• Title/Summary/Keyword: Near infrared

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Evaluation of Rededge-M Camera for Water Color Observation after Image Preprocessing (영상 전처리 수행을 통한 Rededge-M 카메라의 수색 관측에의 활용성 검토)

  • Kim, Wonkook;Roh, Sang-Hyun;Moon, Yongseon;Jung, Sunghun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2019
  • Water color analysis allows non-destructive estimation of abundance of optically active water constituents in the water body. Recently, there have been increasing needs for light-weighted multispectral cameras that can be integrated with low altitude unmanned platforms such as drones, autonomous vehicles, and heli-kites, for the water color analysis by spectroradiometers. This study performs the preprocessing of the Micasense Rededge-M camera which recently receives a growing attention from the earth observation community for its handiness and applicability for local environment monitoring, and investigates the applicability of Rededge-M data for water color analysis. The Vignette correction and the band alignment were conducted for the radiometric image data from Rededge-M, and the sky, water, and solar radiation essential for the water color analysis, and the resultant remote sensing reflectance were validated with an independent hyperspectral instrument, TriOS RAMSES. The experiment shows that Rededge-M generally satisfies the basic performance criteria for water color analysis, although noticeable differences are observed in the blue (475 nm) and the near-infrared (840 nm) band compared with RAMSES.

Development of Prediction Model for Sugar Content of Strawberry Using NIR Spectroscopy (근적외선 분광을 이용한 딸기의 당도예측모델 개발)

  • Son, Jaeryong;Lee, Kangjin;Kang, Sukwon;Yang, Gilmo;Seo, Youngwook
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to develop a prediction model of sugar content for strawberry. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been prevailed for on-line and portable applications for non-invasive quality assessment of intact fruit. This work presents effects of illumination method and coating of reflection surface of light source on prediction result of sugar content. Effect of preprocessing methods was also examined. A low-cost commercially available VIS/NIR spectrometer was used for estimation of total soluble solids content (Brix). To predict sugar contents of strawberry, the best results were obtained with the spectrum data measured under intensive illuminations at three locations induced from the light source with fiber optic bundles. Gold coating of reflection surface of light source lamp gave favorable effect to prediction result. The best results in validation of PLSR model were $r_{SEP}$ = 0.891 and SEP = 0.443 Brix under OSC preprocessing and those of PCR were $r_{SEP}$ = 0.845, SEP $r_{SEP}$= 0.520 Brix, under no preprocessing.

Detection of Titanium bearing Myeonsan Formation in the Joseon Supergroup based on Spectral Analysis and Machine Learning Techniques (분광분석과 기계학습기법을 활용한 조선누층군 타이타늄 함유 면산층 탐지)

  • Park, Chanhyeok;Yu, Jaehyung;Oh, Min-Kyu;Lee, Gilljae;Lee, Giyeon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.197-207
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    • 2022
  • This study investigated spectroscopic exploration of Myeonsan formation, the titanium(Ti) ore hostrock, in Joseon supergroup based on machine learning technique. The mineral composition, Ti concentration, spectral characteristics of Myeonsan and non-Myeonsan formation of Joseon supergroup were analyzed. The Myeonsan formation contains relatively larger quantity of opaque minerals along with quartz and clay minerals. The PXRF analysis revealed that the Ti concentration of Myeosan formation is at least 10 times larger than the other formations with bi-modal distribution. The bi-modal concentration is caused by high Ti concentrated sandy layer and relatively lower Ti concentrated muddy layer. The spectral characteristics of Myeonsan formation is manifested by Fe oxides at near infrared and clay minerals at shortwave infrared bands. The Ti exploration is expected to be more effective on detection of hostrock rather than Ti ore because ilmenite does not have characteristic spectral features. The random-forest machine learning classification detected the Myeonsan fomation at 85% accuracy with overall accuracy of 97%, where spectral features of iron oxides and clay minerals played an important role. It indicates that spectral analysis can detect the Ti host rock effectively, and can contribute for UAV based remote sensing for Ti exploration.

Study of Feasibility Test: FT-NIR Spectrometer for Discrimination Analysis of Agrochemical Products (농약 제품의 동일성 판별을 위한 FT-NIR 분석 사례 연구)

  • Jin, Jung-Hwa;Baek, Oh-Hyen;Shin, Jae-Yeon;Ha, Huen-Young;Choi, Dal-Soon;Park, Sung-Eun;lhm, Yangbin;Hong, Jin-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2015
  • This study has been conducted to verify the applicability of FT-NIR (Fourier Transform Near Infrared) to prove coidentity between market agrochemical products and registered prescriptions. The spectrum correlations were investigated on 83 registered samples and there market products, 23 products which had same formulation and active ingredients and 68 products which had different active ingredients. In 83 samples/products, the primary differentiated spectrum correlation values were 95.86~100%, which mean that all samples qualified over 95% threshold. In 23 products which had same active ingredients and formulations, correlation values were 29.09~99.83%. 3 products over 99.0% were proved to have same active/inert ingredients and formulations although they're from different manufacturers. The rest products except the 3 items were under 95%. In 68 products had different active ingredients, correlation values varied from 2.00% to 93.70%. Higher correlation is supposed to come from similarity of inert ingredients despite different active ingredients. They can be decided to unqualify under 95% threshold. So applicability of FT-NIR has been verified on qualitative distinction of coidentity between registered market agrochemicals.

Properties of Temperature Reduction of Cooling Asphalt Pavements Using High-Reflectivity Paints (고반사 도료를 사용한 차열성 아스팔트 도로포장의 온도저감특성)

  • Hong, Chang Woo
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.317-327
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    • 2013
  • Air pollution and artificial heat of urban areas have caused the urban heat island in which asphalt pavements absorb solar heat during the daytime and release the heat at night. Hence, in order to improve the environment of urban areas, it is necessary to examine cooling pavements that can reduce heat on road pavements in urban areas. The application of temperature insulation paints on road pavements require to reduce black brightness for visibility, to increase the reflection rate of infrared light and minimize the reflection rate of visible light. In the study, one part of Acrylic-emulsion was used as a main binder, and the changes in black brightness and the changes of addition ratio (0%, 15%, 30%) of hollow ceramics, as well as kinds of paints (carbon black pigment, mixed mineral pigment) were selected as the main experimental factors. The performance of temperature reduction of cooling pavements was analyzed through the reflection rate of spectrum, the reflection rate of solar heat, and the lamp test. Abrasion resistance, UV accelerated weather resistance, and sliding resistance were tested in real situations. In addition, the performance of heat reduction of testing pavements covered with high-reflection paints was analyzed by using an infrared camera. As the test results, when using mixed mineral paints and hollow ceramic of 30%, the reflection rate of spectrum was 43% in the area of near-infrared ray and 17% in the area of visible light at black brightness of $L^*$=42.89 and the reflection rate of solar heat was 27.5%. Total color difference was ${\Delta}E$=0.27 in the test of UV Accelerated Weather Resistance, indicating almost no changes in color. BPN was more than 53 when scattering #2 and #4 silica sand of more than $0.12kg/m^2$. In Taber's abrasion resistance test, abrasion loss was up to 86.4mg at 500 rotations. The performance of heat reduction was evaluated using an infrared camera at the test section applying high-reflection paints to asphalt pavements, in which the results showed that the temperature was reduced by $12.7^{\circ}C$ on CI-30-40 cooling pavements ($L^*$=38.76) and by $14.2^{\circ}C$ on CI-30-60 cooling pavements ($L^*$=57.12).

Heat Shield Property of Nanostructural-regulated Fe2O3/TiO2 Composites Filled with Polyacrylate Paint (나노구조 변화에 의한 Fe2O3/TiO2 복합재료를 충전한 Poly Acrylate 도료의 열차단 특성)

  • Kim, Dae Won;Ma, Young Kil;Kim, Jong Seok
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2020
  • Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the mixed structure of cubic and nanorod were synthesized by precipitation, hydrothermal, sol-gel method, etching process and heat treatment. Fe2O3/TiO2 core-shell (CS) of type Fe2O3@TiO2 composite was fabricated on a 20 nm nanolayer of TiO2 coated on the surface of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3/TiO2 yolk-shell (YS) composite was prepared by chemical etching and heat treatment of Fe2O3/TiO2 CS nanoparticles. Physical properties of Fe2O3, Fe2O3@TiO2 CS and Fe2O3@TiO2 YS nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, HR-TEM and X-ray diffraction. The solar reflectance, commission internationale de l'Elcairage (CIE) color coordinate and heat shield temperatures of Fe2O3, CS and YS type Fe2O3@TiO2 pigments filled with poly acrylate (PA) paints were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer and homemade heat shield temperature measuring device. The Fe2O3@TiO2 YS red pigment filled PA composite exhibited excellent near infrared light reflecting performance and also reduced the heat shield temperature of 13 ℃ than that of Fe2O3 filled counterparts.

Basic Study on the Development of Analytical Instrument for Liquid Pig Manure Component Using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (근적외선 분광법을 이용한 돈분뇨 액비 성분분석기 개발을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Choi, D.Y.;Kwag, J.H.;Park, C.H.;Jeong, K.H.;Kim, J.H.;Song, J.I.;Yoo, Y.H.;Chung, M.S.;Yang, C.B.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to measure Nitrogen(N), Phosphate($P_2O_5$), Potassium ($K_2O$), Organic matter(OM) and Moisture content of liquid pig manure by Near Infrared Spectroscopy(NIRS) and to develop an alternative and analytical instrument which are used for measurement of N, $P_2O_5$, $K_2O$, OM, and Moisture contents for liquid pig manure. The liquid pig manure sample's transmittance spectra were measured with a NIRS in the wavelength range of 400 to 2,500 nm. Multiple linear regression and partial least square regression were used for calibrations. The correlation coefficient(RSQ) and standard error of calibration(SEC) obtained for nitrogen were 0.9190 and 2.1649, respectively. The RSQ for phosphate, potassium, organic matter and moisture contents were 0.9749, 0.5046, 0.9883 and 0.9777, and the SEC were 0.5019, 1.9252, 0.1180 and 0.0789, respectively. These results are indications of the rapid determination of components of liquid pig manure through the NIR analysis. The simple analytical instrument for liquid pig manure consisted of a tungsten halogen lamp for light source, a sample holder, a quartz cell, a SM 301 spectrometer for spectrum analyzer, a power supply, an electronics, a computer and a software. Results showed that the simple analytical instrument that was developed can approximately predict the phosphate, organic matter and moisture content of the liquid pig manure when compared to the analysis taken by NIRS. The low predictability value of potassium however, needs further investigation. Generally, the experiment proved that the simple analytical instrument was reliable, feasible and practical for analyzing liquid pig manure.

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Changes in the Hyperspectral Characteristics of Wheat Plants According to N Top-dressing Rates at Various Growth Stages (밀에서 질소 시비 조건에 따른 생육 단계별 초분광 특성 변화)

  • Jung, Jae Gyeong;Lee, Yeong Hun;Choi, Jae Eun;Song, Gi Eun;Ko, Jong Han;Lee, Kyung Do;Shim, Sang In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2020
  • Recently, wheat consumption has been increasing in Korea, requiring increased production. Nitrogen fertilization is a critical determinant in crop yield; therefore, it is necessary to optimize the nitrogen fertilization regime with current trends that emphasize the minimum impact of nitrogen fertilizer on the environment. In this study, both nondestructive spectral analysis using a hyperspectral camera and growth analysis were performed to determine the optimal N top-dressing rates after heading. The nitrogen application regimes consisted of three conditions according to the secondary top-dressing rate: N4:3:0 (0 kg 10 a-1), N4:3:3 (2.73 kg 10 a-1), and N4:3:6 (5.46 kg 10 a-1). Subsequently, growth and physiological investigations were performed at the jointing, heading, and ripening stages of wheat, and spectral investigations were conducted. On April 29, as the nitrogen fertilization rate was increased to N4:3:3 and N4:3:6, plant height and grain yield increased by 4% and 8%, and 8% and 52%, respectively, compared to those under N4:3:0. Leaf area index and SPAD value also increased by 13% and 24%, and 32% and 43%, respectively. The R (red), G (green), and B (blue) of leaf color were lowered by 15, 11, and 4 in N4:3:3 and 44, 34, and 18 in N4:3:6, respectively, as compared to the control. Grain yield was the highest at high top-dressing (N4:3:6), however, there was no difference between no top-dressing (N4:3:0) and intermediat top-dressing (N4:3:3). The reflectance analyzed using a hyperspectral camera showed a difference in the near-infrared (NIR) region on March 19, and on April 29, there was a difference both in the visible light region greater than 550 nm and the NIR region. Vegetation indices differed according to fertilization regime, except for the greenness index (GI). The results of this study showed that not only growth and physiological analysis but also spectral indices can be used to optimize the nitrogen top-dressing rate.

Spectral Band Selection for Detecting Fire Blight Disease in Pear Trees by Narrowband Hyperspectral Imagery (초분광 이미지를 이용한 배나무 화상병에 대한 최적 분광 밴드 선정)

  • Kang, Ye-Seong;Park, Jun-Woo;Jang, Si-Hyeong;Song, Hye-Young;Kang, Kyung-Suk;Ryu, Chan-Seok;Kim, Seong-Heon;Jun, Sae-Rom;Kang, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Gul-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-33
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    • 2021
  • In this study, the possibility of discriminating Fire blight (FB) infection tested using the hyperspectral imagery. The reflectance of healthy and infected leaves and branches was acquired with 5 nm of full width at high maximum (FWHM) and then it was standardized to 10 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm, and 80 nm of FWHM. The standardized samples were divided into training and test sets at ratios of 7:3, 5:5 and 3:7 to find the optimal bands of FWHM by the decision tree analysis. Classification accuracy was evaluated using overall accuracy (OA) and kappa coefficient (KC). The hyperspectral reflectance of infected leaves and branches was significantly lower than those of healthy green, red-edge (RE) and near infrared (NIR) regions. The bands selected for the first node were generally 750 and 800 nm; these were used to identify the infection of leaves and branches, respectively. The accuracy of the classifier was higher in the 7:3 ratio. Four bands with 50 nm of FWHM (450, 650, 750, and 950 nm) might be reasonable because the difference in the recalculated accuracy between 8 bands with 10 nm of FWHM (440, 580, 640, 660, 680, 710, 730, and 740 nm) and 4 bands was only 1.8% for OA and 4.1% for KC, respectively. Finally, adding two bands (550 nm and 800 nm with 25 nm of FWHM) in four bands with 50 nm of FWHM have been proposed to improve the usability of multispectral image sensors with performing various roles in agriculture as well as detecting FB with other combinations of spectral bands.

Optical Characteristic on the Growth of Centric Diatom, Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve Isolated from Jinhae Bay in Korea (진해만에서 분리한 중심목 규조류 Skeletonema costatum(Grev.) Cleve의 성장에 미치는 광학적 특성)

  • Oh, Seok-Jin;Kang, In-Seok;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Yang, Han-Soeb
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2008
  • The effects of light quality and irradiance on the growth of centric diatom, Skeletonema costatum (Jinhae Bay strain) were investigated in the laboratory. At 20$^{\circ}C$ and 30 psu, the irradiance-growth curve showed the maximum growth rate of 1.17 day$^{-1}$ with half-saturation photon flux density (PFD) (K$_s$) of 92.4 $\mu$mol photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, $\mu$=1.17 (I-5.28)/(I+81.8), (r=0.98), and a compensation PFD (I$_0$) was 5.28 $\mu$mol photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$. The 10 equated to a depth of 3$\sim$5 m from March to May, 11 m in June and 4 m from July to September in Jinhae Bay. These responses suggested that irradiance at the depth near the surface layer in Jinhae Bay would provide favorable conditions for S. costatum. To assess the effects of light (i.e. wavelengths) on the growth, nine wave-lengths were used ranging from near ultraviolet to near-infrared supplied by light emitting diode. At an irradiance level of 25 $\mu$mol photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, S. costatum grew under wavelengths of 405, 470, 505, 525, 568 and 644 nm, but did not grow at 590 and 623 nm; whereas S. costatum grew at all wavelengths at 100 $\mu$mol photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$. This implies that S. costatum is likely to grow well in enclosed water bodies where suspended particles absorbs most of the blue wavelengths, and dominated by yellow-orange wavelengths.