• Title/Summary/Keyword: Nitrate reductase

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Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Ace) Nitrate Reductase cDNA (시금치 nitrate reductase cDNA 클로닝 및 염기서열 분석)

  • Park, Nu-Ri;Chung, Jong-Bae;Park, Sang-Gyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2002
  • Suppression of nitrate accumulation in spinach and lettuce through foliar application of chitosan formula containing micronutrients is related with the increase of the nitrate reductase (NR) activity. If NR in spinach were highly expressed to increase the assimilatory activity, nitrate content could be reduced. For this, NR cDNA was cloned from the isolated mRNAs of spinach using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Nucleotide sequence of cloned spinach NR cDNA showed highly deduced amino acid sequence identity ($71{\sim}82%$) with other known plant NR genes. Only two nucleotide-base differences were observed in the cloned NR cDNA compared with that of the published spinach NR cDNA.

Studies on in vivo Nitrate Reduction in Rye (Secale cereale L.) Seedlings Treated with 2,4-Dinitrophenol II. Effect of 2,4-Dinitrophenol on in vivo Nitrate Reductase Activity in the Roots of Rye Seedlings (2,4-Dinitrophenol을 처리한 호밀(Secale cereale L.) 유식물의 질산염 환원에 관한 연구 II. 호밀 유식물 뿌리의 질산염 환원효소 활성에 대한 2,4-Dinitrophenol의 영향)

  • 조규찬
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 1991
  • This work was carried out to determined the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP) on in vivo nitrate reductase activity in the root of 6 day old rye (Secale cereale L.) seedlings. The nitrate reductase activity in the roots of 6 day old rye seedlings pretreated with 0.5 mM DNP was higher than that of the control group in all the experimental conditions. The optimal concentration of KNO3 for maximum nitrate reductase activity was 10 mM in both control and treated group. The nitrate reductase activity in the treatment of 10 mM KNO3 gradually increased for 4 h in both groups, and then maintained constantly. The nitrate reductase activity occurred per hour was highest at 1 h in both groups, while it was declined by large degrees as time goes on. The daily pattern of nitrate reductase activity was gradually decreased in both groups with the passage of day. The optimal pH for this experiment and a previous paper (Kwon et al., 1991), it was determined that the nitrate reductase activity in both roots and shoots of rye seedlings was increased by the treatment of 0.5 mM DNP, and particulary in both groups, the nitrate reductase activity in the roots of rye seedlings was higher than that in shoots of them.

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Effects of Urea Rate and Maturity on the Yield, Quality, Nitrogen Compound and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Burley Tobacco (요소증비와 숙도의 차이가 버어리종 잎담배의 수량, 품질, 질소화합물 및 Nitrate Reductase의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Kyoo;Rhu, Jeom-Ho;Choi, Sun-Young;Han, Chul-Su
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of nitrogen rate and maturity on the yield, quality, nitrogen compound, protein pattern, and nitrate reductase activity. The results were as follow. As the nitrogen rate increased, the degree of red color of cured leaf increased. According to the time of harvesting at their leaf position, the price of the lugs is lowest in immature stage compared with mature and over mature stage but the upper leaves were lower than mature and immature stage in price. Yield are equal in immature stage and mature stage but over mature stage is lower than mature and immture stage. There was no different protein pattern and nitrate reductase activity in nitrogen rate and mature stage.

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Seasonal Changes of Amylase and Nitrate Reductase Activities in Zoysia japonica Steud. (한국잔디(Zoysia japonica Steud.)에 있어서 Amylase와 Nitrate reductase 활성도의 계절적 변동에 관한 연구)

  • 장남기;김형기;유준희;김용진;임채성
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to elucidate the seasonal changes of amylase an nitrate reductase activities in Zoysia japonica Steud. The seasonal changes of the amylase activity AA) in aboveground parts appeared high activity from the beginning of May to the beginning of July and in autumn showed an activity of rapid decreasing tendency. But, the AA in winter(Nov. 15~Feb 28 was not almost detected. The seasonal changes of nitrate reductase activity(NRA) in various organs appeared a very similar figures to the seasonal changes of AA. But, the NRA in the root was not almost detected.

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A Study on Allocation of Amylase and Nitrate Reductase Acti ities among the organs Zoysia japonica Steud. (한국잔디에 있어서 Amylase와 Nitrate reductase의 기관별 활성분배에 관한 연구)

  • 장남기;김형기;유준희
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 1987
  • Zoysia japonica를 부위별로 나누어서 그들간의 amylase와 nitrate reductase의 활성을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. Amylase의 활성은 관부에서 8.36~9.46 unit/mg.rotein/hr.로 가장 높았고 이삭에서 2.04 unit/mg.rotein/hr.로 가장 낮았다. 포복경, 뿌리, 잎에서의 amylase의 활성을 각각 5.42~5.82, 3.76, 2.32~3.16 unit/mg.rotein/hr.나타내었다. 2. Nirate reductase의 활성은 빛을 많이 받는 잎에서 0.35~0.66 n mole/mg.rotein/hr.로 가장 높았고 관부에서 0.06~0.10 n mole/mg.rotein/hr.로 가장 낮았다. 이삭과 포복경에서는 각각 0.31,0.27~0.63 n mole/mg.rotein/hr.를 나타내었다. 이러한 결과로부터 저장기관인 관부나 관부 절간에서 높은 amylase의 활성을 이용하여, 양분을 이삭으로 이동시키고 있음을 알 수 있었다. nitrate reductase의 활성은 chloroplast를 갖지 않는 기관보다 광합성기관에서 더 높았다. 잔디밭에서 같이 사는 크로버와 비교해 보면 amylase의 활성이 Zoysia japonica보다 2배가량 더 높았다. 이러한 결과로부터 잔디밭에서 크로버가 더 생장력이 큼을 알 수 있었다.

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Effect of Foliar Treatment of KCl on Chlorophyll, Total Sugars, Soluble Protein, In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Activity and Leaf Yield in Mulberry (Morus alba L. CV.S1)

  • Das, C.;Ghosh, M.K.;Das, B.K.;Misra, A.K.;Mukherjee, P.K.;Urs, S.Raje
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2003
  • Foliar treatment with different concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) to mulberry plants resulted in higher level of total chlorophyll, total sugars, soluble protein, in vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA), net photosynthetic rate (NPR), pWUE and leaf yield. Optimal concentration was found to be 10.0 mM KCl with limited irrigation provided in the mulberry plantation planted in 90 ${times}$ 90 cm spacing. The deleterious effect of soil moisture stress condition has been found to be overcome by KCl foliar spray twice at 15 days interval. Regression and correlation coefficients were analyzed, and a strong positive correlation was found between chlorophyll and total sugars, soluble protein and in vivo nitrate reductase activity, leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate and pWUE and net photosynthetic rate.

Characterization of Membrane-bound Nitrate Reductase from Denitrifying Bacteria Ochrobactrum anthropi SY509

  • Kim Seung-Hwan;Song Seung-Hoon;Yoo Young-Je
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we have purified and characterized the membrane bound nitrate reductase obtained from the denitrifying bacteria, Ochrobactrum anthropi SY509, which was isolated from soil samples. O. anthropi SY509 can grow in minimal medium using nitrate as a nitrogen source. We achieved an overall purification rate of 15-fold from the protein extracted from the membrane fraction, with a recovery of approximately 12% of activity. The enzyme exhibited its highest level of activity at pH 5.5, and the activity was increased up to $70^{\circ}C$. Periplasmic and cytochromic proteins, including nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase, were excluded during centrifugation and were verified using enzyme essay. Reduced methyl viologen was determined to be the most efficient electron donor among a variety of anionic and cationic dyestuffs, which could be also used as an electron donor with dimethyl dithionite. The effects of purification and storage conditions on the stability of enzyme were also investigated. The activity of the membranebound nitrate reductase was stably maintained for over 2 weeks in solution. To maintain the stability of enzyme, the cell was disrupted using sonication at low temperatures, and enzyme was extracted by hot water without any surfactant. The purified enzyme was stored in solution with no salt to prevent any significant losses in activity levels.

Some Aspects to the in vivo Nitrate Reductase Activity in Carex species (사초속 식물의 질산환원효소 활성의 특징)

  • 추연식
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2000
  • Up to now, there have been done much efforts in regard to nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of dicotyledonous herbs and important crop monocotyledons, but few to wild plants having canopy structure such as Carex. The objective of the present study are to determine: a) the optimum in vivo NR assay conditions for leaf samples of Carex species, b) changes of NRA according to section within leaf and leaf ages, c) diurnal variations. Optimized assay media of each Carex species were determined. NRA of C. rostrata adapted to oligotrophic habitats is readily saturated at lower substrate concentration than those of C. distans and C. gracilis, adapted to meso- and eutrophic habitats, respectively. All Carex species investigated have higher NRA in leaves than in roots. NRA of all species showed maximal values at the middle section of each leaf and in the youngest fully expanded leaves. Compared to C. gracilis, NR in leaves of C. distans was adapted readily to the light period. On the whole, Carex showed rather delayed diurnal variation. Even if the in vivo nitrate reductase assay based on nitrite estimation does not give an accurate estimation of total nitrate reduced, it still serves as a useful tool to find out relative differences in varying environmental conditions. Additionally, in vivo RNA measurements are helpful to understand nitrate reduction and basic nitrogen metabolism of Carex species having different canopy structure.

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Studies on the Physiological Characteristics and Cambial Electrical Resistance of Street Trees in Cheonan City (천안시 가로수의 생리적 특성과 형성층 전기저항치에 관한 연구1)

  • 송근준;한심희;하태주
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to diagnose the health of street trees with physiological characters, and to figure out the relation of physiological characters and cambial electrical resistances. Ginkgo biloba, Prunes serrulata and Salix koreensis were chosen in the Cheonan City. Soils under trees were collected to analyze dehydrogenase activities, and chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and superoxide dismutase activities were analyzed from leaves sampled at the edge of crown in July. Cambial electrical resistances were measured in May, July and September, Soils with low dehydrogenase activity reflected the level of pollution. Chlorophyll content was the lowest in the leaves of P. serrulata at the Dongseo-street. Nitrate reductase activity of Ginkgo biloba was higher than P. serruluta and Satix koreensis. Nitrate reductase activity showed higher activity in the city than control(Independence Hall and Yonam College), but superoxide dismutase activity in the city lower than control. P. serruzatu in the Dongseo-street that cambial electrical resistance increase continuously during the growing season, showed the loss of vitality Cambial electrical resistance was negatively or positively correlated with nitrate reductase($r^2$=-0.566) and superoxide dismutase activity($r^2$=0.579). It was concluded that cambial electrical resistance might be suitable for diagnosing the tree health.

Response of Nodulation and Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity of Alfalfa to Exogeneous Nitrate Supply (질산태 질소 공급이 알팔파의 뿌리혹 형성 및 엽중 Nitrate Reductase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이석하;황석중
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.196-200
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    • 1993
  • A full understanding of the interdependence of leaf nitrate (($No_3$ ̄) metabolism and symbiotic nitrogen($N_2$) fixation in legume crops is needed to help maximize the use of both N sources as well as to improve forage quality through the inhibition of leaf nitrate accumulation. The present work examines the effects of added nitrate, the level of which are 0,2,4,8 and 12mM, on the nodule formation and leaf nitrate utilization and on the possibility of inducing nitrate-toxicity to livestocks in two alfalfa varieties, ' Vernal ' of grazing type and ' Victoria ' of hay type. Higher level of exogeneous nitrate resulted in the increased above-ground dry weight. Nodulation was inhibited severely when more than 8mM NO$_3$ ̄ was supplied to alfalfa plants, and leaf nitrate reductase reached a maximunm at 4mM nitrate supply. The $V_{max}$of nitrate reductase in leaves of Vernal was similar to that of Victoria, whereas the $K_m$ of Vernal was higher than that of Victoria. High accumulation of leaf nitrate, $4{\times}10^{-5}$ g/g leaf fresh weight, was shown at 12mM nitrate supply, which was thought to be not enough to induce nitrate-toxicity to livestocks.icity to livestocks.

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