• Title/Summary/Keyword: Near infrared

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Faint Quasar Candidates at z~5 in the ELAIS-N1 field

  • Shin, Suhyun;Im, Myungshin;Kim, Yongjung;Hyun, Minhee;Jeon, Yiseul;Kim, Minjin;Kim, Dohyeong;Kim, Jae-Woo;Taak, Yoon Chan;Yoon, Yongmin;Choi, Changsu;Hong, Jueun;Jun, Hyunsung David;Karouzos, Marios;Kim, Duho;Kim, Ji Hoon;Lee, Seong-Kook;Pak, Soojong;Park, Won-Kee
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.74.2-74.2
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    • 2017
  • Faint quasars are important to test the possibility that quasars are the main contributor to the cosmic reionization. However, it has been difficult to find faint quasars due to the lack of deep, wide-field imaging data. In this poster, we present our efforts to find faint quasars in the ELAIS-N1 field through the deep data (iAB ~ 25) obtained by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. To select reliable quasar candidate, we also use the near-infrared (NIR) data of the Infrared Medium-deep Survey (IMS) and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) - Deep Extragalactic Survey (DXS). Using multiple-band color cuts, we select high redshift quasar candidates. To confirm them as high redshift quasars, candidates are observed by the SED camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (SQUEAN) instrument in several medium band filters that can sample the redshifted Lyman break efficiency. The quasar sample will be used to study the growth of BH and stellar mass, the relation between the quasar activity and the host galaxy, and their contribution to the cosmic re-ionization.

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Detection of the Coastal Wetlands Using the Sentinel-2 Satellite Image and the SRTM DEM Acquired in Gomsoman Bay, West Coasts of South Korea (Sentinel-2 위성영상과 SRTM DEM을 활용한 연안습지 탐지: 서해안 곰소만을 사례로)

  • CHOUNG, Yun-Jae;KIM, Kyoung-Seop;PARK, Insun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.52-63
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    • 2021
  • In previous research, the coastal wetlands were detected by using the vegetation indices or land cover classification maps derived from the multispectral bands of the satellite or aerial imagery, and this approach caused the various limitations for detecting the coastal wetlands with high accuracy due to the difficulty of acquiring both land cover and topographic information by using the single remote sensing data. This research suggested the efficient methodology for detecting the coastal wetlands using the sentinel-2 satellite image and SRTM(Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM (Digital Elevation Model) acquired in Gomsoman Bay, west coasts of South Korea through the following steps. First, the NDWI(Normalized Difference Water Index) image was generated using the green and near-infrared bands of the given Sentinel-2 satellite image. Then, the binary image that separating lands and waters was generated from the NDWI image based on the pixel intensity value 0.2 as the threshold and the other binary image that separating the upper sea level areas and the under sea level areas was generated from the SRTM DEM based on the pixel intensity value 0 as the threshold. Finally, the coastal wetland map was generated by overlaying analysis of these binary images. The generated coastal wetland map had the 94% overall accuracy. In addition, the other types of wetlands such as inland wetlands or mountain wetlands were not detected in the generated coastal wetland map, which means that the generated coastal wetland map can be used for the coastal wetland management tasks.

Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of $Mn_{1-x}Cr_xPt_3$ Ordered Alloy Films ($Mn_{1-x}Cr_xPt_3$ 박막의 자기 및 자기광학 특성)

  • 박문기;조재경
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.374-379
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    • 1998
  • $Mn_1-xCr_xPt_3$ alloy films have been prepared by depositing (Mn, Cr)/Pt multilayers using a rf magnetron sputterer followed by heat treatment. Small and wide angle x-ray diffractometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and Kerr rotation angle spectra of the films have been measured and used to investigate structural, magnetic and magneto-optic properties of the films. The films had a crystal structure of ordered AuCu$_3$ type and the strong preferred orientation of a (111)plane parallel to the film surface. The saturation magnetization of the films was decreased with Cr content reaching almost zero near x=0.58 and then increased for further increasement of Cr content up to x=0.77 over that stayed almost constant. This indicated that Cr atoms were antiferromagnetically coupled with Mn atoms. The magnetic easy axis of MnPt$_3$(x=0) film was parallel to the film surface but those of the films with x$\geq$0.58 increased as Cr content increased reaching about 4 kOe at x=1(CrPt$_3$). The dependence of the Kerr rotation angle on the Cr content was similar to that of the saturation magnetization on the Cr content. The films with x=0.77 and x=1 showed the larger Kerr rotation angle at the wavelengths of near infrared compared to the magneto-optic recording medium, TbFeCo, currently being used.

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A Pilot Study on Environmental Understanding and Estimation of the Nak-Dong River Basin Using Fuyo-1 OPS Data (Fuyo-1 OPS 자료를 이용한 낙동강 하류지역의 환경계측 시고)

  • Kim, Cheon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.169-198
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    • 1996
  • The objectives of this investigation are : 1. To analyze spectral signature and the associated vegetation index for geometric illumination conditions inf1uenced by low solar elevation and high slope orientations in mountainous forest. 2. To assess the accuracy of the spectral angle mapper classification for the a winter land cover in comparison with the maximum likelihood classification. 3. To produce the image of water quality and water properties that could be used to estimate the water pollution sources and the tide-included by turbid water in estuarine and coastal areas. These objectives are to characterize environmental and ecological monitoring applications of the Nak-Dong River Basin by using Fuyo-1 OPS VNIR data acquired on December 26, 1992. The results of this paper are as follows : 1. The spectral digital numbers and vegetation indexes (NDVI and TVI) of mountainous forest are higher on the slope facing the sun than on the slope hidden the sun under low sun elevation condition. 2. The spectral angle mapper algorithm produces a more accurate land cover classification of areas with steep slope, various aspects and low solar elevation than the maximum likelihood classifier. 3. The maximum likelihood classification images can be used for identifying the location and movement of both freshwater and salt water, regardless of geometric illumination conditions. 4. The color-coded density sliced image of selected water bodies by using the near-infrared band 3 can provide distribution of the water quality of the Lower Nak-Dong River. 5. The color-coded normalized difference vegetation index image of the selected mountain forest is suitable to classify winter vegetation cover types, i.e., forest canopy densities for slope orientations.

MODIS-estimated Microphysical Properties of Clouds Developed in the Presence of Biomass Burning Aerosols (MODIS 관측자료를 이용한 러시아 산불 영향 하에 발달한 구름의 미세 물리적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Shin-Young;Sohn, Byung-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2008
  • An algorithm was developed to retrieve both cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius considered the aerosol effect on clouds. This study apply the algorithm of Nakajima and Nakajima (1995) that is used to retrieve cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius from visible, near infrared satellite spectral measurements. To retrieve cloud properties, Look-up table (LUT) was made under different atmospheric conditions by using a radiative transfer model. Especially the vertical distribution of aerosol is based on a tropospheric aerosol profile in radiative transfer model. In the case study, we selected the extensive forest fire occurred in Russia in May 2003. The aerosol released from this fire may be transported to Korea. Cloud properties obtained from these distinct atmospheric situations are analysed in terms of their possible changes due to the interactions of the clouds with the aerosol particle plumes. Cloud properties over the East sea at this time was retrieved using new algorithm. The algorithm is applied to measurements from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra spacecrafts. As a result, cloud effective particle radius was decreased and cloud optical thickness was increased during aerosol event. Specially, cloud effective particle radius is hardly greater than $20{\mu}m$ when aerosol particles were present over the East Sea. Clouds developing in the aerosol event tend to have more numerous but smaller droplets.

New Methods for Correcting the Atmospheric Effects in Landsat Imagery over Turbid (Case-2) Waters

  • Ahn Yu-Hwan;Shanmugam P.
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.289-305
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    • 2004
  • Atmospheric correction of Landsat Visible and Near Infrared imagery (VIS/NIR) over aquatic environment is more demanding than over land because the signal from the water column is small and it carries immense information about biogeochemical variables in the ocean. This paper introduces two methods, a modified dark-pixel substraction technique (path--extraction) and our spectral shape matching method (SSMM), for the correction of the atmospheric effects in the Landsat VIS/NIR imagery in relation to the retrieval of meaningful information about the ocean color, especially from Case-2 waters (Morel and Prieur, 1977) around Korean peninsula. The results of these methods are compared with the classical atmospheric correction approaches based on the 6S radiative transfer model and standard SeaWiFS atmospheric algorithm. The atmospheric correction scheme using 6S radiative transfer code assumes a standard atmosphere with constant aerosol loading and a uniform, Lambertian surface, while the path-extraction assumes that the total radiance (L/sub TOA/) of a pixel of the black ocean (referred by Antoine and Morel, 1999) in a given image is considered as the path signal, which remains constant over, at least, the sub scene of Landsat VIS/NIR imagery. The assumption of SSMM is nearly similar, but it extracts the path signal from the L/sub TOA/ by matching-up the in-situ data of water-leaving radiance, for typical clear and turbid waters, and extrapolate it to be the spatially homogeneous contribution of the scattered signal after complex interaction of light with atmospheric aerosols and Raleigh particles, and direct reflection of light on the sea surface. The overall shape and magnitude of radiance or reflectance spectra of the atmospherically corrected Landsat VIS/NIR imagery by SSMM appears to have good agreement with the in-situ spectra collected for clear and turbid waters, while path-extraction over turbid waters though often reproduces in-situ spectra, but yields significant errors for clear waters due to the invalid assumption of zero water-leaving radiance for the black ocean pixels. Because of the standard atmosphere with constant aerosols and models adopted in 6S radiative transfer code, a large error is possible between the retrieved and in-situ spectra. The efficiency of spectral shape matching has also been explored, using SeaWiFS imagery for turbid waters and compared with that of the standard SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm, which falls in highly turbid waters, due to the assumption that values of water-leaving radiance in the two NIR bands are negligible to enable retrieval of aerosol reflectance in the correction of ocean color imagery. Validation suggests that accurate the retrieval of water-leaving radiance is not feasible with the invalid assumption of the classical algorithms, but is feasible with SSMM.

Synthesis of Binuclear Bismacrocyclic Iron(II) Complex by the Aerobic Oxidation of Iron(II) Complex of 1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane

  • Myunghyun Paik Suh;Gee-Yeon Kong;Il-Soon Kim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.439-444
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    • 1993
  • The aerobic oxidation of the Fe(II) complex of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, [Fe(cyclam)$(CH_3CN)_2](ClO_4)_2$, in MeCN in the presence of a few drops of $HClO_4$ leads to low spin Fe(III) species [Fe(cyclam)$(CH_3CN)_2](ClO_4)_3$. The Fe(III) cyclam complex is further oxidized in the air in the presence of a trace of water to produce the deep green binuclear bismacrocyclic Fe(II) complex $[Fe_2(C_{20}H_{36}N_8)(CH_3CN)_4](ClO_4)_4{\cdot}2CH_3CN$. The Fe(II) ions of the complex are six-coordinated and the bismacrocyclic ligand is extensively unsaturated. $[Fe_2(C_{20}H_{36}N_8)(CH_3CN)_4](ClO_4)_4{\cdot}2CH_3CN$ crystallizes in the monoclinic space group $P2_1/n$ with a= 13.099 (1) ${\AA}$, b= 10.930 (1) ${\AA}$, c= 17.859 (1) ${\AA}$, ${\beta}$= 95.315 $(7)^{\circ}$, and Z= 2. The structure was solved by heavy atom methods and refined anisotropically to R values of R= 0.0633 and $R_w$= 0.0702 for 1819 observed reflections with F > $4{\sigma}$ (F) measured with Mo K${\alpha}$ radiation on a CAD-4 diffractometer. The two macrocyclic units are coupled through the bridgehead carbons of ${\beta}$-diimitie moieties by a double bond. The double bonds in each macrocycle unit are localized. The average bond distances of $Fe(II)-N_{imine}$, $Fe(II)-N_{amine}$, and $Fe(II)-N_{MeCN}$ are 1.890 (5), 2.001 (5), and 1.925 (6) ${\AA}$, respectively. The complex is diamagnetic, containing two low spin Fe(II) ions in the molecule. The complex shows extremely intense charge transfer band in the near infrared at 868 nm with ${\varepsilon}$= 25,000 $M^{-1}cm^{-1}$. The complex shows a one-electron oxidation wave at +0.83 volts and two one-electron reduction waves at -0.43 and-0.72 volts vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The complex reacts with carbon monoxide in $MeNO_2$ to form carbonyl adducts, whose $v_{CO}$ value (2010 $cm^{-1}$) indicates the ${\pi}$-accepting property of the present bismacrocyclic ligand.

Analysis of Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Using Hyperspectral Sensor at Diverse Phenological Stages of Soybeans

  • Go, Seung-Hwan;Park, Jin-Ki;Park, Jong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.699-717
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    • 2021
  • South Korea is pushing for the advancement of crop production technology to achieve food self-sufficiency and meet the demand for safe food. A medium-sized satellite for agriculture is being launched in 2023 with the aim of collecting and providing information on agriculture, not only in Korea but also in neighboring countries. The satellite is to be equipped with various sensors, though reference data for ground information are lacking. Hyperspectral remote sensing combined with 1st derivative is an efficient tool for the identification of agricultural crops. In our study, we develop a system for hyperspectral analysis of the ground-based reflectance spectrum, which is monitored seven times during the cultivation period of three soybean crops using a PSR-2500 hyperspectral sensor. In the reflection spectrum of soybean canopy, wavelength variations correspond with stages of soybean growths. The spectral reflection characteristics of soybeans can be divided according to growth into the vegetative (V)stage and the reproductive (R)stage. As a result of the first derivative analysis of the spectral reflection characteristics, it is possible to identify the characteristics of each wavelength band. Using our developed monitoring system, we observed that the near-infrared (NIR) variation was largest during the vegetative (V1-V3) stage, followed by a similar variation pattern in the order of red-edge and visible. In the reproductive stage (R1-R8), the effect of the shape and color of the soybean leaf was reflected, and the pattern is different from that in the vegetative (V) stage. At the R1 to R6 stages, the variation in NIR was the largest, and red-edge and green showed similar variation patterns, but red showed little change. In particular, the reflectance characteristics of the R1 stage provides information that could help us distinguish between the three varieties of soybean that were studied. In the R7-R8 stage, close to the harvest period, the red-edge and NIR variation patterns and the visible variation patterns changed. These results are interpreted as a result of the large effects of pigments such as chlorophyll for each of the three soybean varieties, as well as from the formation and color of the leaf and stem. The results obtained in this study provide useful information that helps us to determine the wavelength width and range of the optimal band for monitoring and acquiring vegetation information on crops using satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

Comparative Analysis of Rice Lodging Area Using a UAV-based Multispectral Imagery (무인기 기반 다중분광 영상을 이용한 벼 쓰러짐 영역의 특성 분석)

  • Moon, Hyun-Dong;Ryu, Jae-Hyun;Na, Sang-il;Jang, Seon Woong;Sin, Seo-ho;Cho, Jaeil
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.37 no.5_1
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    • pp.917-926
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    • 2021
  • Lodging rice is one of critical agro-meteorological disasters. In this study, the UAV-based multispectral imageries before and after rice lodging in rice paddy field of Jeollanamdo agricultural research and extension servicesin 2020 was analyzed. The UAV imagery on 14th Aug. includesthe paddy rice without any damage. However, 4th and 19th Sep. showed the area of rice lodging. Multispectral camera of 10 bands from 444 nm to 842 nm was used. At the area of restoration work against lodging rice, the reflectance from 531 nm to 842 nm were decreased in comparison to un-lodging rice. At the area of lodging rice, the reflectance of around 668 nm had small increases. Further, the blue and NIR (Near-Infrared) wavelength had larger. However, according to the types of lodging, the change of reflectance was different. The NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NDRE (Normalized Difference Red Edge) shows dome sensitivities to lodging rice, but they were different to types of lodging. These results will be useful to make algorithm to detect the area of lodging rice using a UAV.

Effect of Hollow Sphere Size on Heat Shield Properties of hollow TiO2/polyacrylate Composites (중공구의 크기에 의한 hollow TiO2/polyacrylate 복합체의 열차단 특성)

  • Kim, Jong Seok
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.690-694
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    • 2021
  • Carbon spheres (CS) were fabricated using glucose as a precursor in the hydrothermal method. Hollow TiO2 (H-TiO2) spheres with 200 nm, 500 nm, and 1,200 nm were synthesized by CS/TiO2 core-shell particles via a sol-gel and calcination method. H-TiO2 spheres with nano and micron sizes were characterized using FE-SEM, HR-TEM, and X-ray diffraction. The CIE color coordinate, solar reflectance, and heat shield temperatures of H-TiO2/polyacrylate (PA) composite film were investigated using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer and homemade heat insulation temperature measuring device. H-TiO2/PA composites exhibit excellent thermal insulation since the hollow structure filled with dry air has low thermal conductivity and near infrared light reflecting performance. The thermal insulation increased with increasing the hollow sphere (HS) size on H-TiO2/PA composites. The PA composite film mixed with H-TiO2 filled with 1200 nm HS reduced the heat shield temperature by 26 ℃ compared to that of the transparent glass counterpart.