• Title/Summary/Keyword: North Korea

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A Study on The Resolution of Commercial Disputes under The South-North Korea Arbitration Rules (남북중재규정 에 따른 상사분쟁해결에 관한 소고)

  • Park Jong-Sam
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.67-93
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    • 2005
  • To realize the spirit of South-North Joint Declaration of June 15, 2000, the authorities concerned of South and North Korea have reached agreements to settle commercial disputes as well as to set up a South-North arbitration rule which is becoming a problem of vital importance between South and North Korea. The purpose of this paper is to analyzed and review carefully the drafting of Commercial Arbitration Rule of the commercial Arbitration Committee of the South-North Korea so The South-North Korea Commercial Rule is an institutional organization for resolution of commercial disputes arising form trade and investment between south and north Korea. Under the situation, it is becoming a problem of vital importance how to manage and control the Arbitration Rule for prompt and effective resolution of South-North Korea of commercial disputes It is probable that the drafting of Commercial Arbitration Rule of the Commercial Arbitration Committee in South Korea should be written by the Commercial Arbitration Committee of South Korean arbitral body after these organizations are established and appointed. it's not recommendable that we the South-North Korea write the only enc South Korean draft of the Commercial Arbitration Committee of the South-Nonh Korea. The Korean Commercial Arbitration Board(KCAB) should be designated as the arbitration institution of South Korea because the KCAB is the only authorized institution in South Korea, statutorily empowered to settle any kind of commercial disputes at home and abroad.

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Finding Loopholes in Sanctions: Effects of Sanctions on North Korea's Refined Oil Prices

  • KIM, KYOOCHUL
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2020
  • The international community's sanctions against North Korea, triggered by North Korea's nuclear tests and by missile development in the country, are considered the strongest sanctions in history, banning exports of North Korea's major items and limiting imports of machinery and oil products. Accordingly, North Korea's trade volume decreased to the level of collapse after the sanctions, meaning that the sanctions against North Korea were considered to be effective. However, according to this paper, which analyzed the price fluctuations of refined petroleum products in North Korea through the methodology of an event study, the market prices of oil products were only temporarily affected by the sanctions and remained stable over the long run despite the restrictions on the volumes of refined petroleum products introduced. This can be explained by evidence that North Korea has introduced refined oil supplies that are not much different from those before the sanctions through its use of illegal transshipments even after the sanctions. With regard to strategic materials such as refined oil, the North Korean authorities are believed to be desperately avoiding sanctions by, for instance, finding loopholes in the sanctions to meet the minimum level of demand.

Estimation of Rainfall Erosivity in North Korea using Modified Institute of Agricultural Sciences (수정 IAS 지수를 이용한 북한지역의 강우침식인자 추정)

  • Lee, Joon-Hak;Heo, Jun-Haeng
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1004-1009
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    • 2011
  • Soil erosion in North Korea has been continued to accelerate by deterioration of topographical conditions. However, few studies have been conducted to predict the amount of soil loss in North Korea due to limited data so far. Rainfall erosivity is an important factor to predict the amount of long-term annual soil loss by USLE (universal soil loss equation). The purpose of this study is to investigate rainfall erosivity, which presented the potential risk of soil erosion by water, in North Korea. Annual rainfall erosivities for 27 stations in North Korea for 1983~2010 were calculated using regression models based on modified Institute of Agricultural Sciences (IAS) index in this study. The result showed that annual average rainfall erosivity in North Korea ranged from 2,249 to 7,526 and averaged value was $4,947MJmm\;ha^{-1}\;hr^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$, which corresponded to about 70% of annual average rainfall erosivity in South Korea. The finding was that the potential risk of soil erosion in North Korea has been accelerated by the increase of rainfall erosivity since the late 1990s.

Trends in North Korea's Inland Water Fish Farming and Measures to Promote Inter-Korean Cooperation (북한 내수면 양식 동향과 남북협력 추진 방안)

  • Jin, Hui-Kwon
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.39-55
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this paper is to confirm the trend of inland water fish farming in North Korea and to suggest a plan for inter-Korean cooperation. North Korea's inland water fish farming laid the foundation for production in the 1950s and 1960s, and production facilities were expanded until 1980. In the midst of the severe economic crisis in the 1990s, North Korea paid attention to inland water fish farming as an alternative to food production. The military took the lead in expanding the aquaculture industry and catfish farming was encouraged. In the Kim Jong-un era, North Korea's inland fish farming continues the tradition of catfish farming and promotes a policy of expanding inland cage farming. This study comprehensively reviewed recent inter-Korean relations, North Korea's food crisis and acceptability, and UN sanctions. As a result, inland water fish farming is the most promising field for inter-Korean cooperation in the field of fisheries. In the initial stage of inter-Korean cooperation in the field of inland water fish farming, humanitarian aid projects such as feed and seed support can be promoted. In the stage of expanding inter-Korean cooperation, knowledge sharing program and materials and facilities support projects can be promoted. Development cooperation and direct private investment are possible at the full-scale stage.

A Comparative Study on Zoology & Botany Name of South and North Korea Building Bio-information Database of North Korea (북한 생물정보 DB 구축에 의한 남북한 동·식물명 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Shin;Jin, Shi-Zhu;Jin, Ying-Hua;Jung, Song-Hie
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 2019
  • The object of this research is to compare zoology and botany name caused by language and science differences of South and North Korea since division. Biological data are collected North Korea biological information (flora and fauna, an illustrated flora and fauna book of North Korea, Etc.) and compared both side data based on national species list of korea, National Institute of Biological Resources. We could built 3,903 species of flora and 1,487 species flora on biological database. The criteria for comparative method is 5 types (korean name difference, scientific name difference, same species, similar species, North Korea endemic species). As a results, plants were identified korean name difference (911 species), scientific name difference (614 species), same species (880 species), North Korea endemic species (1,037 species) of 3,903 species, and animals were korean name difference (685 species), scientific name difference (104 species), same species (199 species), North Korea endemic species (226 species) of the 1,492 species. This results are expected to be in application with cooperation study for recovering bioinformatics differences of South and North Korea.

A Preliminary Review of REDD Mechanism for Rehabilitating Forest Degradation of North Korea (북한 산림황폐지 복구를 위한 REDD 메커니즘 사전 검토)

  • Bae, Jae Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.102 no.4
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    • pp.491-498
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    • 2013
  • Preliminary feasibility of REDD mechanism to combat forest degradation in North Korea is reviewed as a means of cooperation between South Korea and North Korea. North Korea has not established a national REDD+ strategy and a forest monitoring system which are required to implement REDD+ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Credible statistical data of forest resources is a necessary condition for implementing REDD mechanism in the developing countries. However, other than forest area data using satellite images, statistical data of forest resources of North Korea are mostly estimated based on simple hypothesis rather than transparent and robust results from national forest inventory. The review of statistical data of forest resources of North Korea shows that North Korea is in a pre-stage of REDD readiness. The study suggests that following research and cooperation agendas should be considered to implement REDD mechanism in North Korea: 1) detecting land use change since 2000, measuring carbon stock change, and identifying causes of deforestation and forest degradation; and 2) establishing a national REDD+ strategy' and a national forest inventory system in North Korea.

The role of the People's Liberation Army during the Korean War and Prospect of China's Role in the event of Contingency in North Korea (6.25 전쟁 시 중공군의 역할과 북한 유사시 중국의 역할 전망)

  • Choi, Kyung-Sik
    • Journal of National Security and Military Science
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    • s.8
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    • pp.169-238
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    • 2010
  • The year 2010 is the 60th anniversary commemorating the Korean War. China intervened in the Korean War with the logics such as "To Resist the U.S.'s Aggression and Aid North Korea," "Save Endangered Home & defend Nation," and "If the Lips Are Gone, the Teeth Will Be Exposed to the Cold or If One of Them Falls, the Other is in Danger." However, China had a deep and long connection with North Korea through 1st Chinese Civil War, war against Japan imperialism, and 2nd Chinese Civil War. China has consulted with Kim Il-sung on his invasion of South Korea at the initial stage of development and played a casting vote role in the execution of the invasion plan. During the Korean War, the PLA supported the North Korea's regime by its action, and made the Korea Peninsula divide into two semi-permanently. Even after the war, China continues to maintain relations with North Korea by helping North Korea build the Kim Il-sung's Kingdom. Currently, whenever any issue related to North Korea rises in the international society, China definitely gets involved in those issues and exercises its power. Conditionally 'either armed aggression or, and wartime' in North Korea, China would follow the "Clause of Military Auto Intervention." In addition, China is very likely to establish refugee camps for North Koreans in the Northeastern-Three-Province and to provide rear bases or guerrilla camps for pro-Chinese sects. Furthermore, voluntarily playing a role as spokesman of North Korean Regime in the international society, China will exercise enormous influence on the reunification of the Korean Peninsula.

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Status of Cement Industry and Cement Properties of North Korea (북한의 시멘트 물성 및 시멘트 산업현황에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Cheong-Hoon;Park, Won-Jun;Min, Tae-Beom
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the North Korea cement industry and technology status by comparing and analyzing the cement standards and properties of South and North Korea. In the literature study, data on North Korea's cement industry and standards were collected and analyzed through the Ministry of Unification's North Korea Data Center and other agency. The facilities, classification, and quality standards of South and North Korea cements were compared. In an experimental study, a survey on the quality of cement in North Korea was carried out through physical and chemical analysis experiments by obtaining a small amount of cement from North Korea, and compared with domestic cement. As a result, North Korea cement was of lower quality than South Korean cements. North Korea cement had lower C3S and higher C2S than South Korea cement, especially the residue content was much higher. In addition, North Korea cement had about 50% of the compressive strength of cement in South Korea because the clinker was not fired at a sufficient temperature due to the poor performance of the cement facilities in North Korea.

Analysis of China's Aid to North Korea: Focusing on The Two-level game theory (중국의 대북지원 결정요인에 관한 연구: 양면게임이론을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Park, Sunhwa
    • Korea and Global Affairs
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.113-136
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to start from the recognition of the problem of why the sanctions of the international community could not indicate a great effect. In order to find answers to this question, this study focuses on China's aid to North Korea and analyzes the determinants of support for North Korea. Despite a tough international community's sanctions against North Korea, China has taken a dual stance on sanctions and support for North Korea. As for this dual attitude of China, this study approaches the internal and external situation of the support to the North with the rationale for the Two-level game theory. China's sanction against North Korea could be divided into two categories: external factors and domestic factors. These factors include strengthening supremacy in China, checking the US, playing a responsible role in China, securing resources in North Korea, sustaining stable growth in China, maintaining the legitimacy of China's socialist political system, and spreading the Beijing consensus. Based on the analysis of these factors, it could be expected that China's aid for North Korea will be official, informal, or continuous, and it will be difficult for the North to stop supporting North Korea or deteriorating North Korea- China relations.

A Study on the Rural Settlement and Rural House Planning in North Korea (북한의 농촌 마을배치 및 주거 계획에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, wang-ki;O, young-sik
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.133-144
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    • 1999
  • This paper is a study of rural settlement and housing planning in North-Korea. All the housing facilities belong to the government in North-Korea. which leads to the system in which the North-Korea government controls all the housing problems. The North-Korea government actively engages in the settlement of housing problems have close relations with and effects on the urban housing ones. The government has designed to make the rural areas self-sufficient in matters of the rural housing arrangement. They try to make an axis in the middle of each village uniformly and heighten its symbolism of the rural. They place all the symbolic structures in the center to express the ideas of the ruler's. thus making the whole village a study hall where the villagers are forced to learn the ruler's ideas as a way of brainwashing the people.

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