• Title/Summary/Keyword: Neuronal

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pxn-1 and pxn-2 May Interact Negatively during Neuronal Development and Aging in C. elegans

  • Cho, Injeong;Hwang, Gyu Jin;Cho, Jeong Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.729-733
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    • 2015
  • C. elegans has two functional peroxidasins (PXN), PXN-1 and PXN-2. PXN-2 is essential to consolidate the extracellular matrix during development and is suggested to interact with PXN-1 antagonistically. pxn-1 is involved in neuronal development and possibly maintenance; therefore, we investigated the relationship between pxn-1 and pxn-2 in neuronal development and in aging. During neuronal development, defects caused by pxn-1 overexpression were suppressed by overexpression of both pxn-1 and pxn-2. In neuronal aging process, pxn-1 mutants showed less age-related neuronal defects, such as neuronal outgrowth, neuronal wavy processes, and enhanced short-term memory performance. In addition, pxn-2 overexpressing animals retained an intact neuronal morphology when compared with age-matched controls. Consistent with these results, overexpression of both pxn-1 and pxn-2 restored the severe neuronal defects present with pxn-1 overexpression. These results implied that there is a negative relationship between pxn-1 and pxn-2 via pxn-1 regulating pxn-2. Therefore, pxn-1 may function in neuronal development and age-related neuronal maintenance through pxn-2.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRT as a regulator of synaptic formation and neuronal development

  • Lee, Jae-Ran
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2015
  • PTPRT/RPTPρ is the most recently isolated member of the type IIB receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase family and its expression is restricted to the nervous system. PTPRT plays a critical role in regulation of synaptic formation and neuronal development. When PTPRT was overexpressed in hippocampal neurons, synaptic formation and dendritic arborization were induced. On the other hand, knockdown of PTPRT decreased neuronal transmission and attenuated neuronal development. PTPRT strengthened neuronal synapses by forming homophilic trans dimers with each other and heterophilic cis complexes with neuronal adhesion molecules. Fyn tyrosine kinase regulated PTPRT activity through phosphorylation of tyrosine 912 within the membrane-proximal catalytic domain of PTPRT. Phosphorylation induced homophilic cis dimerization of PTPRT and resulted in the inhibition of phosphatase activity. BCR-Rac1 GAP and Syntaxin-binding protein were found as new endogenous substrates of PTPRT in rat brain. PTPRT induced polymerization of actin cytoskeleton that determined the morphologies of dendrites and spines by inhibiting BCR-Rac1 GAP activity. Additionally, PTPRT appeared to regulate neurotransmitter release through reinforcement of interactions between Syntaxin-binding protein and Syntaxin, a SNARE protein. In conclusion, PTPRT regulates synaptic function and neuronal development through interactions with neuronal adhesion molecules and the dephosphorylation of synaptic molecules. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(5): 249-255]

Neuronal Vacuolation in a Pekingese (Pekingese에서의 Neuronal Vacuolation)

  • 김재훈;김진현;윤화영;박영찬;김대용;임정식
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.247-249
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    • 2002
  • A 6-month-old female Pekingese was euthanized due to poor progrosis after 1 month history of neurologic signs that include depression, ataxia, urination and defecation difficulty. At necropsy, no significant gross abnormalities were noted Histologically, neuronal vacuolation was noted in the brain, primarily cerebellum and occasionally in the brain stem area. Neuronal necrosis and secondary axonal swelling were also observed. Differential diagnoses were able to rule out other diseases which can induce neuronal vacuolation such as lysosomal storage disease, prion infection, and postvaccinal change.

Role of Cannabinoid on Neuronal Differentiation of P19 Cells

  • Ju, Hyun-Hee;Ghil, Sung-Ho
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2011
  • P19 cells are pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells and can be differentiated into neuronal cell type by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) and aggregation culture. Cannabinoids are the active components of Cannabis sativa and they have diverse pharmacologic activities, such as pain control, anti-inflammatory effects, neuro-protection effects and tumor regression. Cannabinoids also involved in neuronal proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival in developing brain. Here, we studied the role of cannabinoids on neuronal differentiation of P19 cells. Treatment with cannabinoids increased the neuronal differentiation induced by RA and also promoted transcriptional activity of neurogenin 1, key transcription factor for neuronal differentiation of P19 cells. These results suggest that the cannabinoids can accelerate neuronal differentiation of P19 cells.

Effect of Glial-neuronal Cell Co-culture on GFAP Expression of Astrocytes (신경세포가 별아교세포의 아교섬유성 산단백질 표현에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae Hyung-Mi;Park Jung-Sun;Yeon Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.285-296
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    • 1997
  • Injury to brain transforms resting astrocytes to their reactive form, the hallmark of which is an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein of their cell type. The overall glial response after brain injury is referred to as reactive gliosis. Glial-neuronal interaction is important for neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and axonal guidance during ontogenic development. Although much attention has been given to glial regulation of neuronal development and regeneration, evidences also suggest a neuronal influence on glial cell differentiation, maturation and function. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of glial-hippocampal neuronal co-culture on GFAP expression in the co-cultured astrocytes. The following antibodies were used for double immunostaining chemistry; mouse monoclonal antibodies for confirm neuronal cells, rabbit anti GFAP antibodies for confirm astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes showed the typical flat polygonal morphology in culture and expressed strong GFAP and vimentin. Co-cultured hippocampal neurons on astrocytes had phase bright cell body and well branched neurites. About half of co-cultured astrocytes expressed negative or weak GFAP and vimentin. After 2 hour glutamate (0.5 mM) exposure of glial-neuronal co-culture, neuronal cells lost their neurites and most of astrocytes expressed strong CFAE and vimentin. In Western blot analysis, total GFAP and vimentin contents in co-cultured astrocytes were lower than those of primary cultured astrocytes. After glutamate exposure of glial-neuronal co-culture, GFAP and vimentin contents in astrocytes were increased to the level of primary cultured astrocytes. These results suggest that neuronal cell decrease GFAP expression in co-cultured astrocytes and hippocampal neuronal-glial co-culture can be used as a reactive gliosis model in vitro for studying GFAP expression of astrocytes.

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The SH2 domain is crucial for function of Fyn in neuronal migration and cortical lamination

  • Lu, Xi;Hu, Xinde;Song, Lingzhen;An, Lei;Duan, Minghui;Chen, Shulin;Zhao, Shanting
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2015
  • Neurons in the developing brain form the cortical plate (CP) in an inside-out manner, in which the late-born neurons are located more superficially than the early-born neurons. Fyn, a member of the Src family kinases, plays an important role in neuronal migration by binding to many substrates. However, the role of the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain in function of Fyn in neuronal migration remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the SH2 domain is essential for the action of Fyn in neuronal migration and cortical lamination. A point mutation in the Fyn SH2 domain ($Fyn^{R176A}$) impaired neuronal migration and their final location in the cerebral cortex, by inducing neuronal aggregation and branching. Thus, we provide the first evidence of the Fyn SH2 domain contributing to neuronal migration and neuronal morphogenesis.

L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (PDC) induces Excitotoxic and Oxidative Neuronal Death in Cultured Cortical Neurons

  • Choi, Seung-Joon;Hwang, Shin-Ae;Kim, Do-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Keun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2009
  • L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (PDC) is a potent inhibitor of glutamate transporters. In our current study, we investigated whether the neuronal death induced by PDC involves mechanisms other than excitotoxicity in mixed mouse cortical cultures. Cortical cultures at 13-14 days in vitro were used and cell death was assessed by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase efflux into bathing media. Glutamate and PDC both induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner but the neurotoxic effects of glutamate were found to be more potent than those of PDC. Treatment with 10, 100 and 200 ${\mu}$M PDC equally potentiated 50 ${\mu}$M glutamate-induced neuronal death. The neuronal death induced by 75 ${\mu}$M glutamate was almost abolished by treatment with the NMDA antagonists, MK-801 and AP-5, but was unaffected by NBQX (an AMPA antagonist), trolox (antioxidant), BDNF or ZVAD-FMK (a pan-caspase inhibitor). However, the neuronal death induced by 200 ${\mu}$M PDC was partially but significantly attenuated by single treatments with MK-801, AP-5, trolox, BDNF or ZVAD-FMK but not NBQX. Combined treatments with MK-801 plus trolox, MK-801 plus ZVAD-FMK or MK-801 plus BDNF almost abolished neuronal death, whereas combined treatments with trolox plus ZVADFMK, trolox plus BDNF or ZVAD-FMK plus BDNF did not enhance the inhibitory action of any single treatment with these drugs. These results demonstrate that the neuronal death induced by PDC involves not only in the excitotoxicity induced by the accumulation of glutamate but also the oxidative stress induced by free radical generation. This suggests that apoptotic neuronal death plays a role in PDCinduced oxidative neuronal injury.

Increase of Cdk5 and p35 during Retinoic Acid-Induced Neuronal Differentiation of SK-N-BE(2)C cells

  • Lee, Jong-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Tai
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.46-46
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    • 2002
  • Cdk5, a neuronal Cdc2-like kinase, exhibits a variety of functions in neuronal differentiation and neurocytoskeleton dynamics as well as neuronal degeneration and cell death. However, its role in retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation has not been reported yet. We newly found that RA treatment of SK-N-BE(2)C, human neuroblastoma, increased expression of Cdk5 concomitantly with a neuronal specific activator, p35.(omitted)

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Ganglioside GT1b Mediates Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Lee, So-Dam;Jin, Jung-Woo;Choi, Jin;Choo, Young-Kug
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2009
  • It has been reported that ganglioside GT1b is expressed during neuronal cell differentiation from undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which suggests that ganglioside GT1b has a direct effect on neuronal cell differentiation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous addition of ganglioside GT1b to an in vitro model of neuronal cell differentiation from undifferentiated mESCs. The results revealed that a significant increase in the expression of ganglioside GT1b occurred during neuronal differentiation of undifferentiated mESCs. Next, we evaluated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on GT1b-treated undifferentiated mESCs, which was found to lead to increased neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ganglioside GT1b plays a crucial role in neuronal differentiation of mESCs.

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Neuroprotective effects of modified Bo-Yang-Hwan-Oh-Tang in N2a neuroblastoma cells (가감보양환오탕(加減補陽還五湯)의 N2a 뇌신경세포에 대한 보호효과)

  • Lim, Kyu;Park, Yong-Ki
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of modified Bo-Yang-Hwan-O-Tang (BHT), we investigated the neuronal death protection effects to oxidative damages in N2a neuroblastoma cells. Methods : To study the cytotoxic effect of BHT on N2a neuronal cells, the cell viability was determined by MTT assay. To investigate the neuronal death protection of BHT, N2a neuronal cells were induced oxidative damages by H2O2, and assayed the cell viability and DNA fragmentation. We also investigated DPPH free radical scavenging effects of BHT by tube test. Results : In MTT assay, $500{\mu}g/ml$ of BHT was not showed cytotoxic effect on N2a neuronal cells. BHT protected N2a neuronal cells from H2O2-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. BHT also protected N2a neuronal cells from H2O2-induced DNA fragmentation. BHT scavenged DPPH free radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion : These data suggest that BHT may have strong anti-oxidant effects through the free radical scavenging and neuroprotective effects in neuronal cells.

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