 wk). In Exp. 2, 192 pigs, weaned at 19.2${\pm}$0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments: 1) NC; 2) PC; and 3) PBO (NC+phytobiotics; 0.2% or 0.1% PEP1000-$1^{(R)}$ and organic acids; 0.4% or 0.2% $Biotronic^{(R)}$for the phase 1 and 2, respectively) with eight replicates per treatment and eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the assigned diets for 5 wks in 2 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 3 wk). Body weights were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Feed intake was measured at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Diarrhea score was measured daily during the entire period for Exp. 1 and during the phase 1 for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall ADG than the NC, but the overall ADG of the PB did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period. The overall ADFI and the overall gain:feed ratio did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period in both Exp. 1 and 2. The PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score (harder stools) than the NC and the PB in Exp. 1, and a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score than the NC in Exp. 2. The overall diarrhea score of the PB and the PBO did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC in Exp. 1 and 2. Results from this study show that the growth of pigs fed the diets with phytobiotics or the combination of phytobiotics and organic acids did not differ from those both with antibiotics and without antibiotics when tested in an environmentally controlled research facility. Further experiments are required to study the growth performance in disease challenged conditions.

Effects of Conditioners (Standard, Long-Term and Expander) on Pellet Quality and Growth Performance in Nursery and Finishing Pigs

  • Johnston, S.L.;Hines, R.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Behnke, K.C.;Traylor, S.L.;Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.558-564
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    • 1999
  • A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effects of standard (ST), long-term (LT), and expander (EX) conditioners on nutritional value of phase-three nursery and finishing swine diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (average initial BW of 11.7 kg) were fed com-soybean meal based diets (1.3% lysine) during a 28 d growth assay. Gain/feed was improved (p<0.004) with pelleting and pellet durability index (PDI) increased with degree of conditioning (LT>ST). However, there was no advantage for LT vs ST conditioning in rate or efficiency of gain (p>0.5). In Exp. 2, 180 pigs (average initial BW of 10.4 kg) were fed con-soybean meal based diets (0.9% lysine) during a 28 d growth assay, Pelleted diets tended to support greater ADG (p<0.08) and gain/feed (p<0.002) with no marked advantage from EX vs ST conditioning. In Exp 3, a total of 70 barrows (average initial BW of 54 kg) was used in a growth assay to determine the effects of feeding a com-soybean meal based diet processed with a standard (ST) steam conditioner, a long-term (LT) steam conditioner, and an expander (EX) conditioner. The conditioned diets were fed as mash (M) or pellets (P) to give a $2{\times}3$ factorial plus a meal control. PDI increased with degree of conditioning (EX>LT>ST). There was a trend (p<0.07) for greater ADG in pigs fed diets that had been thermally conditioned. Also, there was a general advantage in gain/feed with pelleting (p<0.04), but this advantage was pronounced only with standard conditioning. Indeed, the greatest gain/feed was observed for pigs fed the expander treatments (p<0.03) and the expander mash was used as efficiently as the expander pellets. There was no difference in backfat thickness among pigs fed the treatments (p>0.3). but the more extreme the processing technique. the greater the incidence and severity of stomach lesions (p<0.04). These results suggest maximum rate and efficiency of growth with pelleting after standard steam conditioning or simply feeding an expanded mash.

Distribution of injected fat-soluble vitamins in plasma and tissues of nursery pigs

  • Jang, Young Dal;Rotering, Mikayla J.;Isensee, Paige K.;Rinholen, Kirsten A.;Boston-Denton, Carli J.;Kelley, Paige G.;Stuart, Robert L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.1985-1990
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of fat-soluble vitamin injection on plasma and tissue vitamin status in nursery pigs. Methods: A total of 16 pigs (initial body weight: 7.15±1.1 kg) were allotted to 2 treatments at d 7 post-weaning. Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet with no supplemental vitamin A and i.m. injected with 300,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, 900 IU of d-α-tocopherol and 30,000 IU of vitamin D3 with control pigs having no vitamin injection. Blood (d 0, 3, 7, and 14 post-injection) and tissue samples (liver, brain, heart, lung, and muscle; d 7 and 14 post-injection) were collected from pigs. Retinyl palmitate, retinol, and α-tocopherol concentrations were analyzed in plasma and tissues, while plasma was assayed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3). Results: Plasma retinol and 25-OHD3 concentrations increased by the vitamin injection from d 3 to 14 post-injection (p<0.05) whereas plasma retinyl palmitate was detected only in the vitamin treatment at d 3 and 7 post-injection (115.51 and 4.97 ㎍/mL, respectively). Liver retinol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol+retinyl palmitate concentrations increased by retinyl palmitate injection at d 7 and 14 post-injection (p<0.05) whereas those were not detected in the other tissues. The d-α-tocopherol injection increased α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma at d 3 and 7 post-injection (p<0.05) and in liver, heart (p<0.10), and muscle (p<0.05) at d 7 post-injection. Conclusion: Fat-soluble vitamin injection increased plasma status of α-tocopherol, retinol, retinyl palmitate and 25-OHD3. As plasma levels decreased post-injection, vitamin A level in liver and vitamin E level in muscle, heart and liver increased. The α-tocopherol found in plasma after injection was distributed to various tissues but retinyl palmitate only to the liver.

Effects of Dietary Zinc on Performance and Immune Response of Growing Pigs Inoculated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  • Roberts, E.S.;Heugten, E. van;Spears, J.W.;Routh, P.A.;Lloyd, K.L.;Almond, G.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1438-1445
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary Zn level on performance, serum Zn concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and immune response of pigs inoculated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. A $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a randomized design. Factors included; 1) PRRSv and M. hyopneumoniae inoculation (n=36 pigs) or sham inoculation (n=36 pigs) with media when pigs entered the grower facility (d 0) at 9 weeks of age and 2) 10, 50, 150 ppm supplemental Zn sulfate (${ZnSO}_4$) from weaning until the completion of the study, or 2,000 ppm supplemental ${ZnSO}_4$for two weeks in the nursery and then supplementation with 150 ppm ${ZnSO}_4$for the remainder of the trial. The basal diet contained 34 ppm Zn. Pigs were weighed on d 0, 10, 17, 24 and 31 and blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Pigs inoculated with PRRSv were serologically positive at d 28 and control pigs remained negative to PRRSv. In contrast, the M hyopneumoniae inoculation was inconsistent with 33.3% and 52.8% of pigs serologically positive at d 28 in the control and infected groups, respectively. A febrile response was observed for approximately one week after inoculation with PRRSv. Feed intake (p<0.01) and gain (p<0.1) were less in PRRSv infected pigs than control pigs for the 31 d study. However, performance did not differ among pigs in the four levels of ${ZnSO}_4$. Assessments of immune responses failed to provide unequivocal influence of either PRRSv inoculation or ${ZnSO}_4$level. These data suggest that PRRSv and M. hyopneumoniae act to produce some performance deficits and the influence of Zn supplementation of nursery age pigs does not have clear effect in grower pigs affected with disease.