Traditionally, news was consumed only through printed newspapers and broadcasting media, such as radio and television. However, the Internet has enabled people to consume news content online. Since most of online news content has been provided for free, it is not easy for news providers to charge the fixed subscription fee for online news content. Therefore, as an alternative strategy, some online news providers have tried to adopt the Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing model, which allows users (readers) to pay as much as they want after consuming news content. As this pricing model shows some possibility to grow and replace the unsuccessful monetization strategy of online news content, we therefore examined the comparative importance of seven heuristic attributes (i.e., article evaluation, article share, article comment, article information design, article length, writer SNS, and writer information) affecting readers' voluntary payment behavior through a conjoint analysis with 379 news articles collected from online news Website (i.e., Ohmynews.com) where the PWYW model has been working successfully. This study found that article share and article length are the most important factors which affect online news content users' voluntary payment. Finally, two major and eight minor propositions are suggested based on the findings of the study. This study would suggest guidelines for how to create online news content which induces much more voluntary payment.
Distinguishing border between news and advertising is disappearing. Traditional journalism considered editorial part deals news and ad part handle commercial messages. But now this classification is meaningless. Current news consumers do not separate advertising content and non-advertising content. In Korea, making fake news or paid news pages is becoming social problem. Fake news uses various camouflages to pretend to be real news. This paper descriptively analyzed Korean fake news cases and suggested some guidelines for publishing news. We analyzed 3 major newspaper web sites from July to September, 2014. These three newspapers publish section pages everyday containing fake news or sponsored news. Totally more than one thousand articles were selected for content analysis. We coded the numbers of fake news, day of the week, the rate of sponsored news, average fake news publication number per pages, the conformity between news and advertising, and the type of fake news. We also coded the number of sponsored news article in day sections. We used method of comparing the advertising contents and news articles. As a result, 24.8% of news article were published for the advertising sponsors. Advertorial or fake news were sometimes arranged same pages the same day. We coded the conformity between same advertising and news content. More than 60 percent (60.9%) of fake news match with their sponsors. PR style of fake news is top and advertising type of fake news is the lowest.
To develop the broadcasting application for DMB, the programmers have to aggregate the content. In this case of content such as news, it would be hard to provide successively updated content. This paper introduces a creation system which can automatically create the news application for data broadcasting on DMB based on the web news content updated immediately. The designed creation system aggregates the news content using RSS based XML and produces the news application by transcoding the web content which can be applied on DMB.
Mobile devices have become an important channel for news content usage in our daily life. However, online news content readers' resistance to online news monetization is more serious than other digital content businesses, such as webtoons, music sources, videos, and games. Since major portal sites distribute online news content free of charge to increase their traffics, customers have been accustomed to free news content; hence this makes online news providers more difficult to switch their policies on business models (i.e., monetization policy). As a result, most online news providers are highly dependent on the advertising business model, which can lead to increasing number of false, exaggerated, or sensational advertisements inside the news website to maximize their advertising revenue. To reduce this advertising dependencies, many online news providers had attempted to switch their 'free' readers to 'paid' users, but most of them failed. However, recently, some online news media have been successfully applying the Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) payment model, which allows readers to voluntarily pay fees for their favorite news content. These successful cases shed some lights to the managers of online news content provider regarding that the PWYW model can serve as an alternative business model. In this study, therefore, we collected 379 online news articles from Ohmynews.com that has been successfully employing the PWYW model, and analyzed the comparative importance of systematic attributes of online news content on readers' voluntary payment. More specifically, we derived the six systematic attributes (i.e., Type of Article Title, Image Stimulation, Article Readability, Article Type, Dominant Emotion, and Article-Image Similarity) and three or four levels within each attribute based on previous studies. Then, we conducted content analysis to measure five attributes except Article Readability attribute, measured by Flesch readability score. Before conducting main content analysis, the face reliabilities of chosen attributes were measured by three doctoral level researchers with 37 sample articles, and inter-coder reliabilities of the three coders were verified. Then, the main content analysis was conducted for two months from March 2017 with 379 online news articles. All 379 articles were reviewed by the same three coders, and 65 articles that showed inconsistency among coders were excluded before employing conjoint analysis. Finally, we examined the comparative importance of those six systematic attributes (Study 1), and levels within each of the six attributes (Study 2) through conjoint analysis with 314 online news articles. From the results of conjoint analysis, we found that Article Readability, Article-Image Similarity, and Type of Article Title are the most significant factors affecting online news readers' voluntary payment. First, it can be interpreted that if the level of readability of an online news article is in line with the readers' level of readership, the readers will voluntarily pay more. Second, the similarity between the content of the article and the image within it enables the readers to increase the information acceptance and to transmit the message of the article more effectively. Third, readers expect that the article title would reveal the content of the article, and the expectation influences the understanding and satisfaction of the article. Therefore, it is necessary to write an article with an appropriate readability level, and use images and title well matched with the content to make readers voluntarily pay more. We also examined the comparative importance of levels within each attribute in more details. Based on findings of two studies, two major and nine minor propositions are suggested for future empirical research. This study has academic implications in that it is one of the first studies applying both content analysis and conjoint analysis together to examine readers' voluntary payment behavior, rather than their intention to pay. In addition, online news content creators, providers, and managers could find some practical insights from this research in terms of how they should produce news content to make readers voluntarily pay more for their online news content.
This paper explores the characteristics of curated news content. With content analysis of 1020 news clips, the study found that news values immersed in card news differed from those of traditional news. Specifically, timeliness was not regarded as a key factor in newsworthiness. Rather, information and social impacts were highly emphasized. Considering news consumers depend on traditional news for timely news, curated news content was not a replacement for traditional news but a supplement. By refurbishing photos from previous news reports and googling the web for related information, curated news reiterates social meaning and provides relevant information. Furthermore, salience of human interest can be explained by entertaining characteristics of curated news. In story forms, the list technique has several important points to stress, and was more frequently used than inverted pyramids. Another key finding of this study is man-on-the street as the most quoted main sources in the curatorial context.
Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
On the Internet age, the news is generated and distributed not only by traditional news media, but also by a variety of online news media, news platforms, content websites/content farms, and social media. Since it is an easy task to create and distribute news, some of these news reports may contain fake or false facts. In the end, the cyberspace is full of fake or false messages. People may wonder if these fake news actually influence our decision making. In this paper, we discussed a real case of fake news. In this case, a Taiwanese company used some fake news, advertorial news, and news placement to manipulate or influence its stock price and trade volume. We collected all news for the case company during a period of four years and five months (from January 2013 to May 2017). We analyzed the relationship between published news and stock price. Based on the analysis results, we conclude that we should not ignore the influence of news placement and fake business news on the stock price.
As mobile devices that can be connected to the Internet have spread and networking has become possible whenever/wherever, the Internet has become central in the dissemination and consumption of news. Accordingly, the ways news is gathered, disseminated, and consumed have changed greatly. In the traditional news media such as magazines and newspapers, expert editors determined what events were worthy of deploying their staffs or freelancers to cover and what stories from newswires or other sources would be printed. Furthermore, they determined how these stories would be displayed in their publications in terms of page placement, space allocation, type sizes, photographs, and other graphic elements. In turn, readers-news consumers-judged the importance of news not only by its subject and content, but also through subsidiary information such as its location and how it was displayed. Their judgments reflected their acceptance of an assumption that these expert editors had the knowledge and ability not only to serve as gatekeepers in determining what news was valuable and important but also how to rank its value and importance. As such, news assembled, dispensed, and consumed in this manner can be said to be expert-based recommended news. However, in the era of Internet news, the role of expert editors as gatekeepers has been greatly diminished. Many Internet news sites offer a huge volume of news on diverse topics from many media companies, thereby eliminating in many cases the gatekeeper role of expert editors. One result has been to turn news users from passive receptacles into activists who search for news that reflects their interests or tastes. To solve the problem of an overload of information and enhance the efficiency of news users' searches, Internet news sites have introduced numerous recommendation techniques. Recommendations based on popularity constitute one of the most frequently used of these techniques. This popularity-based approach shows a list of those news items that have been read and shared by many people, based on users' behavior such as clicks, evaluations, and sharing. "most-viewed list," "most-replied list," and "real-time issue" found on news sites belong to this system. Given that collective intelligence serves as the premise of these popularity-based recommendations, popularity-based news recommendations would be considered highly important because stories that have been read and shared by many people are presumably more likely to be better than those preferred by only a few people. However, these recommendations may reflect a popularity bias because stories judged likely to be more popular have been placed where they will be most noticeable. As a result, such stories are more likely to be continuously exposed and included in popularity-based recommended news lists. Popular news stories cannot be said to be necessarily those that are most important to readers. Given that many people use popularity-based recommended news and that the popularity-based recommendation approach greatly affects patterns of news use, a review of whether popularity-based news recommendations actually reflect important news can be said to be an indispensable procedure. Therefore, in this study, popularity-based news recommendations of an Internet news portal was compared with top placements of news in printed newspapers, and news users' judgments of which stories were personally and socially important were analyzed. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, content analyses were used to compare the content of the popularity-based news recommendations of an Internet news site with those of the expert-based news recommendations of printed newspapers. Five days of news stories were collected. "most-viewed list" of the Naver portal site were used as the popularity-based recommendations; the expert-based recommendations were represented by the top pieces of news from five major daily newspapers-the Chosun Ilbo, the JoongAng Ilbo, the Dong-A Daily News, the Hankyoreh Shinmun, and the Kyunghyang Shinmun. In the second stage, along with the news stories collected in the first stage, some Internet news stories and some news stories from printed newspapers that the Internet and the newspapers did not have in common were randomly extracted and used in online questionnaire surveys that asked the importance of these selected news stories. According to our analysis, only 10.81% of the popularity-based news recommendations were similar in content with the expert-based news judgments. Therefore, the content of popularity-based news recommendations appears to be quite different from the content of expert-based recommendations. The differences in importance between these two groups of news stories were analyzed, and the results indicated that whereas the two groups did not differ significantly in their recommendations of stories of personal importance, the expert-based recommendations ranked higher in social importance. This study has importance for theory in its examination of popularity-based news recommendations from the two theoretical viewpoints of collective intelligence and popularity bias and by its use of both qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative methods (questionnaires). It also sheds light on the differences in the role of media channels that fulfill an agenda-setting function and Internet news sites that treat news from the viewpoint of markets.
Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
This study aims to provide intellectual access to TV content using faceted classification. In order to describe the content of news and current affairs programs, a faceted approach was explored. Based on the Ranganathan's PMEST formula, the basic facets - 'who', 'what', 'how', 'where', 'when' - and their sub-facets were created, specifically for describing the news genre. Additionally, the formal structure and the contextual features of the news genre were mainly considered for creating sub-facets. These created facets were applied to a news genre program. The result shows that these suggested facets are useful for representing well the contextual components of the news genre. The application of faceted classification is expected to improve the identification of the specific TV content.
As Internet users increasingly consume news through the Internet, Internet portals face criticism that they are quickening the softening of public news and molding public opinions. Some portals have started to provide newscast services that directly connect the press, not grouping news sources on their own standards. This study aims to clarify how news grouping models and newscast models are different in terms of news softening and agenda setting. Specifically, authors conduct a content analysis on time-specific news content provided by top three portals-Naver, Daum, and Nate. By doing so, this study examines characteristics of news service models of Internet portals and their social and political implications. According to our study, the softening and tabloidization of portal news had not been improved even after adopting the newscast model. Therefore, portal journalism should be reorganized as a way to circulate healthy and qualified news content.
Existing methodologies of technology planning about promising new technology focused on target technology itself, so it is true that socio-environmental context which the relevant technology has influence on is not well understood. In this respect, this study is aimed to questingly examine that news content analysis methodologies widely available in the field of science communication can be applied as a complementary methodology for contextual understanding of socio-environment in terms of technology planning about promising new technology. In the co-evolutionary environment of technology-society, promising new technology shows hype phenomenon regarding the relation with the society. Based on this, this study performed news content analysis and examined if the consequences of analysis would match hype cycle. It tried to explore substantive content understanding by socio-environment factors according to specific news frame content. To do this, new content analysis was performed targeting cloud computing as a representative promising new technology. The result of news content analysis targeting general newspapers, business news, IT special newspapers revealed that the tendency of news reporting matched the trend of hype cycle. Particularly, it was verified that reporting attitude and news frame analysis provided useful information to understand contextual content depending on social, economic, and cultural environment factors about promising new technology. The results of this study implied that news content analysis could overcome the limitation of technology information analysis focusing on academic journal patent usually applied for technology planning and could be used as a complementary methodology for understanding the context depending on macro-environment factors. In conclusion, application of news content analysis on the phase of macro-environment analysis of technology planning could contribute to the securement of mutually balanced view in the co-evolutionary perspective of technology-society.
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