• Title/Summary/Keyword: Near infrared

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Identification of Advanced Argillic-altered Rocks of the Haenam Area, Using by ASTER Spectral Analysis (ASTER 분광분석을 통한 해남지역 강고령토변질 암석의 식별)

  • Lee, Hong-Jin;Kim, Eui-Jun;Moon, Dong-Hyeok
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.463-474
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    • 2011
  • The Haenam epithermal mineralized zone is located in the southwestern part of South Korea, and hosts low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit (Eunsan-Moisan) and clay quarries (Okmaesan, Seongsan, and Chunsan). Epithermal deposits and accompanying hydrothermal alteration related to Cretaceous volcanism caused large zoned assemblages of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Advanced argillic-altered rocks with mineral assemblages of alunite-quartz, alunite-dickite-quartz, and dickite-kaolinite-quartz exposed on the Okmaesan, Seongsan, and Chunsan area. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), with three visible and near infrared bands, six shortwave infrared bands, and five thermal infrared bands, was used to identify advanced argillic-altered rocks within the Haenam epithermal mineralized zone. The distinct spectral features of hydrothermal minerals allow discrimination of advanced argillic-altered rocks from non-altered rocks within the study area. Because alunite, dickite, and kaolinite, consisting of advanced argillic-altered rocks within the study area are characterized by Al-O-H-bearing minerals, these acid hydrothermal minerals have a strong absorption feature at $2.20{\mu}m$. The band combination and band ratio transformation cause increasing differences of DN values between advanced argillic-altered rock and non-altered rock. The alunite and dickite-kaolinite of advanced argillic-altered rocks from the Okmaesan, Seongsan, and Chunsan have average DN values of 1.523 and 1.737, respectively. These values are much higher than those (1.211 and 1.308, respectively) of non-altered area. ASTER images can remotely provide the distribution of hydrothermal minerals on the surface. In this way good relation between ASTER spectra analysis and field data suggests that ASTER spectral analysis can be useful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration.

The study of quantitative analytical method for pH and moisture of Hanji record paper using non-destructive FT-NIR spectroscopy (비파괴 분석 방법인 푸리에 변환 근적외선 분광 분석을 이용한 한지 기록물의 산성도 및 함수율 정량 분석 연구)

  • Shin, Yong-Min;Park, Soung-Be;Lee, Chang-Yong;Kim, Chan-Bong;Lee, Seong-Uk;Cho, Won-Bo;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2012
  • It is essential to evaluate the quality of Hanji record paper without damaging the record paper by previous destructive methods. The samples were Hanji record paper produced in the 1900s. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used as a non destructive method for evaluating the quality of record papers. Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer was used with 12,500 to 4,000 $cm^{-1}$ wavenumber range for quantitative analysis and it has high accuracy and good signal-to-noise ratio. The acidity and moisture content of Hanji record paper were measured by integrating sphere as diffuse reflectance type. The acidity (pH) of chemical factors as a quality evaluated factor of Hanji was correlated to NIR spectrum. The NIR spectrum was pretreated to obtain the coefficients of optimum correlation. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and First derivative of Savitzky-Golay were used as pretreated methods. The coefficients of optimum correlation were calculated by PLSR (partial least square regression). The correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of acidity had 0.92 on NIR spectra without pretreatment. Also the standard error of prediction (SEP) of pH was 0.24. And then the NIR spectra with pretreatment would have better correlation coefficient ($R^2$ = 0.98) and 0.19 as SEP on pH. For moisture contents, the linearity correlation without pretreatment was higher than the case with pretreatment (MSC, $1^{st}$ derivative). As the best result, the $R^2$ was 0.99 and SEP was 0.45. This indicates that it is highly proper to evaluate the quality of Hanji record papers speedily with integrated sphere and FT NIR analyzer as a non-destructive method.

A Reflectance Normalization Via BRDF Model for the Korean Vegetation using MODIS 250m Data (한반도 식생에 대한 MODIS 250m 자료의 BRDF 효과에 대한 반사도 정규화)

  • Yeom, Jong-Min;Han, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Young-Seup
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.445-456
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    • 2005
  • The land surface parameters should be determined with sufficient accuracy, because these play an important role in climate change near the ground. As the surface reflectance presents strong anisotropy, off-nadir viewing results a strong dependency of observations on the Sun - target - sensor geometry. They contribute to the random noise which is produced by surface angular effects. The principal objective of the study is to provide a database of accurate surface reflectance eliminated the angular effects from MODIS 250m reflective channel data over Korea. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor has provided visible and near infrared channel reflectance at 250m resolution on a daily basis. The successive analytic processing steps were firstly performed on a per-pixel basis to remove cloudy pixels. And for the geometric distortion, the correction process were performed by the nearest neighbor resampling using 2nd-order polynomial obtained from the geolocation information of MODIS Data set. In order to correct the surface anisotropy effects, this paper attempted the semiempirical kernel-driven Bi- directional Reflectance Distribution Function(BRDF) model. The algorithm yields an inversion of the kernel-driven model to the angular components, such as viewing zenith angle, solar zenith angle, viewing azimuth angle, solar azimuth angle from reflectance observed by satellite. First we consider sets of the model observations comprised with a 31-day period to perform the BRDF model. In the next step, Nadir view reflectance normalization is carried out through the modification of the angular components, separated by BRDF model for each spectral band and each pixel. Modeled reflectance values show a good agreement with measured reflectance values and their RMSE(Root Mean Square Error) was totally about 0.01(maximum=0.03). Finally, we provide a normalized surface reflectance database consisted of 36 images for 2001 over Korea.

Analysis of Ice Velocity Variations of Nansen Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, from 2000 to 2017 Using Landsat Multispectral Image Matching (Landsat 다중분광 영상정합을 이용한 동남극 난센 빙붕의 2000-2017년 흐름속도 변화 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Lee, Choon-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.6_2
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    • pp.1165-1178
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    • 2018
  • Collapse of an Antarctic ice shelf and its flow velocity changes has the potential to reduce the restraining stress to the seaward flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which can cause sea level rising. In this study, variations in ice velocity from 2000 to 2017 for the Nansen Ice Shelf in East Antarctica that experienced a large-scale collapse in April 2016 were analyzed using Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. To extract ice velocity, image matching based on orientation correlation was applied to the image pairs of blue, green, red, near-infrared, panchromatic, and the first principal component image of the Landsat multispectral data, from which the results were combined. The Landsat multispectral image matching produced reliable ice velocities for at least 14% wider area on the Nansen Ice Shelf than for the case of using single band (i.e., panchromatic) image matching. The ice velocities derived from the Landsat multispectral image matching have the error of $2.1m\;a^{-1}$ compared to the in situ Global Positioning System (GPS) observation data. The region adjacent to the Drygalski Ice Tongue showed the fastest increase in ice velocity between 2000 and 2017. The ice velocity along the central flow line of the Nansen Ice Shelf was stable before 2010 (${\sim}228m\;a^{-1}$). In 2011-2012, when a rift began to develop near the ice front, the ice flow was accelerated (${\sim}255m\;a^{-1}$) but the velocity was only about 11% faster than 2010. Since 2014, the massive rift had been fully developed, and the ice velocity of the upper region of the rift slightly decreased (${\sim}225m\;a^{-1}$) and stabilized. This means that the development of the rift and the resulting collapse of the ice front had little effect on the ice velocity of the Nansen Ice Shelf.

Statistical Treatment on Amylose and Protein Contents in Rice Variety Germplasm Based on the Data Obtained from Analysis of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) (NIRS 분석 Data에 의한 국내외 육성품종 벼 유전자원의 아밀로스 및 단백질 성분에 대한 통계분석)

  • Oh, Sejong;Chae, Byungsoo;Lee, Myung Chul;Choi, Yu Mi;Lee, Sukyeung;Ko, Ho Cheol;Rauf, Muhammad;Hyun, Do Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.498-514
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    • 2018
  • A statistical analysis for 3651 genetic resources collected from China (1,542), Japan (1,409), Korea (413), and India (287) was conducted using normal distribution, variability index value (VIV), analysis of variation (ANOVA) and Ducan's multiple range test (DMRT) based on a data obtained from NIRS analysis. In normal distribution, the average protein content was 8.0%, whereas waxy type amylose and common rice amylose were found to be 8.7% and 22.7%, respectively. The protein contents ranged from 5.4 to 10.6% at the level of 95%. The waxy amylose and common rice amylose ranged from 5.9 to 11.5%, and from 16.9 to 28.5% at 95% confidence level, respectively. The VIV was 0.59 for protein, 0.64 for low amylose, and 0.81 for high amylose contents. The average amylose contents were 18.85% in Japanese, 19.99% in Korean, 20.27% in Chinese, and 25.46% in Indian resources, while the average protein contents were found to be 7.23% in Korean, 7.73% in Japanese, 8.01% in Chinese, and 8.17% in Indian resources. The ANOVA of amylose and protein content showed significant differences at the level of 0.01. The F-test for amylose content was 158.34, and for protein content 53.95 compared to critical value 3.78. The DMRT of amylose and protein content showed significant difference (p<0.01) between resources of different countries. Japanese resources had the lowest level of amylose contents, whereas, the lowest level of protein content was found in Korean resources compared to other origins. Indian resources showed the highest level of amylose and protein contents. It is recommended these results should be helpful to future breeding experiments.

Development of Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) of Glaciers and Analysis of Its Variational Factors by using MODIS Images (MODIS 영상을 이용한 빙하의 정규청빙지수(NDBI) 개발 및 변화요인 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Ji, Younghun;Kim, Yeonchun;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.481-491
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    • 2014
  • Blue-ice area is a glacial ice field in ice sheet, ice shelf and glaciers where snow ablation and sublimation is larger than snowfall. As the blue-ice area has large influences on the meteorite concentration mechanism and ice mass balance, it is required to quantify the concentration of blue-ice. We analyzed spectral reflectance characteristics of blue-ice, snow and cloud by using MODIS images obtained over blue-ice areas in McMurdo Dry Valleys, East Antarctica, from 2007 to 2012. We then developed Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) algorithm which quantifies the concentration of blue-ice. Snow and cloud have a high reflectance in visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance of blue-ice is high in blue band, while that lowers in the NIR band. NDBI is calculated by dividing the difference of reflectance in the blue and NIR bands by the sum of reflectances in the two bands so that NDBI = (Blue-NIR)/(Blue + NIR). NDBI calculated from the MODIS images showed that the blue-ice areas have values ranging from 0.2 to 0.5, depending on the exposure and concentration of blue-ice. It is obviously different from that of snow and cloud that has values less than 0.2 or rocks with negative values. The change of NDBI values in the blue-ice area has higher correlation with snow depth ($R^2=0.699$) than wind speed ($R^2=0.012$) or air temperature ($R^2=0.278$), all measured at a meteorological station installed in McMurdo Dry Valleys. As the snow depth increased, the NDBI value decreased, which suggests that snow depth can be estimated from NDBI values over blue-ice areas. The NDBI algorithm developed in this study will be useful for various polar research fields such as meteorite exploration, analysis of ice mass balance as well as the snow depth estimation.

정지궤도 통신해양기상위성의 기상분야 요구사항에 관하여

  • Ahn, Myung-Hwan;Kim, Kum-Lan
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.20-42
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    • 2002
  • Based on the "Mid to Long Term Plan for Space Development", a project to launch COMeS (Communication, Oceanography, and Meteorological Satellite) into the geostationary orbit is undergoing. Accordingly, KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) has defined the meteorological missions and prepared the user requirements to fulfill the missions. To make a realistic user requirements, we prepared a first draft based on the ideal meteorological products derivable from a geostationary platform and sent the RFI (request for information) to the sensor manufacturers. Based on the responses to the RFI and other considerations, we revised the user requirement to be a realistic plan for the 2008 launch of the satellite. This manuscript introduces the revised user requirements briefly. The major mission defined in the revised user requirement is the augmentation of the detection and prediction ability of the severe weather phenomena, especially around the Korean Peninsula. The required payload is an enhanced Imager, which includes the major observation channels of the current geostationary sounder. To derive the required meteorological products from the Imager, at least 12 channels are required with the optimum of 16 channels. The minimum 12 channels are 6 wavelength bands used for current geostationary satellite, and additional channels in two visible bands, a near infrared band, two water vapor bands and one ozone absorption band. From these enhanced channel observation, we are going to derive and utilize the information of water vapor, stability index, wind field, and analysis of special weather phenomena such as the yellow sand event in addition to the standard derived products from the current geostationary Imager data. For a better temporal coverage, the Imager is required to acquire the full disk data within 15 minutes and to have the rapid scan mode for the limited area coverage. The required thresholds of spatial resolutions are 1 km and 2 km for visible and infrared channels, respectively, while the target resolutions are 0.5 km and 1 km.

The Infrared Medium-deep Survey. VIII. Quasar Luminosity Function at z ~ 5

  • Kim, Yongjung;Im, Myungshin;Jeon, Yiseul;Kim, Minjin;Pak, Soojong;Hyun, Minhee;Taak, Yoon Chan;Shin, Suhyun;Lim, Gu;Paek, Gregory S.H.;Paek, Insu;Jiang, Linhua;Choi, Changsu;Hong, Jueun;Ji, Tae-Geun;Jun, Hyunsung D.;Karouzos, Marios;Kim, Dohyeong;Kim, Duho;Kim, Jae-Woo;Kim, Ji Hoon;Lee, Hye-In;Lee, Seong-Kook;Park, Won-Kee;Yoon, Yongmin;Byeon, Seoyeon;Hwang, Sungyong;Kim, Joonho;Kim, Sophia;Park, Woojin
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.34.3-34.3
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    • 2020
  • Faint z ~ 5 quasars with M1450 ~ -23 mag are known to be the potentially important contributors to the ultraviolet ionizing background in the post-reionization era. However, their number density has not been well determined, making it difficult to assess their role in the early ionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM). In this work, we present the updated results of our z ~ 5 quasar survey using the Infrared Medium-deep Survey (IMS), a near-infrared imaging survey covering an area of 85 square degrees. From our spectroscopic observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini-South 8 m Telescope, we discovered eight new quasars at z ~ 5 with -26.1 ≤ M1450 ≤ -23.3. Combining our IMS faint quasars with the brighter Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, we derive, for the first time, the z ~ 5 quasar luminosity function (QLF) without any fixed parameters down to the magnitude limit of M1450 = -23 mag. We find that the faint-end slope of the QLF is very flat (-1.2) with a characteristic luminosity of -25.7 mag. The number density of z ~ 5 quasars from the QLF gives lower ionizing emissivity and ionizing photon density than those in previous works. These results imply that quasars are responsible for only 10-20% of the photons required to completely ionize the IGM at z ~ 5, disfavoring the idea that quasars alone could have ionized the IGM at z ~ 5.

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THE LUMINOSITY-LINEWIDTH RELATION AS A PROBE OF THE EVOLUTION OF FIELD GALAXIES

  • GUHATHAKURTA PURAGRA;ING KRISTINE;RIX HANS-WALTER;COLLESS MATTHEW;WILLIAMS TED
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.29 no.spc1
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    • pp.63-64
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    • 1996
  • The nature of distant faint blue field galaxies remains a mystery, despite the fact that much attention has been devoted to this subject in the last decade. Galaxy counts, particularly those in the optical and near ultraviolet bandpasses, have been demonstrated to be well in excess of those expected in the 'no-evolution' scenario. This has usually been taken to imply that galaxies were brighter in the past, presumably due to a higher rate of star formation. More recently, redshift surveys of galaxies as faint as B$\~$24 have shown that the mean redshift of faint blue galaxies is lower than that predicted by standard evolutionary models (de-signed to fit the galaxy counts). The galaxy number count data and redshift data suggest that evolutionary effects are most prominent at the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. While these data constrain the form of evolution of the overall luminosity function, they do not constrain evolution in individual galaxies. We are carrying out a series of observations as part of a long-term program aimed at a better understanding of the nature and amount of luminosity evolution in individual galaxies. Our study uses the luminosity-linewidth relation (Tully-Fisher relation) for disk galaxies as a tool to study luminosity evolution. Several studies of a related nature are being carried out by other groups. A specific experiment to test a 'no-evolution' hypothesis is presented here. We have used the AUTOFIB multifibre spectro-graph on the 4-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the Rutgers Fabry-Perot imager on the Cerro Tolalo lnteramerican Observatory (CTIO) 4-metre tele-scope to measure the internal kinematics of a representative sample of faint blue field galaxies in the red-shift range z = 0.15-0.4. The emission line profiles of [OII] and [OIII] in a typical sample galaxy are significantly broader than the instrumental resolution (100-120 km $s^{-l}$), and it is possible to make a reliable de-termination of the linewidth. Detailed and realistic simulations based on the properties of nearby, low-luminosity spirals are used to convert the measured linewidth into an estimate of the characteristic rotation speed, making statistical corrections for the effects of inclination, non-uniform distribution of ionized gas, rotation curve shape, finite fibre aperture, etc.. The (corrected) mean characteristic rotation speed for our distant galaxy sample is compared to the mean rotation speed of local galaxies of comparable blue luminosity and colour. The typical galaxy in our distant sample has a B-band luminosity of about 0.25 L$\ast$ and a colour that corresponds to the Sb-Sd/Im range of Hub-ble types. Details of the AUTOFIB fibre spectroscopic study are described by Rix et al. (1996). Follow-up deep near infrared imaging with the 10-metre Keck tele-scope+ NIRC combination and high angular resolution imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope's WFPC2 are being used to determine the structural and orientation parameters of galaxies on an individual basis. This information is being combined with the spatially resolved CTIO Fabry-Perot data to study the internal kinematics of distant galaxies (Ing et al. 1996). The two main questions addressed by these (preliminary studies) are: 1. Do galaxies of a given luminosity and colour have the same characteristic rotation speed in the distant and local Universe? The distant galaxies in our AUTOFIB sample have a mean characteristic rotation speed of $\~$70 km $s^{-l}$ after correction for measurement bias (Fig. 1); this is inconsistent with the characteristic rotation speed of local galaxies of comparable photometric proper-ties (105 km $s^{-l}$) at the > $99\%$ significance level (Fig. 2). A straightforward explanation for this discrepancy is that faint blue galaxies were about 1-1.5 mag brighter (in the B band) at z $\~$ 0.25 than their present-day counterparts. 2. What is the nature of the internal kinematics of faint field galaxies? The linewidths of these faint galaxies appear to be dominated by the global disk rotation. The larger galaxies in our sample are about 2"-.5" in diameter so one can get direct insight into the nature of their internal velocity field from the $\~$ I" seeing CTIO Fabry-Perot data. A montage of Fabry-Perot data is shown in Fig. 3. The linewidths are too large (by. $5\sigma$) to be caused by turbulence in giant HII regions.

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Simulation of Sentinel-2 Product Using Airborne Hyperspectral Image and Analysis of TOA and BOA Reflectance for Evaluation of Sen2cor Atmosphere Correction: Focused on Agricultural Land (Sen2Cor 대기보정 프로세서 평가를 위한 항공 초분광영상 기반 Sentinel-2 모의영상 생성 및 TOA와 BOA 반사율 자료와의 비교: 농업지역을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Kangjoon;Kim, Yongil
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.251-263
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    • 2019
  • Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument(MSI) launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) offered high spatial resolution optical products, enhanced temporal revisit of five days, and 13 spectral bands in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths similar to Landsat mission. Landsat satellite imagery has been applied to various previous studies, but Sentinel-2 optical satellite imagery has not been widely used. Currently, for global coverage, Sentinel-2 products are systematically processed and distributed to Level-1C (L1C) products which contain the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Furthermore, ESA plans a systematic global production of Level-2A(L2A) product including the atmospheric corrected Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance considered the aerosol optical thickness and the water vapor content. Therefore, the Sentinel-2 L2A products are expected to enhance the reliability of image quality for overall coverage in the Sentinel-2 mission with enhanced spatial,spectral, and temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is a quantitative comparison Sentinel-2 L2A products and fully simulated image to evaluate the applicability of the Sentinel-2 dataset in cultivated land growing various kinds of crops in Korea. Reference image of Sentinel-2 L2A data was simulated by airborne hyperspectral data acquired from AISA Fenix sensor. The simulation imagery was compared with the reflectance of L1C TOA and that of L2A BOA data. The result of quantitative comparison shows that, for the atmospherically corrected L2A reflectance, the decrease in RMSE and the increase in correlation coefficient were found at the visible band and vegetation indices to be significant.